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Vitamin C and Human Health

ISBN: 9783906980614 9783906980621 Year: Pages: 236 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-01-12 11:52:06
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Abstract

Ascorbic acid is a small, simple, water soluble molecule, synthesised by most plants and animals, with the exception of humans and some animal species due to mutations in the gene encoding the terminal enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway. For humans, it is thus a vitamin (vitamin C) that must be obtained from the diet, with complete deficiency resulting in the fatal disease scurvy. Many functions have been attributed to this fascinating molecule and, despite nearly 90 years of research since its discovery, new roles are still being uncovered, including recent discoveries that it acts as a regulator of epigenetic marks and transcription factors (1). In this volume we begin with a review by Michels and Frei on specific factors that need to be taken into consideration when carrying out vitamin C research. Translational research normally comprises a progression from in vitro/cell culture studies to animal models and finally to clinical trials. At each of these stages, there are requirements specific to vitamin C research that need to be integrated into study designs and this review describes these in detail. [...]

Cell Fate

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198528 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-852-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The fundamental question of how an undifferentiated progenitor cell adopts a more specialized cell fate that then contributes to the development of specialized tissues, organs, organ systems and ultimately a unique individual of a given species has intrigued cell and developmental biologists for many years. Advances in molecular and cell biology have enabled investigators to identify genetic and epigenetic factors that contribute to these processes with increasing detail and also to define the various molecular characteristics of each cell fate with greater precision. Understanding these processes have also provided greater insights into disorders in which the normal mechanisms of cell fate determination are altered, such as in cancer and inherited malformations. With these advances have come techniques that facilitate the manipulation of cell fate, which have the potential to revolutionize the field of medicine by facilitating the repair and/or regeneration of diseased organs. Given the rapid advances that are occurring in the field, the articles in this eBook are both relevant and timely. These articles originally appeared online as part of the Research Topic “Cell Fate” overseen by my colleagues Dr. Lin, Dr. Buttitta, Dr. Maves, Dr. Dilworth, Dr. Paladini and myself and have been viewed extensively. Because of their popularity, they are now made available as an eBook, in a more easily downloadable form.Michael T. Chin

Molecular Pathogenesis of Pneumococcus

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452781 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-278-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Abstract

Streptococcus pneumoniae has been for decades the number one bacterial killer of children in the world. Although vaccination with pneumococcal vaccines [PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 (children) or PPSV23 (adults)] has helped decrease the burden of pneumococcal disease (PD), mortality remains high. Therefore, pathogenesis studies are still key toward our understanding of PD and its control. The introduction of pneumococcal vaccines has also created a niche for vaccine-escape clones. Moreover, the rise of multi-drug resistant clones around the world has also posed a serious threat in recent years. The proposed special issue of Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology highlights many of the recent advances that have been made in pneumococcal pathogenesis, colonization and antibiotic resistance by groups in Latino America, Europe, and the USA.

Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses in Crop Plants

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038974635 / 9783038974642 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-464-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Plant Sciences --- Genetics --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-16 10:24:11
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While the demand for crop products continues to increase strongly, agricultural productivity is threatened by various stress factors, often associated with global warming. To sustain and improve yield, it is necessary to understand how plants respond to various stresses, and to use the generated knowledge in modern breeding programs. Most knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms associated with stress responses has been obtained from investigations using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Stress hormones, such as abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid, have been shown to play key roles in defense responses against abiotic and biotic stresses. More recently, evidence that growth-regulating plant hormones are also involved in stress responses has been accumulating. Epigenetic regulation at the DNA and histone level, and gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs appear to be important as well. Many approaches have used mutant screens and next generation sequencing approaches to identify key players and mechanisms how plants respond to their environment. However, it is often unclear to which extent the elucidated mechanisms also operate in crops.This Special Issue Book, therefore, aims to close this gap and contains a number of contributions from labs that work both, on Arabidopsis and crops. The book includes contributions reporting how crop plant species respond to various abiotic stresses, such as drought, heat, cold, flooding, and salinity, as well as biotic stimuli during microbial infections. It contains reviews, opinions, perspectives, and original articles, and its focus is on our molecular understanding of biotic and abiotic stress responses in crops, highlighting, among other aspects, the role of stress hormones, secondary metabolites, signaling mechanisms, and changes in gene expression patterns and their regulation. Approaches and ideas to achieve stress tolerance and to maintain yield stability of agricultural crops during stress periods can be found in most chapters. These include also perspectives on how knowledge from model plants can be utilized to facilitate crop-plant breeding and biotechnology.

Regulatory microRNA

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977681 9783038977698 Year: Pages: 348 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-769-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Abstract

This book includes updated information about microRNA regulation, for example, in the fields of circular RNAs, multiomics analysis, biomarkers and oncogenes. The variety of topics included in this book reaffirms the extent to which microRNA regulation affects biological processes. Although microRNAs are not translated to proteins, their importance for biological processes is not less than proteins. An understanding of their roles in various biological processes is critical to understanding gene function in these biological processes. Although non-coding RNAs other than microRNAs have recently come under investigation, microRNA still remains the front runner as the subject of genetic and biological studies. In reading the collection of papers, readers can grasp the most updated information regarding microRNA regulation, which will continue to be an important topic in genetics and biology.

Keywords

tensor decomposition --- miRNA transfection --- sequence-nonspecific off-target regulation --- extracellular vesicles --- cancer --- therapeutics --- miRNA --- virus --- host --- Cross-Kingdom --- target prediction --- microRNAs --- autophagy --- mitophagy --- cardiac diseases --- biomarker --- calf --- Ileum --- miRNA-mRNA integration --- miRNA sequencing --- growth --- development --- microRNA --- myelodysplastic syndromes --- acute myeloid leukemia --- azacitidine --- 14q32 --- MEG3 --- autophagy regulator --- transcriptional factor --- non-coding RNA --- regulatory network --- RWR algorithm --- circular RNA --- circFGFR2 --- FGFR2 --- miR-133a-5p --- miR-29b-1-5p --- skeletal muscle --- proliferation --- differentiation --- breast cancer --- CAFs --- estrogens --- GPER --- miR-338-3p --- c-Fos --- Cyclin D1 --- amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) --- biomarker --- microRNA --- cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) --- muscle biopsy --- circulating miRNAs --- RNA interference --- small interfering RNA --- microRNA --- oncolytic virotherapy --- conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAd) --- biomarker --- gene --- microRNA --- parkinson’s disease --- miRNA --- bioinformatic analysis --- ischemic stroke --- miRNA-gene target interaction --- network --- biomarker --- diagnosis --- prognosis --- microRNAs --- epigenetic biomarker --- sepsis --- inflammation --- Teleostei --- embryogenesis --- tissue-enriched miRNAs --- post-transcriptional gene regulation --- miRNA expression and regulation --- passenger miRNA --- biomarker --- vascular injury --- smooth muscle cells --- porcine vein graft and stent models --- bone angiogenesis --- osteogenesis --- angiogenic-osteogenic coupling --- microRNAs --- bone regeneration --- bone formation --- bone tissue-engineering --- angiomiRs --- osteomiRs --- hypoxamiRs --- circular RNA --- circHIPK3 --- microRNA --- miR-30a-3p --- skeletal muscle --- proliferation --- differentiation

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