Search results: Found 78

Listing 1 - 10 of 78 << page
of 8
>>
Sort by
Antibiotic Resistance in Aquatic Systems

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451319 Year: Pages: 107 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-131-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Rivers, lakes and the ocean receive antibiotic resistance genes from human environments. The aquatic environments are a huge reservoir and exchange stage of antibiotic resistance genes.

L’empire des gènes

Author:
ISBN: 9782847880458 9782847884371 Year: Language: French
Publisher: ENS Éditions
Added to DOAB on : 2015-05-19 12:22:25
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Cet ouvrage retrace le parcours sinueux et l’échec de la sociobiologie humaine, cette théorie pseudo-scientifique qui anima les débats entre 1975 et 1985 et s’inscrivit comme idéologie scientiste dans l’ensemble des théories sur la nature humaine. Partant d’une analyse épistémologique des concepts de la sociobiologie humaine et de la sociobiologie animale, l’auteur établit la filiation historique de ceux-ci, des modèles et des idées qui les ont historiquement justifiés et de celles qui les ju...

New frontiers in the neuropsychopharmacology of mental illness

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194049 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-404-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

In recent years, mental illnesses have become recognized as a huge emotional and financial burden to the individual, their relatives and society at large. Stress-related and mood disorders as well as psychoactive substance abuse are among the disorders associated with most disability in high income countries. Suicide, which is often attributed to some underlying mental disorders, is a leading cause of death among teenagers and young adults. At the same time, mental disorders pose some of the toughest challenges in neuroscience research. There are many different categories of mental disorder as defined and classified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10). Despite the ongoing improvements of those widely used manuals, the validity and reliability of their diagnoses remain a constant debate. However, it has now become accepted by the scientific community that mental disorders can arise from multiple sources. In that regard, both clinical and animal studies looking at gene-environment interactions have helped to better understand the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology as well as the discovery of treatments for mental disorders. This Research Topic aims to cover recent progress in research studying how genetic make-up and environmental factors (such as stress paradigm or pharmacological treatment) can contribute to the development of mental disorders such as anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia. This Research Topic also seeks to highlight studies looking at affective-like disorders following the intake of drugs of abuse. We also welcome all research articles, review papers, brief communications, and commentary on topics related to the broad field of Neuropsychopharmacology.

Quantitative Assessment and Validation of Network Inference Methods in Bioinformatics

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194780 Year: Pages: 191 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-478-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biotechnology --- General and Civil Engineering --- Genetics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:33
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Scientists today have access to an unprecedented arsenal of high-tech tools that can be used to thoroughly characterize biological systems of interest. High-throughput “omics” technologies enable to generate enormous quantities of data at the DNA, RNA, epigenetic and proteomic levels. One of the major challenges of the post-genomic era is to extract functional information by integrating such heterogeneous high-throughput genomic data. This is not a trivial task as we are increasingly coming to understand that it is not individual genes, but rather biological pathways and networks that drive an organism’s response to environmental factors and the development of its particular phenotype. In order to fully understand the way in which these networks interact (or fail to do so) in specific states (disease for instance), we must learn both, the structure of the underlying networks and the rules that govern their behavior. In recent years there has been an increasing interest in methods that aim to infer biological networks. These methods enable the opportunity for better understanding the interactions between genomic features and the overall structure and behavior of the underlying networks. So far, such network models have been mainly used to identify and validate new interactions between genes of interest. But ultimately, one could use these networks to predict large-scale effects of perturbations, such as treatment by multiple targeted drugs. However, currently, we are still at an early stage of comprehending methods and approaches providing a robust statistical framework to quantitatively assess the quality of network inference and its predictive potential. The scope of this Research Topic in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology aims at addressing these issues by investigating the various, complementary approaches to quantify the quality of network models. These “validation” techniques could focus on assessing quality of specific interactions, global and local structures, and predictive ability of network models. These methods could rely exclusively on in silico evaluation procedures or they could be coupled with novel experimental designs to generate the biological data necessary to properly validate inferred networks.

