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The Theoretical Foundation of Dendritic Function

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Computational Neuroscience Series ISBN: 9780262193566 9780262515467 Year: Pages: 468 Language: English
Publisher: The MIT Press
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:41:34
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This collection of fifteen previously published papers, some of them not widely available, have been carefully chosen and annotated by Rall's colleagues and other leading neuroscientists.Wilfrid Rall was a pioneer in establishing the integrative functions of neuronal dendrites that have provided a foundation for neurobiology in general and computational neuroscience in particular. This collection of fifteen previously published papers, some of them not widely available, have been carefully chosen and annotated by Rall's colleagues and other leading neuroscientists. It brings together Rall's work over more than forty years, including his first papers extending cable theory to complex dendritic trees, his ground-breaking paper introducing compartmental analysis to computational neuroscience, and his studies of synaptic integration in motoneurons, dendrodendritic interactions, plasticity of dendritic spines, and active dendritic properties. Today it is well known that the brain's synaptic information is processed mostly in the dendrites where many of the plastic changes underlying learning and memory take place. It is particularly timely to look again at the work of a major creator of the field, to appreciate where things started and where they have led, and to correct any misinterpretations of Rall's work. The editors' introduction highlights the major insights that were gained from Rall's studies as well as from those of his collaborators and followers. It asks the questions that Rall proposed during his scientific career and briefly summarizes the answers.The papers include commentaries by Milton Brightman, Robert E. Burke, William R. Holmes, Donald R. Humphrey, Julian J. B. Jack, John Miller, Stephen Redman, John Rinzel, Idan Segev, Gordon M. Shepherd, and Charles Wilson.

Celebrating Twenty Years of the Brazilian Symposium on Cardiovascular Physiology

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451760 Year: Pages: 241 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-176-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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This e-book is dedicated to the celebration of 20 years of the Brazilian Symposium on Cardiovascular Physiology. In 1996 groups from the School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (FMRP-USP) and from the Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP) joined together to discuss cardiovascular physiology. In subsequent editions of the meeting, the participation of other groups from all over the country has grown and acquired the status of a national symposium. The participants now agree that the symposium should be itinerant and that the chair group is responsible for its organization. In 2016, we proudly reached the 20th edition of the Brazilian Symposium on Cardiovascular Physiology. It is certainly a memorable date and a great opportunity to share the accomplishments of Brazilian groups in the field of cardiovascular physiology.

Brain Networks in Aging: Reorganization and Modulation by Interventions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454167 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-416-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Old adults undertake multiple reduced cognitive abilities in aging, which are accompanied with specific brain reorganization in forms of regional brain activity and brain tissues, inter-region connectivity, and topology of whole brain networks in both function and structure. The plasticity changes of brain activities in old adults are explained by the mechanisms of compensation and dedifferentiation. For example, older adults have been observed to have greater, usually bilateral, prefrontal activities during memory tasks compared to the typical unilateral prefrontal activities in younger adults, which was explained as a compensation for the reduced brain activities in visual processing cortices. Dedifferentiation is another mechanism to explain that old adults are with much less selective and less distinct activity in task-relevant brain regions compared with younger adults. A larger number of studies have examined the plasticity changes of brain from the perspective of regional brain activities. However, studies on only regional brain activities cannot fully elucidate the neural mechanisms of reduced cognitive abilities in aging, as multiple regions are integrated together to achieve advanced cognitive function in human brain. In recent years, brain connectivity/network, which targets how brain regions are integrated, have drawn increasing attention in neuroscience with the development of neuroimaging techniques and graph theoretical analysis. Connectivity quantifies functional association or neural fibers between two regions that may be spatially far separated, and graph theoretical analysis of brain network examines the complex interactions among multiple regions from the perspective of topology. Studies showed that compared to younger adults, older adults had altered strength of task-relevant functional connectivity between specific brain regions in cognitive tasks, and the alternation of connectivity are correlated to behavior performance. For example, older adults had weaker functional connectivity between the premotor cortex and a region in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in a working memory task. Interventions like cognitive training and neuro-modulation (e.g., transcranial magnetic stimulation) have been shown to be promising in regaining or retaining the decreasing cognitive abilities in aging. However, only few neuroimaging studies have examined the influence of interventions to old adult’s brain activity, connectivity, and cognitive performance. This Research Topic calls for contributions on brain network of subjects in normal aging or with age-related diseases like mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. The studies are expected to be based on neuroimaging techniques including but not limited to functional magnetic resonance imaging, Electroencephalography, and diffusion tensor imaging, and contributions on the influence of interventions to brain networks in aging are highly encouraged. All these studies would enrich our understanding of neural mechanisms underlying aging, and offer new insights for developing possible interventions to retain cognitive abilities in aging subjects.

How to improve immune reconstitution in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation?

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194919 Year: Pages: 86 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-491-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is widely used in the treatment of haematological malignancies as a form of immunotherapy acting through a graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) reaction. This curative allogeneic response can be associated with severe drawbacks, such as frequent and severe graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and a long-lasting immunodeficiency, especially now with the development of innovative strategies such as umbilical cord blood transplantation or transplants from haplo-identical family donors (Haplo-HSCT). In the long-term follow-up of these patients, severe post-transplant infections, relapse or secondary malignancies may be directly related to persistent immune defects.Reconstitution of the different lymphocyte populations (B, T, NK, NKT) and antigen presenting cells of myeloid origin (monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells) should be considered not only quantitatively but especially qualitatively, in terms of functional subsets. Immune deficiency leading to an increased susceptibility to infections lasts for more than a year. Although infections that occur in the first month mostly result from a deficiency in both granulocytes and mononuclear cells (MNC), later post-engraftment infections are due to a deficiency in MNC subsets, primarily CD4 T-cells and B-cells. T-cell reconstitution has been extensively studied because of the central role of T-cells in mediating both GvHD, evidenced by the reduced incidence of this complication following T-Cell depletion, and a GvL effect as shown by DLI. In the recent years there has been renewed interest in the role of NK-cells, especially in the context of Haplo-HSCT, and in B-cell reconstitution.This Frontiers Research Topic will provide state of the art knowledge of the mechanisms of immune reconstitution in an allogeneic environment, in order to improve monitoring and therapeutic intervention in allo-HSCT patients.

