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Chapter 28 Genomics in emerging and developing economies (Book chapter)

Book title: Routledge Handbook of Genomics, Health and Society

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781138211957 9781315451695 Year: Pages: 12 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-28 11:01:58
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Low and middle-income countries have become a site of increasing research interest and investment with the transnational expansion and spread of genomic knowledge and technologies&#xD;(Kumar 2012, Seguin et al. 2008). This reflects a dynamic terrain in which genomics is being&#xD;harnessed to address a range of healthcare challenges.

Advances in Wheat Genetics: From Genome to Field: Proceedings of the 12th International Wheat Genetics Symposium

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ISBN: 9784431556749 9784431556756 Year: Pages: 445 DOI: 10.1007/978-4-431-55675-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Plant Sciences --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-30 14:59:54
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This proceedings is a collection of 46 selected papers that were presented at the 12th International Wheat Genetics Symposium (IWGS). Since the launch of the wheat genome sequencing project in 2005, the arrival of draft genome sequences has marked a new era in wheat genetics and genomics, catalyzing rapid advancement in the field. This book provides a comprehensive review of the forefront of wheat research, across various important topics such as germplasm and genetic diversity, cytogenetics and allopolyploid evolution, genome sequencing, structural and functional genomics, gene function and molecular biology, biotic stress, abiotic stress, grain quality, and classical and molecular breeding. Following an introduction, 9 parts of the book are dedicated to each of these topics. A final, 11th part entitled “Toward Sustainable Wheat Production” contains 7 excellent papers that were presented in the 12th IWGS Special Session supported by the OECD. With rapid population growth and radical climate changes, the world faces a global food crisis and is in need of another Green Revolution to boost yields of wheat and other widely grown staple crops. Although this book focuses on wheat, many of the newly developed techniques and results presented here can be applied to other plant species with large and complex genomes. As such, this volume is highly recommended for all students and researchers in wheat sciences and related plant sciences and for those who are interested in stable food production and food security.

Bifidobacteria and Their Role in the Human Gut Microbiota

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451005 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-100-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The human intestine is home of an almost inconceivable large number of microorganisms. The human gut microbiota can therefore be pictured as an organ placed within a host organism. The human gut microbiome, which in total may contain >100 times the number of genes present in our genome, endows us with functional features that we did not have to evolve ourselves. It is recognized that intestinal microbiota plays an important role in human health and disease. In fact, gut bacteria other than metabolize dietary components, may play complex roles such as modulation of the immune system and in reduction of gut infections. Variations in the presence and/or abundance of certain components of the intestinal microbiota have repeatedly been observed in patients that suffer from atopic diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis, infectious colitis, colon cancer and diabetes. In this context, bifidobacteria represent one of the most common bacterial members of the human gut microbiota. Bifidobacteria are anaerobic, Gram-positive, irregular or branched rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the gastro-intestinal tracts (GIT) of humans, especially during the first stages of life and most animal and insects. Bifidobacterial fluctuations seem directly associated with health effects and for these reasons they are being exploited as health-promoting or probiotic bacteria. However, despite the extensive commercial exploitation of bifidobacteria as probiotic bacteria, little is known about their impact or dependency on other members of the human gut microbiota or on their host. Genome analyses have highlighted the existence of gene repertoires encoding products that are responsible for the adaptation of bifidobacteria to the human intestine and intense research efforts at international level are ongoing to understand the molecular details of these interactions. Specifically, the molecular interactions that are presumed to exist between bifidobacteria and the human host, as well as interactions between different residents of intestinal microbiota are the main topic of bifidobacterial research communities.

Recent Advances in Acidophile Microbiology: Fundamentals and Applications

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451630 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-163-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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There is considerable interest in pure and applied studies of extremophilic microorganisms, including those (acidophiles) that are active in low pH environments. As elsewhere in microbiology, this is a fast-developing field, and the proposed special issue of Frontiers highlights many of the more recent advances that have been made in this area. Authors from leading scientific groups located in North and South America, Australasia and Europe have contributed to this e-book, and the topics covered include advances in molecular, biochemical, biogeochemical and industrial aspects of acidophile microbiology.

