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Cost Efficiency of Municipalities in Service Delivery: Does Ethnic Fragmentation Matter?

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Book Series: Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations ISBN: 9789616842167 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.4335/978.961.6842.16.7(2013) Language: English
Publisher: Institute for Local Self-Government and Public Procurement Maribor
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-06 17:46:28
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Driven by the Ohrid Framework Agreement (OFA), decentralisation in Macedonia is a policy choice for spurring national cohesion rather than an economic instrument for the more efficient delivery of services. The OFA resulted in a new Macedonian Constitution with policies related to the decentralisation process and equitable representation of communities. This book aims first to estimate the spending efficiency of Macedonian municipalities in service delivery from their own resources and, second, to ascertain the determinants of that efficiency. The ethnic fragmentation of municipalities is taken into account as a possible determinant of efficiency, which represents a novelty in such types of studies. We employ the DEA-VRS, Kernel and SFA estimation techniques to control for the robustness of our estimates. Our findings show that on average Macedonian municipalities exhibit low efficiency in service delivery, although there are significant variations among municipalities. The ethnic fragmentation of municipalities together with the population density, own tax revenues and political affiliation of the mayor with the leading political coalition at the state level explain differences in their efficiencies. More fragmented municipalities tend to be less efficient when providing services to citizens.

Ségrégation et fragmentation dans les métropoles

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ISBN: 9782757405826 9782757414170 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Presses universitaires du Septentrion
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-08 14:25:19
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Les métropoles fascinent et inquiètent. D’un côté, elles apparaissent comme des sources inépuisables de créativité humaine, lieux de modernité et de tolérance. De l’autre, elles représentent la démesure, par leur expansion continue, et l’inégalité, par la ségrégation entre les populations qu’elles abritent. Pour analyser ces mondes urbains, les chercheurs doivent renouveler leurs approches. Plusieurs partis-pris marquent cet ouvrage, écrit par des auteurs de différentes disciplines, destiné à...

Financial markets and public information

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ISBN: 9783866446946 Year: Pages: XI, 173 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000023352 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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The last decades have seen dramatic changes in trading technology and the way that financial markets operate. As trading technology advances, news providers have kept pace and deliver news to market participants around the world within fractions of a second using electronic systems. Currently, most news is still interpreted by humans but news providers have started to offer newswire products with machine learning systems that specifically cater to algorithmic traders. In practice, newswire messagesmake up a major part of the public information set available to investors. This book studies how newswire messages impact modern electronic equity markets.

Forest Pathology and Plant Health

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ISBN: 9783038426714 9783038426721 Year: Pages: VIII, 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-672-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-24 13:57:31
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Every year, a number of new forest pathosystems are discovered as the result of introduction of alien pathogens, host shifts and jumps, hybridization and recombination among pathogens, etc. Disease outbreaks may also be favored by climate change and forest management. The mechanisms driving the resurgence of native pathogens and the invasion of alien ones need to be better understood in order to draft sustainable control strategies. For this Special Issue, we welcome population biology studies providing insights on the epidemiology and invasiveness of emergent forest pathogens possibly by contrasting different scenarios varying in pathogen and host populations size, genetics, phenotype and phenology, landscape fragmentation, occurrence of disturbances, management practices, etc. Both experimental and monitoring approaches are welcome. In summary, this special issue focuses on how variability in hosts, pathogens, or ecology may affect the emergence of new threats to plant species.

Coastal Morphodynamics

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ISBN: 9783038426769 9783038426752 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-675-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-24 14:00:59
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Every year, a number of new forest pathosystems are discovered as the result of introduction of alien pathogens, host shifts and jumps, hybridization and recombination among pathogens, etc. Disease outbreaks may also be favored by climate change and forest management. The mechanisms driving the resurgence of native pathogens and the invasion of alien ones need to be better understood in order to draft sustainable control strategies. For this Special Issue, we welcome population biology studies providing insights on the epidemiology and invasiveness of emergent forest pathogens possibly by contrasting different scenarios varying in pathogen and host populations size, genetics, phenotype and phenology, landscape fragmentation, occurrence of disturbances, management practices, etc. Both experimental and monitoring approaches are welcome. In summary, this special issue focuses on how variability in hosts, pathogens, or ecology may affect the emergence of new threats to plant species.