The effect of hearing loss on neural processing

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195404 Year: Pages: 375 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-540-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Efficient auditory processing requires the rapid integration of transient sensory inputs. This is exemplified in human speech perception, in which long stretches of a complex acoustic signal are typically processed accurately and essentially in real-time. Spoken language thus presents listeners’ auditory systems with a considerable challenge even when acoustic input is clear. However, auditory processing ability is frequently compromised due to congenital or acquired hearing loss, or altered through background noise or assistive devices such as cochlear implants. How does loss of sensory fidelity impact neural processing, efficiency, and health? How does this ultimately influence behavior? This Research Topic explores the neural consequences of hearing loss, including basic processing carried out in the auditory periphery, computations in subcortical nuclei and primary auditory cortex, and higher-level cognitive processes such as those involved in human speech perception. By pulling together data from a variety of disciplines and perspectives, we gain a more complete picture of the acute and chronic consequences of hearing loss for neural functioning.

Protein Interaction Networks in Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199822 Year: Pages: 89 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-982-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The identification and mapping of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is a major goal in systems biology. Experimental data are currently produced in large scale using a variety of high-throughput assays in yeast or mammalian systems. Analysis of these data using computational tools leads to the construction of large protein interaction networks, which help researchers identify novel protein functions.However, our current view of protein interaction networks is still limited and there is an active field of research trying to further develop this concept to include important processes: the topology of interactions and their changes in real time, the effects of competition for binding to the same protein region, PPI variation due to alternative splicing or post-translational modifications, etc.In particular, a clinically relevant topic for development of the concept of protein interactions networks is the consideration of mutant isoforms, which may be responsible for a pathological condition. Mutations in proteins may result in loss of normal interactions and appearance of novel abnormal interactions that may affect a protein’s function and biological cycle.This Research Topic presents novel findings and recent achievements in the field of protein interaction networks with a focus on disease. Authors describe methods for the identification and quantification of PPIs, the annotation and analysis of networks, considering PPIs and protein complexes formed by mutant proteins associated with pathological conditions or genetic diseases.

Age-Related Vestibular Loss: Current Understanding and Future Research Directions

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453009 Year: Pages: 100 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-300-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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9. Sammenhengen mellom mindfulness og eksekutiv funksjon hos profesjonelle fotballspillere (Book chapter)

Book title: Trender for idrettspsykologisk forskning i Skandinavia

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9788202596903 9788202596903 Year: Pages: 18 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.39.ch9 Language: Norwegian
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-28 11:01:02
License: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)

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"Mindfulness has become a popular tool for athletes, but the knowledge about the&#xD;exact associations between trait mindfulness and key performance variables are lacking. This&#xD;is especially problematic for athletes competing at a higher level where minor costs of a trait or&#xD;an intervention could easily outweigh the benefits. In this study we investigated the association&#xD;between self-reported level of mindfulness and performance on two PC based tests of inhibitory&#xD;control on forty-two professional soccer players. The results showed that the observation&#xD;facet of mindfulness was associated with better performance on one of the tests, while the&#xD;non-judgement facet was associated with lower performance on both tests due to more impulsive&#xD;responding. These findings suggest that trait mindfulness and inhibitory control is related,&#xD;but that the relationship may not only be beneficial."&#xD;

Interplay of Connexins and Pannexins in Tissue Function and Disease

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038973928 9783038973935 Year: Pages: 380 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-393-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-30 12:13:56
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This Special Issue is related to the 18th biannual International Gap Junction Conference (IGJC2017), which has been held at the Crowne Plaza Hotel, Glasgow and hosted by Glasgow Caledonian University, 29 July–3 August, 2017. This Special Issue, entitled “Interplay of Connexins and Pannexins in Tissue Function and Disease”, focuses on six key state-of-the-art reviews, written by leads in the field on cutting edge topics and the latest developments in clinical trials in diverse organ systems. A further 14 original articles contributed by delegates attending the meeting are also included and celebrate 50 years of Gap Junction Research.Topics: Connexins and Pannexins:•Trafficking, Assembly, Gating, and Protein–Protein Interactions•Roles in the Cardiovascular System•Roles in Tumorigenesis•Roles in Epithelial Tissue and Wound Healing •Connexin Therapy Translated to Clinic

Executive Function and Education

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455720 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-572-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Executive function is an umbrella term for various cognitive processes that are central to goal-directed behavior, thoughts, and emotions. These processes are especially important in novel or demanding situations, which require a rapid and flexible adjustment of behavior to the changing demands of the environment. The development of executive function relies on the maturation of associated brain regions as well as on stimulation in the child’s social contexts, especially the home and school. Over the past decade, the term executive function has become a buzzword in the field of education as both researchers and educators underscore the importance of skills like goal setting, planning, and organizing in academic success. Accordingly, in initiating this Research Topic and eBook our goal was to provide a forum for state-of-the-art theoretical and empirical work on this that both facilitates communication among researchers from diverse fields and provides a theoretically sound source of information for educators. The contributors to this volume, who hail from several different countries in Europe and North America, have certainly accomplished this goal in their nuanced and cutting-edge depictions of the complex links among various executive function components and educational success.

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