Géométries du vivant

Author:
ISSN: 9782213635019 ISBN: 9782213635019 9782722603264 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Collège de France
Added to DOAB on : 2015-05-20 10:31:46
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

L’idée que je me fais d’une théorie en biologie est assez éloignée de cette biologie théorique, mise en équations de phénomènes observés ou photographiés. J’en ai une conception plus simple, plus concrète. Non pas cette description mathématique de ce qui est vu, mais un modèle évolutif, un outil bricolé, avec des mathématiques peut-être, mais aussi de la langue naturelle, et qui sert avant tout à comprendre ce qu’on ne voit pas, à deviner, sous le visible, l’invisible du vivant, sa « logique ...

Schizophrenia: A Consequence of Gene-Environment Interactions?

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195312 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-531-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Schizophrenia is a multi-factorial disease characterized by a high heritability and environmental risk factors (e.g. stress and cannabis use). In recent years, an increasing number of researchers worldwide have started investigating the ‘two-hit hypothesis’ of schizophrenia predicting that genetic and environmental risk factors interactively cause the development of the disorder. This work is starting to produce valuable new animal models and reveal novel insights into the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Eventually, it might help advance studies of the molecular pathways involved in this mental disorder and propose more specific molecular medicine. However, the complexity of this multi-factorial line of research has also caused difficulties in data interpretation and comparison. Our research topic is intended to cover past and current directions in research dedicated to the understanding and measurement of gene-environment interactions (GxE) in schizophrenia, the neurobiological and behavioural consequences of such interactions as well as the challenges and limitations one encounters when working on complex aetiological systems.

New Insights into Microbial Ecology through Subtle Nucleotide Variation

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199884 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-988-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The 16S ribosomal RNA gene commonly serves as a molecular marker for investigating microbial community composition and structure. Vast amounts of 16S rRNA amplicon data generated from environmental samples thanks to the recent advances in sequencing technologies allowed microbial ecologists to explore microbial community dynamics over temporal and spatial scales deeper than ever before. However, widely used methods for the analysis of bacterial communities generally ignore subtle nucleotide variations among high-throughput sequencing reads and often fail to resolve ecologically meaningful differences between closely related organisms in complex microbial datasets. Lack of proper partitioning of the sequencing data into relevant units often masks important ecological patterns. Our research topic contains articles that use oligotyping to demonstrate the importantance of high-resolution analyses of marker gene data, and providides further evidence why microbial ecologists should open the "black box" of OTUs identified through arbitrary sequence similarity thresholds.

Plastid Proteostasis: Relevance of Transcription; Translation and Post-Translational Modifications

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453436 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-343-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Due to their bacterial endosymbiotic origin plastids are organelles with both nuclear-encoded and plastid-encoded proteins. Therefore, a highly integrated modulation of gene expression between the nucleus and the plastome is needed in plant cell development. Plastids have retained for the most part a prokaryotic gene expression machinery but, differently from prokaryotes and eukaryotes, they have largely abandoned transcriptional control and switched to predominantly translational control of their gene expression. Some transcriptional regulation is known to occur, but the coordinate expression between the nucleus and the plastome takes place mainly through translational regulation. However, the regulatory mechanisms of plastid gene expression (PGE) are mediated by intricate plastid-nuclear interactions and are still far from being fully understood. Although, for example, translational autoregulation mechanisms in algae have been described for subunits of heteromeric protein complexes and termed control by epistasy of synthesis (CES), only few autoregulatory proteins have been identified in plant plastids. It should be noted of course that PGE in C. reinhardtii is different from that in plants in many aspects. Another example of investigation in this research area is to understand the interactions that occur during RNA binding between nucleus-encoded RNA-binding proteins and the respective RNA sequences, and how this influences the translation initiation process. In addition to this, the plastid retains a whole series of mechanisms for the preservation of its protein balance (proteostasis), including specific proteases, as well as molecular chaperones and enzymes useful in protein folding. After synthesis, plastid proteins must rapidly fold into stable three dimensional structures and often undergo co- and posttranslational modifications to perform their biological mission, avoiding aberrant folding, aggregation and targeting with the help of molecular chaperones and proteases. We believe that this topic is highly interesting for many research areas because the regulation of PGE is not only of wide interest for plant biologists but has also biotechnological implications. Indeed, plastid transformation turns out to be a very promising tool for the production of recombinant proteins in plants, yet some limitations must still be overcome and we believe that this is mainly due to our limited knowledge of the mechanisms in plastids influencing the maintenance of proteostasis.