Familien mit multipler Elternschaft

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ISBN: 9783847411215 9783847421030 Year: Pages: 228 DOI: 10.3224/84742103 Language: German
Publisher: Verlag Barbara Budrich
Subject: Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-22 11:21:05
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How is family life structured and lived beyond current family models? In the articles on family forms with multiple parenthood, the authors describe the connections and quantitative distribution of adoptive, foster, step and rainbow families as well as families after gamet donation and discuss their challenges and potentials. Subsequently, the current legal framework of these family forms are presented and the need for reform is pointed out. A further contribution deals with the representation of families in television series. Finally, important ethical questions in the context of multiple parenthood are discussed. The book is aimed at specialists in family, child and youth welfare, family sociologists and social scientists from other disciplines. The book is intended to enable them to broaden their view of the family by highlighting important topics that are important in family life with multiple parenthood.

Golgi Pathology in Neurodegenerative Diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197576 Year: Pages: 119 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-757-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The Golgi apparatus is a central organelle that lies at the heart of the secretory pathway. It ensures post-translational protein modifications such as glycosylation and cleavage as well as protein sorting to neuronal axons and dendrites. Structural and functional alterations of the Golgi apparatus (fragmentation and atrophy), which are collectively termed Golgi pathology, are now recognized as a constant feature of many neuro-degenerative diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes and their precise relevance to neurodegeneration have not yet been completely elucidated. This eBook contains 13 reviews that address the molecular mechanisms of Golgi pathology in Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophies, and discuss their potential relevance to the pathological loss of neuronal cell bodies, axons and synapses.

Atlas of Lebanon : New Challenges

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ISBN: 9782351595497 DOI: 10.4000/books.ifpo.13178 Language: English
Publisher: Presses de l’Ifpo
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:32
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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After fifteen years of reconstruction in a relatively peaceful environment spanning the years 1990 to 2004, Lebanon has experienced successive violent political events resulting from complex entangled internal and external struggles. The Syrian crisis and its political, economic and demographic consequences on Lebanon have increased these tensions. This atlas sheds light on these new challenges and adds new data that complete the analyses already published in the Atlas du Liban. Territoires et société (Atlas of Lebanon. Territories and Society) released in 2007 by the same research team. Some of its components are included in this edition. Beyond the international regional crisis and the population movements, it takes into account Lebanon’s socio-economic dimensions, the environmental issues linked to uncontrolled urbanization and to natural risks, as well as conflicts due to local territorial management. This atlas is the result of a collaborative endeavor between French and Lebanese researchers. It uses a geographical approach that puts in the foreground a spatial analysis of social and natural phenomena. Public sources are scarce in Lebanon, especially at the local scale. They are sometimes less reliable and difficult to access. It is particularly the case for the Lebanese census data, conversely data are abundantly available on the refugees population, which is less known than the population of refugees. International data help compare Lebanon to its neighbors. Thematic data produced by some ministries are helpful to provide a detailed view regarding specific domains. Analyses processed on aerial and satellite images have produced essential data on urbanization and environment. Local thematic fieldwork surveys have provided additional data. The book consists of seven chapters. The first one deals with the territorial state-building seen in the light of regional geopolitics, and emphasizes internal violence and the reemergence of militias and armed groups that fight each other and the state army. Lebanon is once again perceived as a territory divided between multiple allegiances. The second chapter is devoted to the analysis of population dynamics, despite the lack of reliable data whose sources are subject to discussion. It includes analyses of internal population flows, the Lebanese diaspora, and the assessment of Syrian refugees’ influx. The third chapter shows the fragility of the Lebanese economic model. Its dependency on foreign investments and on the remittances of the diaspora, as well as the deadlocks of industry and agriculture, which aggravate social imbalances. The fourth chapter is an assessment of urbanization in the country, which has increased by 80% in surface in twenty years at the expense of natural spaces and agriculture. The shore is highly coveted and widely artificialized and damaged. Multiple signs of environmental degradation are examined in chapter five. They seem to announce the global climate change and its local effects. In addition to that, there is a direct link between massive urbanization and many risks, measured and mapped in an increasingly detailed way. Chapter six tackles the dysfunctional public services that exploit natural resources: water and energy supply, both marked by massive shortages, and the management of solid waste hit by a serious crisis. The seventh and last chapter studies the mutations of the local territorial management, which is marked by the retreat of the state, if not its marginalization, and the rise of other actors, notably municipalities, local powers and also civil society organizations.After fifteen years of reconstruction in a relatively peaceful environment spanning the years 1990 to 2004, Lebanon has experienced successive violent political events resulting from complex entangled internal and external struggles. The Syrian crisis and its political, economic and demographic consequences on Lebanon have increased these tensions. This atlas sheds light on these new challenges and adds new data that complete the analyses already published in the Atlas du Liban. Territoires et société (Atlas of Lebanon. Territories and Society) released in 2007 by the same research team. Some of its components are included in this edition. Beyond the international regional crisis and the population movements, it takes into account Lebanon’s socio-economic dimensions, the environmental issues linked to uncontrolled urbanization and to natural risks, as well as conflicts due to local territorial management. This atlas is the result of a collaborative endeavor between French and Lebanese researchers. It uses a geographical approach that puts in the foreground a spatial analysis of social and natural phenomena. Public sources are scarce in Lebanon, especially at the local scale. They are sometimes less reliable and difficult to access. It is particularly the case for the Lebanese census data, conversely data are abundantly available on the refugees population, which is less known than the population of refugees. International data help compare Lebanon to its neighbors. Thematic data produced by some ministries are helpful to provide a detailed view regarding specific domains. Analyses processed on aerial and satellite images have produced essential data on urbanization and environment. Local thematic fieldwork surveys have provided additional data. The book consists of seven chapters. The first one deals with the territorial state-building seen in the light of regional geopolitics, and emphasizes internal violence and the reemergence of militias and armed groups that fight each other and the state army. Lebanon is once again perceived as a territory divided between multiple allegiances. The second chapter is devoted to the analysis of population dynamics, despite the lack of reliable data whose sources are subject to discussion. It includes analyses of internal population flows, the Lebanese diaspora, and the assessment of Syrian refugees’ influx. The third chapter shows the fragility of the Lebanese economic model. Its dependency on foreign investments and on the remittances of the diaspora, as well as the deadlocks of industry and agriculture, which aggravate social imbalances. The fourth chapter is an assessment of urbanization in the country, which has increased by 80% in surface in twenty years at the expense of natural spaces and agriculture. The shore is highly coveted and widely artificialized and damaged. Multiple signs of environmental degradation are examined in chapter five. They seem to announce the global climate change and its local effects. In addition to that, there is a direct link between massive urbanization and many risks, measured and mapped in an increasingly detailed way. Chapter six tackles the dysfunctional public services that exploit natural resources: water and energy supply, both marked by massive shortages, and the management of solid waste hit by a serious crisis. The seventh and last chapter studies the mutations of the local territorial management, which is marked by the retreat of the state, if not its marginalization, and the rise of other actors, notably municipalities, local powers and also civil society organizations.

