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Natural Diversity in the New Millennium

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199525 Year: Pages: 173 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-952-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Natural diversity has been extensively used to understand plant biology and improve crops. However, studies were commonly based on visual phenotypes or on a few measurable parameters. Nowadays, a large number of parameters can be measured thanks to next generation sequencing, metabolomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics thus providing an unprecedented resolution in the detection of natural diversity. This enhanced resolution offers new possibilities in terms of understanding plant biology. Technology advances also contribute to a better assessment of the biodiversity loss currently taking place. Hence, the topic presents an overview on efforts for maintaining biological diversity in crops, on possibilities offered by recent technologies in the assessment of natural variation, and ends with examples of the diversity found even at the cellular level.

Current Challenges in Cardiovascular Molecular Diagnostics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452811 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-281-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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The field of cardiovascular genetics has tremendously benefited from the recent application of massive parallel sequencing technology also referred to as next generation sequencing (NGS). However, along with the discovery of additional genes associated with human cardiac diseases, the analysis of large dataset of genetic information uncovered a much more complex and variegated landscape, which often departs from the comfort zone of the monogenic Mendelian diseases image that clinical molecular geneticists have been well acquainted with for many decades. It is now clear that, in addition to highly penetrant genetic variants, which in isolation are able to recapitulate the full clinical presentation when expressed in animal models, we are now aware that a small but significant fraction of subjects presenting with cardiac muscle diseases such as cardiomyopathies or primary arrhythmias such as long QT syndrome (LQTS), may harbor at least two deleterious variants in the same gene (compound heterozygous) or in different gene (double heterozygous). Although the clinical presentation in subjects with more than one deleterious variant appears to be more severe and with an earlier disease onset, it somehow changes the viewpoint of clinical molecular geneticists whose aim is to identify all possible genetic contributors to a human condition. In this light, the employment in clinical diagnostics of the NGS technology, allowing the simultaneous interrogation of a DNA target spanning from large panel of genes up to the entire genome, will definitely aid at uncovering all such contributors, which will have to be tested functionally to confirm their role in human cardiac conditions. The uncovering of all clinically relevant deleterious changes associated with a cardiovascular disease would probably increase our understanding of the clinical variability commonly occurring among affected family relatives, and potentially provide with unexpected therapeutic targets for the treatment of symptoms related to the presence of “accessory” deleterious genetic variants other than the key molecular culprit. The objective of this Research Topic is to explore the current challenges presenting to the cardiovascular genetics providers, such as clinical geneticists, genetic counselors, clinical molecular geneticists and molecular pathologists involved in the diagnosis, counseling, testing and interpretation of genetic tests results for the comprehensive management of patients affected by cardiovascular genetic disorders.

Stammzellforschung. Debatte zwischen Ethik, Politik und Gesellschaft

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783980822350 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.15460/HUP.64 Language: German
Publisher: Hamburg University Press
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:23

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The biopolitical debate on stem cell research and reproductive medicine has provoked heated controversy over biological issues and related anthropological questions. The social implications of the controversial issues are no less controversial: To what extent are developments in molecular genetics and reproductive medicine changing our normative orientations? What role do politics and law play in relation to science and economics? And how do biotechnological innovations shape ethical discourses? The contributions of the volume address such questions. They offer information and assessments from medical and scientific perspectives and contain normative and cultural studies reflections from pedagogy, philosophy and theology. The volume is the result of a multidisciplinary lecture series that took place in the summer semester 2002 at the University of Hamburg.