Nutrigenetics

Author:
ISBN: 9783038429951 9783038429968 Year: Pages: X, 220 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-10 11:45:06
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Precision Medicine, understood as “the emerging approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person” is currently one of the most talked about themes in biomedicine and great efforts are being made internationally to turn this concept into a reality. As the concept of Precision Medicine spreads, so too does that of “Precision Nutrition”, which would have to take individual variability into account when recommending personalized diets.Although huge progress has been made over recent years in research into the genotype in inter-individual responses to diet, proving that this heterogeneity does indeed exist, we still do not have top level scientific evidence to make the eagerly-awaited personalized dietary recommendations, either from the prevention or treatment of different diseases point of view.It is, therefore, essential to gather more information from studies which, from the nutrigenetic point of view, analyze gene–diet interactions in the different intermediate and final phenotypes of diseases. The ideal situation would be to have results available from randomized and controlled clinical trials. Results on gene–diet interactions obtained from large cohorts, and other types of studies with replication in independent samples, are also of great importance. Similarly, if nutrigenetic findings are accompanied by more mechanistic evidence, integrating other omics, this would be of particular interest. Lastly, another topic of interest is to share strategies for implementing genome-based nutritional interventions.Therefore, this Special Issue of Nutrients, “Nutrigenetics”, will focus on providing evidence of the inter-individual genetic effects of diet in determining diseases phenotypes. We are looking forward to receiving many submissions from outstanding experts on these topics. Experimental papers, meta-analyses, up-to-date review articles, and commentaries are all welcome.

Evolution of Gene Regulatory Networks in Plant Development

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454075 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-407-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

During their life cycle plants undergo a wide variety of morphological and developmental changes. Impinging these developmental processes there is a layer of gene, protein and metabolic networks that are responsible for the initiation of the correct developmental transitions at the right time of the year to ensure plant life success. New omic technologies are allowing the acquisition of massive amount of data to develop holistic and integrative analysis to understand complex processes. Among them, Microarray, Next-generation Sequencing (NGS) and Proteomics are providing enormous amount of data from different plant species and developmental stages, thus allowing the analysis of gene networks globally. Besides, the comparison of molecular networks from different species is providing information on their evolutionary history, shedding light on the origin of many key genes/proteins. Moreover, developmental processes are not only genetically programed but are also affected by internal and external signals. Metabolism, light, hormone action, temperature, biotic and abiotic stresses, etc. have a deep effect on developmental programs. The interface and interplay between these internal and external circuits with developmental programs can be unraveled through the integration of systematic experimentation with the computational analysis of the generated omics data (Molecular Systems Biology).This Research Topic intends to deepen in the different plant developmental pathways and how the corresponding gene networks evolved from a Molecular Systems Biology perspective. Global approaches for photoperiod, circadian clock and hormone regulated processes; pattern formation, phase-transitions, organ development, etc. will provide new insights on how plant complexity was built during evolution. Understanding the interface and interplay between different regulatory networks will also provide fundamental information on plant biology and focus on those traits that may be important for next-generation agriculture.

Listing 1 - 10 of 78 << page
of 8
>>
Sort by