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The Routledge Companion to Free Will

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ISBN: 9781315758206 9781138795815 Year: Pages: 730 Language: English
Publisher: Routledge
Subject: Philosophy --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:01:18

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Questions concerning free will are intertwined with issues in almost every area of philosophy, from metaphysics to philosophy of mind to moral philosophy, and are also informed by work in different areas of science (principally physics, neuroscience and social psychology). Free will is also a perennial concern of serious thinkers in theology and in non-western traditions. Because free will can be approached from so many different perspectives and has implications for so many debates, a comprehensive survey needs to encompass an enormous range of approaches. This book is the first to draw together leading experts on every aspect of free will, from those who are central to the current philosophical debates, to non-western perspectives, to scientific contributions and to those who know the rich history of the subject. Its 61 chapters, commissioned especially for this volume from the world’s leading researchers, are framed by a General Introduction and briefer introductions for each of the six sections. A list of References, an annotated Suggested Reading list, and a short list of Related Topics are included at the end of each chapter.

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free will

37 Neuroscientific Threaths to Free Will (Book chapter)

Book title: The Routledge Companion to Free Will

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9781138795815 9781315758206 Year: Pages: 12 Language: English
Publisher: Routledge
Subject: Philosophy --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-26 11:01:52
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In this chapter, I review recent work on neuroscientifi c threats to free will. What is it for something to threaten free will? Consider, fi rst, an apparent threat. You are walking
in the dark, and a shadow looms in the distance. It certainly appears threatening, but
you are not sure. What do you do? You consider the source of the threat (the thing
casting the shadow, and you attempt to discover whether the threat is actual (an
attacker) or merely apparent (a tree). And if the threat is actual, you attempt to discern
what epistemic and behavioral changes are required of you.

Keywords

free will --- threats --- neuroscience

Das Ich und sein Gehirn - Die Herausforderung der neurobiologischen Forschung für das (Straf-)Recht

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ISBN: 9783941875012 Year: Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Neurology --- Law
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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In recent years, the debate about the free will has gained intensity. The phase of the heated debate has become a more pertinent and interdisciplinary. But still there are misunderstandings, misconceptions or ambiguities, which are sometimes accompanied by an attitude of denial discourse. This volume helps to highlight the self-perceptions and views of the concerned disciplines: Philosophy and Neuroscience, criminal science and criminal law practice, and not least the Forensic Psychiatry. The book does not claim to present definitive answers but provides clarifications that allow the interested reader to form an reflected opinion. The contributions have come from the first workshop of the Institute of Criminal Sciences at the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen in 2007.

Decision-Making Experiments under Philosophical Analysis: Human Choice as a Challenge for Neuroscience

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196685 Year: Pages: 123 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-668-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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This introduction just aims to be a fast foreword to the special topic now turned into an e-book. The Editorial "Decision-Making Experiments under a Philosophical Analysis: Human Choice as a Challenge for Neuroscience" alongside with my opinion article "Neurophilosophical considerations on decision making: Pushing-up the frontiers without disregarding their foundations" play the real role of considering in more details the articles and the whole purpose of this e-book. What I must highlight in this foreword is that our intention with such a project was to deepen into the very foundations of our current paradigms in decision neuroscience and to philosophically moot its foundations and repercussions. Normal Science (a term coined by Philosopher Thomas Kuhn) works under a research consensus among a scientific community: A shared paradigm, consolidated methods, widespread convictions. Pragmatically, winning formulas must be kept, although, not at any cost. What differentiates a gifted and revolutionary scientist from a more bureaucratic colleague is the capacity and willingness of constantly reevaluating, depurating and refining his/her own paradigm. That is best strategy to avoid that a paradigm itself would gradually come under challenge. In my view, some achievements, in this sense, were brought about in our project. The e-book will be inspiring and informative for both neuroscientists that are concerned with the very foundations of their works and for philosophers that are not blind to empirical evidence. Kant once said: “Thoughts without content are empty, intuitions without concepts are blind”. Paraphrasing Kant we could say: Philosophy without science is empty, science without philosophy is blind.