Animal (De)liberation

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ISBN: 9781909188846 9781909188839 9781909188853 9781909188860 9781909188877 9781909188846 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.5334/bay Language: English
Publisher: Ubiquity Press Grant: Wellcome Trust - 104137
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Public Health --- Medicine (General) --- Law --- Animal Sciences --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-19 11:01:13
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"In this book, Jan Deckers addresses the most crucial question that people must deliberate in relation to how we should treat other animals: whether we should eat animal products. Many people object to the consumption of animal products from the conviction that it inflicts pain, suffering, and death upon animals. This book argues that a convincing ethical theory cannot be based on these important concerns: rather, it must focus on our interest in human health. Tending to this interest demands not only that we extend speciesism—the attribution of special significance to members of our own species merely because they belong to the same species as ourself—towards nonhuman animals, but also that we safeguard the integrity of nature.&#xD;In this light, projects that aim to engineer the genetic material of animals to reduce their capacities to feel pain and to suffer are morally suspect. The same applies to projects that aim to develop in-vitro flesh, even if the production of such flesh should be welcomed on other grounds.&#xD;The theory proposed in this book is accompanied by a political goal, the ‘vegan project’, which strives for a qualified ban on the consumption of animal products. Deckers also provides empirical evidence that some support for this goal exists already, and his analysis of the views of others—including those of slaughterhouse workers—reveals that the vegan project stands firm in spite of public opposition.&#xD;Many charges have been pressed against vegan diets, including: that they alienate human beings from nature; that they increase human food security concerns; and that they are unsustainable. Deckers argues that these charges are legitimate in some cases, but that, in many situations, vegan diets are actually superior.&#xD;For those who remain doubtful, the book also contains an appendix that considers whether vegan diets might actually be nutritionally adequate."

Biotechnologies for Plant Mutation Breeding: Protocols

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783319450193 9783319450216 Year: Pages: 340 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-45021-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Manufactures --- Chemical Engineering --- Biotechnology --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-08 13:33:36
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This book offers 19 detailed protocols on the use of induced mutations in crop breeding and functional genomics studies, which cover topics including chemical and physical mutagenesis, phenotypic screening methods, traditional TILLING and TILLING by sequencing, doubled haploidy, targeted genome editing, and low-cost methods for the molecular characterization of mutant plants that are suitable for laboratories in developing countries. The collection of protocols equips users with the techniques they need in order to start a program on mutation breeding or functional genomics using both forward and reverse-genetic approaches. Methods are provided for seed and vegetatively propagated crops (e.g. banana, barley, cassava, jatropha, rice) and can be adapted for use in other species.

The Challenge of Protein Crops as a Sustainable Source of Food and Feed for the Future

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451623 Year: Pages: 325 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-162-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Grain legumes, together with quinoa and amaranth (pseudocereals) and other crops are attractive candidates to satisfy the growing demand for plant protein production worldwide for food and feed. Despite their high value, many protein crops have not been adequately assessed and numerous species are underutilized. Special attention has to be paid to genetic diversity and landraces, and to the key limiting factors affecting yield, including water deficiency and other abiotic and biotic stresses, in order to obtain stable, reliable and sustainable crop production through the introduction and local adaptation of genetically improved varieties. Legumes, the main protein crops worldwide, contribute to the sustainable improvement of the environment due to their ability to fix nitrogen and their beneficial effects on the soil. They play a key role in the crop diversification and sustainable intensification of agriculture, particularly in light of new and urgent challenges, such as climate change and food security. In addition, the role of legumes in nutrition has been recognized as a relevant source of plant protein, together with other benefits for health. Chapters dealing with common bean, lupine, soybean, lentil, cowpea and Medicago are included in this book. Most contributions deal with legumes, but the significant number of papers on different aspects of quinoa gives an idea of the increasing importance of this protein crop. Pseudocereals, such as quinoa and amaranth, are good sources of proteins. Quinoa and amaranth seeds contain lysine, an essential amino acid that is limited in other grains. Nutritional evaluations of quinoa indicate that it constitutes a source of complete protein with a good balance among all of the amino acids needed for human diet, and also important minerals, vitamins, high quality oils and flavonoids. Other protein crops also included in this book are hemp, cotton and cereals (maize, wheat and rice). Although cereals protein content is not high, their seeds are largely used for human consumption. In this book are included articles dealing with all different aspects of protein crops, including nutritional value, breeding, genetic diversity, biotic and abiotic stress, cropping systems or omics, which may be considered crucial to help provide the plant proteins of the future. Overall, the participation of 169 authors in 29 chapters in this book indicates an active scientific community in the field, which appears to be an encouraging reflect of the global awareness of the need for sustainability and the promising future of proteins crops as a source of food and feed.