3D Remote Sensing Applications in Forest Ecology: Composition, Structure and Function

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039217823 / 9783039217830 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-783-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Dear Colleagues, The composition, structure and function of forest ecosystems are the key features characterizing their ecological properties, and can thus be crucially shaped and changed by various biotic and abiotic factors on multiple spatial scales. The magnitude and extent of these changes in recent decades calls for enhanced mitigation and adaption measures. Remote sensing data and methods are the main complementary sources of up-to-date synoptic and objective information of forest ecology. Due to the inherent 3D nature of forest ecosystems, the analysis of 3D sources of remote sensing data is considered to be most appropriate for recreating the forest’s compositional, structural and functional dynamics. In this Special Issue of Forests, we published a set of state-of-the-art scientific works including experimental studies, methodological developments and model validations, all dealing with the general topic of 3D remote sensing-assisted applications in forest ecology. We showed applications in forest ecology from a broad collection of method and sensor combinations, including fusion schemes. All in all, the studies and their focuses are as broad as a forest’s ecology or the field of remote sensing and, thus, reflect the very diverse usages and directions toward which future research and practice will be directed.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas

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ISBN: 9783038977322 9783038977339 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-733-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Biodiversity and Protected Areas assembles twelve topics from around the world, illustrating the complexities and promise of addressing the biodiversity crisis. Authors from Mongolia, Africa, India, Canada, Iraq, and the United States dwell on particular aspects and challenges relevant to those regions. Lessons and approaches from interesting localities, coupled with global analyses give the reader a synthetic view of emerging problems. The opportunities for understanding common issues across different geographies abound, such as comparing local conservation in sub-Saharan Africa with a distribution of very small protected areas in Massachusetts. Several topics will be of immediate interest to policymakers. The book is illustrated with numerous color maps and figures and the authors strove for clear, uncomplicated writing. The editors provide an overview of chapters, placing them in the context of other biodiversity and protected area literature. Students and conservationists attempting to broaden their views of biodiversity and protected areas should find this collection to be interesting.

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