Routledge Handbook of Genomics, Health and Society

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Routledge International Handbooks ISBN: 9781138211957 Year: Pages: 316 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:01:16

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The Handbook provides an essential resource at the interface of Genomics, Health and Society, and forms a crucial research tool for both new students and established scholars across biomedicine and social sciences. Building from and extending the first Routledge Handbook of Genetics and Society, the book offers a comprehensive introduction to pivotal themes within the field, an overview of the current state of the art knowledge on genomics, science and society, and an outline of emerging areas of research. Key themes addressed include the way genomic based DNA technologies have become incorporated into diverse arenas of clinical practice and research whilst also extending beyond the clinic; the role of genomics in contemporary ‘bioeconomies’; how challenges in the governance of medical genomics can both reconfigure and stabilise regulatory processes and jurisdictional boundaries; how questions of diversity and justice are situated across different national and transnational terrains of genomic research; and how genomics informs – and is shaped by – developments in fields such as epigenetics, synthetic biology, stem cell, microbial and animal model research.&#xD;&#xD;Presenting cutting edge research from leading social science scholars, the Handbook provides a unique and important contribution to the field. It brings a rich and varied cross disciplinary social science perspective that engages with both the history and contemporary context of genomics and ‘post-genomics’, and considers the now global and transnational terrain in which these developments are unfolding.

Abiotic Stress Signaling in Plants: Functional Genomic Intervention

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198917 Year: Pages: 636 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-891-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Abiotic stresses such as high temperature, low-temperature, drought and salinity limit crop productivity worldwide. Understanding plant responses to these stresses is essential for rational engineering of crop plants. In Arabidopsis, the signal transduction pathways for abiotic stresses, light, several phytohormones and pathogenesis have been elucidated. A significant portion of plant genomes (Arabidopsis and rice were mostly studied) encodes for proteins involves in signaling such as receptor, sensors, kinases, phosphatases, transcription factors and transporters/channels. Despite decades of physiological and molecular effort, knowledge pertaining to how plants sense and transduce low and high temperature, low-water availability (drought), water-submergence, microgravity and salinity signals is still a major question for plant biologist. One major constraint hampering our understanding of these signal transduction processes in plants has been the lack or slow pace of application of molecular genomic and genetics knowledge in the form of gene function. In the post-genomic era, one of the major challenges is investigation and understanding of multiple genes and gene families regulating a particular physiological and developmental aspect of plant life cycle. One of the important physiological processes is regulation of stress response, which leads to adaptation or adjustment in response to adverse stimuli. With the holistic understanding of the signaling pathways involving not only one gene family but multiple genes or gene families, plant biologist can lay a foundation for designing and generating future crops, which can withstand the higher degree of environmental stresses (especially abiotic stresses, which are the major cause of crop loss throughout the world) without losing crop yield and productivity. Therefore, in this e-Book, we intend to incorporate the contribution from leading plant biologists to elucidate several aspects of stress signaling by functional genomics approaches.

Genetics and Genomics of Forest Trees

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ISBN: 9783038972983 9783038972990 Year: Pages: 332 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-299-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Forestry --- Biology --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-23 10:42:07
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Forest tree genetics and genomics are advancing at an accelerated rate, thanks to recent developments in high-throughput, next-generation sequencing capabilities, and novel biostatistical tools. Population and landscape genetics and genomics have seen the rise of new approaches implemented in large-scale studies that employ the use of genome-wide sampling. Such studies have started to discern the dynamics of neutral and adaptive variation in nature and the processes that underlie spatially explicit patterns of genetic and genomic variation in nature. The continuous development of genetic maps in forest trees and the expansion of QTL and association mapping approaches contribute to the unravelling of the genotype-phenotype relationship and lead to marker-assisted and genome-wide selection. However, major challenges lie ahead. Recent literature suggests that species demography and genetic diversity have been affected both by climatic oscillations and anthropogenically induced stresses in a way calls into question the possibility of future adaptation. Moreover, the pace of contemporary environmental change presents a great challenge to forest tree populations and their ability to adapt, taking into consideration their life history characteristics. Several questions emerge that include, but are not limited to, the interpretation of forest tree genome surveillance and their structural/functional properties, the adaptive and neutral processes that have shaped forest tree genomes, the analysis of phenotypic traits relevant to adaptation (especially adaptation under contemporary climate change), the link between epigenetics/epigenomics and phenotype/genotype, and the use of genetics/genomics as well as genetic monitoring to advance conservation priorities.