Ocular Motor and Vestibular Function in Neurometabolic, Neurogenetic, and Neurodegenerative Disorders

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455638 Year: Pages: 247 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-563-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Eye movements provide rich source of information about brain functioning for neurologists and neuroscientists. They provide diagnostic clues, define, and localize motor and cognitive disorders. Objective eye movement assessments associated with clinical observation and genetic testing in neurodegenerative, neurometabolic, and neurogenetic diseases provide insight into their pathophysiology and disease mechanism. Finally the eye movements may be used for testing and following the response to therapies. The concrete value of studying eye movement stems from a number of advantages compared to the study of movements of axial or limb muscles.

The eye movements are accessible to clinical inspection, they can be measured precisely, their interpretation is clear and therefore ocular motility examination has high localization value. There are several standardized tasks to study of each subclass of eye movements that are recognized for motor or cognitive behavior. Indeed the studies of eye movement had allowed test of motor and cognitive functions of the brain in a vast range of neurological disease. Both cortical and subcortical dysfunctions may be detected with the analysis of subclasses of eye movements and interpreted in association with other clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging features.

The goal of this topic-focused volume of Frontiers in Neurology is to gather seminal studies, from well-known scientists and laboratories from across the world, delineating the features of eye movements and vestibular system in neurogenetic, neurometabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders. Such collection of articles, to our knowledge, is unique and never done in the past. The topics and the compilation will be of interest to broad groups of neuroscientists and neurologists for the reasons as follows:

1) Neurodegenerative diseases represent a large portion of neurological diseases encountered in neurological clinical practice. Eye movement changes may occur early in their course and may be specific, thus orienting the diagnosis.

2) Neurometabolic and neurogenetic conditions, although rare, show specific and characteristic eye movements that represent the hallmark of the disease. Such disorders often represent a pathologic model that helps to understand the normal functioning of specific brain regions and networks.

Advances in Legume Research

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456321 Year: Pages: 609 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-632-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Legumes crops have an extraordinary importance for the agriculture and the environment. In a world urgently requiring more sustainable agriculture, food security and healthier diets the demand for legume crops is on the rise. The International Legume Society (http://ils.nsseme.com) organizes a triannual series of conferences with the goal to serve as a forum to discuss interdisciplinary progress on legume research. The Second International Legume Society Conference (ILS2) hosted in October 2016 at Troia, Portugal was the starting point for the Research Topic “Advances in Legume Research” in FiPS, that was also open to spontaneous submissions.

Genetic Engineering - An Insight into the Strategies and Applications

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ISBN: 9789535128359 9789535128366 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.5772/62961 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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This collection presents various interesting aspects of genetic engineering. Many thought-provoking queries like ""Is gene revolution an answer to the world hunger? Do GM crops with more complex transformation contribute to the enrichment of multinationals? Why the US increases food aids?"" have been analyzed. Transformation protocols and retrieval of recombinants are essential to the success of genetic engineering. The book throws light on new transformation strategies which can be used to increase the transformation efficiency in most plant species. Genetic engineering offers potentially viable solution to look for alternatives beyond Bt toxins with similar pattern of toxicity. An interesting chapter is dedicated to in vitro fig regeneration and transformation systems. To address the long juvenile phase of fruit trees, the book includes a chapter on plant breeding technique that can significantly shorten the breeding periods. The book dwells on aspects of genome editing which will enable researchers to produce transgenic plants in a more convenient and safer way to genetic modification of stem cells holding significant therapeutic promise to treat complications of diabetes and obesity. I hope this book will serve as a seed for further investigations and novel innovations in the area of genetic engineering.

Genetic Diversity in Plant Species - Characterization and Conservation

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ISBN: 9781838804091 9781838804107 9781838806514 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.75369 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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Evaluation of the genetic diversity and population structure of plant germplasm enhances breeding and management practices to develop improved varieties. Various genetic tools have been successfully used to study the genetic diversity of plant species, including morphological, cytological, biochemical, and molecular markers. This book discusses the fundamental advances related to assessment, utilization, and conservation of genetic diversity in plant germplasm. The book also discusses approaches related to environmental stresses. Moreover, it sheds new light on the current research trends and future research directions related to plant genetic diversity studies. This book will provoke the interest of various readers, researchers, and scientists, who will find this information useful for the advancement of their plant genetic diversity research work.

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