Complexity, Criticality and Computation (C³)

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ISBN: 9783038425144 9783038425151 Year: Pages: VI, 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-515-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-02 11:37:22
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Complex systems is a new approach to science, engineering, health and management that studies how relationships between parts give rise to the collective emergent behaviours of the entire system, and how the system interacts with its environment.A system can be thought of as complex if its dynamics cannot be easily predicted, or explained, as a linear summation of the individual dynamics of its components. In other words, the many constituent microscopic parts bring about macroscopic phenomena that cannot be understood by considering a single part alone (“the whole is more than the sum of the parts”). There is a growing awareness that complexity is strongly related to criticality: the behaviour of dynamical spatiotemporal systems at an order/disorder phase transition where scale invariance prevails.Complex systems can also be viewed as distributed information-processing systems. Consciousness emerging from neuronal activity and interactions, cell behaviour resultant from gene regulatory networks and swarming behaviour are all examples of global system behaviour emerging as a result of the local interactions of the individuals (neurons, genes, animals). Can these interactions be seen as a generic computational process? This question shapes the special issue, linking computation to complexity and criticality.

Theodicy

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ISBN: 9783038972280 / 9783038972297 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-229-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Religion
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The problem of evil has vexed for centuries:

Keywords

theodicy --- queer reading --- gay studies --- liberation theology --- sadomasochism --- suffering --- theodicy --- theodicism --- antitheodicy --- antitheodicism --- realism --- metaphysical realism --- recognition --- acknowledgment --- literature --- the Book of Job --- Roth, Joseph --- creation --- philosophy of religion --- multiverses --- suffering --- black lives matter --- theodicy --- race --- racial disregard --- Marilynne Robinson --- Home --- Gilead trilogy --- problem of evil --- theodicy --- suffering love --- hope --- the problem of evil --- type and token values --- indeterminism --- Paul Celan --- Nelly Sachs --- Martin Heidegger --- Todtnauberg --- Zurichat the Stork --- enestological theodicy --- god --- evil --- infinite value --- the problem of evil --- Anselmianism --- God --- evil --- universe --- world --- multiverse --- Almeida --- problem of evil --- theodicy --- Marilyn Adams --- Richard Swinburne --- mystical body --- god --- evil --- goodness --- religion --- problem of evil --- theodicy --- Qur’an --- Job --- good --- evil --- al Ghaz?l? --- mysticism --- Islam --- theodicy --- problem of evil --- horrendous evil --- disability --- rational moral wish satisfaction --- Marilyn McCord Adams --- anti-theodicy --- theodicy --- suffering --- epistemic injustice --- problem of evil --- theodicy --- anti-theodicy --- Emmanuel Levinas --- Primo Levi --- suffering --- Margaret Cavendish --- theodicy --- problem of evil --- free will --- feminist ethics --- atrocity paradigm --- redemptive goods --- divine justice --- Flannery O’Connor --- Teilhard de Chardin --- good and evil --- theodicy --- Christian vision --- n/a

Emergent Quantum Mechanics. David Bohm Centennial Perspectives

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038976165 Year: Pages: 544 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-617-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Emergent quantum mechanics explores the possibility of an ontology for quantum mechanics. The resurgence of interest in ""deeper-level"" theories for quantum phenomena challenges the standard, textbook interpretation. The book presents expert views that critically evaluate the significance—for 21st century physics—of ontological quantum mechanics, an approach that David Bohm helped pioneer. The possibility of a deterministic quantum theory was first introduced with the original de Broglie-Bohm theory, which has also been developed as Bohmian mechanics. The wide range of perspectives that were contributed to this book on the occasion of David Bohm’s centennial celebration provide ample evidence for the physical consistency of ontological quantum mechanics. The book addresses deeper-level questions such as the following: Is reality intrinsically random or fundamentally interconnected? Is the universe local or nonlocal? Might a radically new conception of reality include a form of quantum causality or quantum ontology? What is the role of the experimenter agent? As the book demonstrates, the advancement of ‘quantum ontology’—as a scientific concept—marks a clear break with classical reality. The search for quantum reality entails unconventional causal structures and non-classical ontology, which can be fully consistent with the known record of quantum observations in the laboratory.

