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Neural Signal Estimation in the Human Brain

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199235 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-923-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The ultimate goal of functional brain imaging is to provide optimal estimates of the neural signals flowing through the long-range and local pathways mediating all behavioral performance and conscious experience. In functional MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), despite its impressive spatial resolution, this goal has been somewhat undermined by the fact that the fMRI response is essentially a blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal that only indirectly reflects the nearby neural activity. The vast majority of fMRI studies restrict themselves to describing the details of these BOLD signals and deriving non-quantitative inferences about their implications for the underlying neural activity. This Frontiers Research Topic welcomed empirical and theoretical contributions that focus on the explicit relationship of non-invasive brain imaging signals to the causative neural activity. The articles presented within this resulting eBook aim to both highlight the importance and improve the non-invasive estimation of neural signals in the human brain. To achieve this aim, the following issues are targeted:(1) The spatial limitations of source localization when using MEG/EEG.(2) The coupling of the BOLD signal to neural activity. Articles discuss how animal studies are fundamental in increasing our understanding of BOLD fMRI signals, analyze how non-neuronal cell types may contribute to the modulation of cerebral blood flow, and use modeling to improve our understanding of how local field potentials are linked to the BOLD signal.(3) The contribution of excitatory and inhibitory neuronal activity to the BOLD signal.(4) Assessment of neural connectivity through the use of resting state data, computational modeling and functional Diffusion Tensor Imaging (fDTI) approaches.

Visual perception and visual cognition in healthy and pathological ageing

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192533 Year: Pages: 183 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-253-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Our understanding of visual perception and visual cognition has advanced considerably over the last decades. The effects of ageing on visual perception and visual cognition are less well understood. This Research Topic features state-of-the-art approaches to determining the effects of ageing on visual perception, visual attention, visual memory and visually guided behaviour. Studies using methods that incorporate psychophysics, eye movements, electrophysiology, structural and functional neuroimaging, as well as computational modelling are included. In addition to the focus on how ageing effects normal vision, the topic also includes studies on the effects of pathological ageing in the retina (e.g., age-related macular degeneration) and the brain (e.g., neurodegenerative disorders) on vision and visual cognition.

Transcellular Cycles Underlying Neurotransmission

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196548 Year: Pages: 105 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-654-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Synaptic transmission demands the operation of a highly specialized metabolic machinery involving the transfer of metabolites and neurotransmitters between neurons, astrocytes and microvessels. In the last years, important advances have occurred in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying cerebral activation, neuroglial coupling and the associated neurovascular response. Briefly, exacerbated oxygen consumption in stimulated neurons is thought to trigger glycolytic lactate and glucose transfer from astrocytes which, in turn, obtain these fuels from the microvasculature. Neurotransmitter release is made possible by a combination of transcellular cycles exchanging metabolites between these three compartments, returning eventually the synapsis to its pre-firing situation in the resting periods. In spite of the enormous progresses achieved in recent years, the drivers determining the predominant direction of the fluxes, their quantitative contribution and their energy requirements, have remained until today incompletely understood, more particularly under the circumstances prevailing in vivo. In many instances, progress derived from the implementation of novel methodological approaches including advanced neuroimaging and neurospectroscopy methods. As a consequence, literature in the field became vast, diverse and spread within journals of different specialities. The e-book "Transcellular cycles underlying neurotransmission" aims to summaryze in a single volume, recent progress achieved in hypothesis, methods and interpretations on the trafficking of metabolites between neurons and glial cells, and the associated mechanisms of neurovascular coupling.

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