Genome-wide view on the physiology of vitamin D

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193493 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-349-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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The main physiological actions of the biologically most active metabolite of vitamin D, 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3(1a,25(OH)2D3), are calcium and phosphorus uptake and transport and thereby controlling bone formation. Other emergent areas of 1a,25(OH)2D3 action are in the control of immune functions, cellular growth and differentiation. This fits both with the widespread expression of the VDR and the above described consequences of vitamin D deficiency. Transcriptome-wide analysis indicated that per cell type between 200 and 600 genes are primary targets of vitamin D. Since most of these genes respond to vitamin D in a cell-specific fashion, the total number of vitamin D targets in the human genome is far higher than 1,000. This is supported by the genome-wide view on VDR binding sites in human lymphocytes, monocytes, colon and hepatic cells. All genomic actions of 1a,25(OH)2D3 are mediated by the transcription factor vitamin D receptor (VDR) that has been the subject of intense study since the 1980’s. Thus, vitamin D signaling primarily implies the molecular actions of the VDR. In this research topic, we present in 15 chapters different perspectives on the action of vitamin D and its receptor, such as the impact of the genomewide distribution of VDR binding loci, ii) the transcriptome- and proteome-wide effects of vitamin D, iii) the role of vitamin D in health, iv) tissue-specific functions of vitamin D and v) the involvement of vitamin D in different diseases, such as infections, autoimmune diseases, diabetes and different types of cancer.

Biotechnologies for Plant Mutation Breeding: Protocols

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783319450193 9783319450216 Year: Pages: 340 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-45021-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Manufactures --- Chemical Engineering --- Biotechnology --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-08 13:33:36
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This book offers 19 detailed protocols on the use of induced mutations in crop breeding and functional genomics studies, which cover topics including chemical and physical mutagenesis, phenotypic screening methods, traditional TILLING and TILLING by sequencing, doubled haploidy, targeted genome editing, and low-cost methods for the molecular characterization of mutant plants that are suitable for laboratories in developing countries. The collection of protocols equips users with the techniques they need in order to start a program on mutation breeding or functional genomics using both forward and reverse-genetic approaches. Methods are provided for seed and vegetatively propagated crops (e.g. banana, barley, cassava, jatropha, rice) and can be adapted for use in other species.

Genetic and Genome-Wide Insights into Microbes Studied for Bioenergy

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450855 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-085-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The global mandate for safer, cleaner and renewable energy has accelerated research on microbes that convert carbon sources to end-products serving as biofuels of the so-called first, second or third generation – e.g., bioethanol or biodiesel derived from starchy, sugar-rich or oily crops; bioethanol derived from composite lignocellulosic biomass; and biodiesels extracted from oil-producing algae and cyanobacteria, respectively. Recent advances in ‘omics’ applications are beginning to cast light on the biological mechanisms underlying biofuel production. They also unravel mechanisms important for organic solvent or high-added-value chemical production, which, along with those for fuel chemicals, are significant to the broader field of Bioenergy. The Frontiers in Microbial Physiology Research Topic that led to the current e-book publication, operated from 2013 to 2014 and welcomed articles aiming to better understand the genetic basis behind Bioenergy production. It invited genetic studies of microbes already used or carrying the potential to be used for bioethanol, biobutanol, biodiesel, and fuel gas production, as also of microbes posing as promising new catalysts for alternative bioproducts. Any research focusing on the systems biology of such microbes, gene function and regulation, genetic and/or genomic tool development, metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology leading to strain optimization, was considered highly relevant to the topic. Likewise, bioinformatic analyses and modeling pertaining to gene network prediction and function were also desirable and therefore invited in the thematic forum. Upon e-book development today, we, at the editorial, strongly believe that all articles presented herein – original research papers, reviews, perspectives and a technology report – significantly contribute to the emerging insights regarding microbial-derived energy production. Katherine M. Pappas, 2016

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