Keywords

quantum foundations --- nonlocality --- retrocausality --- Bell’s theorem --- Bohmian mechanics --- quantum theory --- surrealistic trajectories --- Bell inequality --- quantum mechanics --- generalized Lagrangian paths --- covariant quantum gravity --- emergent space-time --- Gaussian-like solutions --- entropy and time evolution --- resonances in quantum systems --- the Friedrichs model --- complex entropy. --- Bell’s theorem --- the causal arrow of time --- retrocausality --- superdeterminism --- toy-models --- quantum ontology --- sub-quantum dynamics --- micro-constituents --- emergent space-time --- emergent quantum gravity --- entropic gravity --- black hole thermodynamics --- Stern-Gerlach --- trajectories --- spin --- Bell theorem --- fractal geometry --- p-adic metric --- singular limit --- gravity --- conspiracy --- free will --- number theory --- quantum potential --- Feynman paths --- weak values --- Bohm theory --- no-hidden-variables theorems --- observables --- measurement problem --- Bohmian mechanics --- primitive ontology --- Retrocausation --- weak values --- Stochastic Electrodynamics --- quantum mechanics --- decoherence --- interpretations --- pilot-wave theory --- Bohmian mechanics --- Born rule statistics --- measurement problem --- quantum thermodynamics --- strong coupling --- operator thermodynamic functions --- quantum theory --- de Broglie–Bohm theory --- contextuality --- atom-surface scattering --- bohmian mechanics --- matter-wave optics --- diffraction --- vortical dynamics --- Schrödinger equation --- de Broglie–Bohm theory --- nonequilibrium thermodynamics --- zero-point field --- de Broglie–Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics --- pilot wave --- interior-boundary condition --- ultraviolet divergence --- quantum field theory --- Aharonov–Bohm effect --- physical ontology --- nomology --- interpretation --- gauge freedom --- Canonical Presentation --- relational space --- relational interpretation of quantum mechanics --- measurement problem --- non-locality --- discrete calculus --- iterant --- commutator --- diffusion constant --- Levi-Civita connection --- curvature tensor --- constraints --- Kilmister equation --- Bianchi identity --- stochastic differential equations --- Monte Carlo simulations --- Burgers equation --- Langevin equation --- fractional velocity --- interpretations of quantum mechanics --- David Bohm --- mind–body problem --- quantum holism --- fundamental irreversibility --- space-time fluctuations --- spontaneous state reduction --- Poincaré recurrence --- symplectic camel --- quantum mechanics --- Hamiltonian --- molecule interference --- matter-waves --- metrology --- magnetic deflectometry --- photochemistry --- past of the photon --- Mach–Zehnder interferometer --- Dove prism --- photon trajectory --- weak measurement --- transition probability amplitude --- atomic metastable states --- Bell’s theorem --- Bohmian mechanics --- nonlocality --- many interacting worlds --- wavefunction nodes --- bouncing oil droplets --- stochastic quantum dynamics --- de Broglie–Bohm theory --- quantum non-equilibrium --- H-theorem --- ergodicity --- ontological quantum mechanics --- objective non-signaling constraint --- quantum inaccessibility --- epistemic agent --- emergent quantum state --- self-referential dynamics --- dynamical chaos --- computational irreducibility --- undecidable dynamics --- Turing incomputability --- quantum ontology --- nonlocality --- time-symmetry --- retrocausality --- quantum causality --- conscious agent --- emergent quantum mechanics --- Bohmian mechanics --- de Broglie-Bohm theory

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