Search results: Found 13

Listing 1 - 10 of 13 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Glial Cells: Managers of Neuro-immunity

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198351 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-835-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Immune responses within the brain are still scarcely explored. Nerve tissue damage is accompanied by the activation of glial cells, primarily microglia and astroglia, and such activation is responsible for the release of cytokines and chemokines that maintain the local inflammatory response and actively recruit lymphocytes and monocytes to the damaged areas. Theoretically, these responses are designed to repair the brain damage. However, alterations, or a chronic perpetuation of these responses may underlie a number of neuro-pathologies. It is thought that each inflammatory scenario within the brain have a specific biochemical footprint characterized by the release of determined cytokines, chemokines and growing factors able to define particular immunological responses. Alongside, glial cells transform their cell body, become larger and develop higher number of branches adopting an active morphological phenotype. These changes are related with the search of interactions with other cells, such as bystander resident cells of the brain parenchyma, but also cells homing from the blood stream. In this process, microglia and astrocytes communicates with other cells by the formation of specific intercellular connections that are still poorly understood. These interactions are complex and entail the arrangement of cytoskeletal compounds, secretory and phagocytic domains. In this particular crosstalk there is a two-way communication in which glial cells and target cells come together establishing interfaces with specific information exchange. This way, glial cells orchestrate the particular response recruiting cellular subsets within the central nervous system and organizing the resolution of the brain damage. In this Frontiers Research Topic, we compile a selection of articles unfolding diverse aspects of glial-derived inflammation, focused on neurodegenerative diseases and other nervous system disorders, with special emphasis on microglia/macrophages as leading actors managing neuro-immunity.

50th Anniversary of Adult Neurogenesis: Olfaction, Hippocampus and Beyond

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199631 Year: Pages: 243 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-963-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

In the mid-sixties, the discovery by Altman and co-workers of neurogenesis in the adult brain changed the previous conception of the immutability of this organ during adulthood sustained among others by Cajal. This discovery was ignored up to eighty’s when Nottebohm demonstrated neurogenesis in birds. Subsequently, two main neurogenic zones were characterized: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus. Half century later, the exact role of new neurons in the adult brain is not completely understand. This book is composed by a number of articles by leaders in the filed covering from an historic perspective to potential therapeutic opportunities.

Keywords

Alzheimer --- Dopamine --- glia --- Epilepsy --- Exercise --- Stroke

Dual role of microglia in health and disease: pushing the balance towards repair

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194926 Year: Pages: 101 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-492-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Microglial cells play a vital role in the innate immune response occurring in the Central Nervous System (CNS). Under physiologic conditions, microglia dynamically patrol the brain parenchyma and participate in the remodeling of active neuronal circuits. Accordingly, microglia can boost synaptic plasticity by removing apoptotic cells and by phagocytizing axon terminals and dendritic spines that form inappropriate neural connections. Upon brain and spinal cord injury or infection, microglia act as the first line of immune defense by promoting the clearance of damaged cells or infectious agents and by releasing neurotrophins and/ or proneurogenic factors that support neuronal survival and regeneration.Recently, two main pathways were suggested for microglia activation upon stimuli. Classical activation is induced by Toll-like receptor agonists and Th1 cytokines and polarizes cells to an M1 state, mainly leading to the release of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and nitric oxide and to grave neural damage. Alternative activation is mediated by Th2 cytokines and polarizes cells to an M2a state inducing the release of antiinflammatory factors. These findings have further fueled the discussion on whether microglia has a detrimental or beneficial action (M1 or M2-associated phenotypes, respectively) in the diseased or injured CNS and, more importantly, on whether we can shift the balance to a positive outcome.Although microglia and macrophages share several common features, upon M1 and M2 polarizing conditions, they are believed to develop distinct phenotypic and functional properties which translate into different patterns of activity. Moreover, microglia/macrophages seem to have developed a tightly organized system of maintenance of CNS homeostasis, since cells found in different structures have different morphology and specific function (e.g. meningeal macrophages, perivascular macrophages, choroid plexus macrophages). Nevertheless, though substantial work has been devoted to microglia function, consensus around their exact origin, their role during development, as well as the exact nature of their interaction with other cells of the CNS has not been met.This issue discusses how microglial cells sustain neuronal activity and plasticity in the healthy CNS as well as the cellular and molecular mechanisms developed by microglia in response to injury and disease. Understanding the mechanisms involved in microglia actions will enforce the development of new strategies to promote an efficient CNS repair by committing microglia towards neuronal survival and regeneration.

Single Membrane Channels Formed by Connexins or Pannexins: Focus on the Nervous System

Author:
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198900 Year: Pages: 241 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-890-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Given that the extremely elaborated and dynamic functions performed by the nervous system require the close synchronization of brain cells, complex organisms have developed different mechanisms of intercellular communication. At this regard, paracrine signaling between neighboring cells is currently recognized as one of the most widely distributed mechanisms of synchronization in the brain parenchyma. In mammals, paracrine signaling is in part mediated by single membrane channels formed by connexins (connexons/hemichannels) or pannexins (pannexons), which are two different membrane protein families composed of about 20 and 3 members, respectively. Single membrane channels formed by these proteins serve as aqueous pores permeable to ions and small molecules, allowing the diffusional exchange between the intra- and extracellular milieu. Thus, connexin hemichannels and pannexons permit the release of significant quantities of autocrine/paracrine signaling molecules (e.g., ATP, glutamate, NAD+, adenosine and PGE2) into the extracellular milieu, as well as the uptake of small molecules. An increasing body of evidence has revealed that connexin hemichannels and pannexons play a crucial role in a plethora of brain processes including blood flow regulation, Ca2+ wave propagation, memory consolidation, glucose sensing and cell migration and adhesion. Considering the multiple cell signaling functions of these channels, their dysregulation is proposed not only as potential pathological biomarker, but it has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of diverse brain diseases (e.g., meningitis, Alzheimer’s disease and stroke). The aim of this Research Topic is to gather a collection of original research articles, method, protocols, short communications, opinions, perspectives, as well as review articles, providing the latest progress and insights in the field of connexin hemichannels and pannexons in the nervous system. Within this volume we plan to cover from basic research including channel structure, regulation, pharmacology and trafficking; to different biological functions in the physiology (behavior, plasticity, neurogenesis, blood flow control, neuron-glia crosstalk, cell migration and differentiation) as well as in the pathophysiology (neuroinflammation, mutation-related diseases, glial dysfunction and neurodegeneration) of the nervous system. We hope that this collection of articles will serve to understand how the signaling of connexin hemichannels and pannexons influences both normal and pathological brain function.

Keywords

astrocyte --- Microglia --- Neuron --- Brain --- glia --- connexin --- pannexin --- hemichannel --- connexon --- pannexon

Neuronal and glial structural plasticity induced by drugs of abuse

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195985 Year: Pages: 90 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-598-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Drugs of abuse induce a host of alterations in brain structure and function, ranging from changes in gene expression and epigenetic processes to aberrant synaptic plasticity to volumetric changes in discrete brain regions. These alterations can be drug class-specific, and are not confined to neurons, as drugs of abuse also induce molecular and cellular alterations in various glial cell types such as astrocytes and microglia. The phenomenon of drug-induced plasticity includes changes in dendritic branching and architecture, dendritic spine density and morphology, astrocyte-neuronal interactions, dysregulation of glutamatergic and GABAergic signaling, and alterations in myelination or microglial phenotype. This drug-induced "rewiring" of the brain at numerous levels can contribute to the development, maintenance, and persistence of the addicted state, as well as associated deficits in normal cognitive functioning. The aim of this Research Topic is to collect recent and important findings related to the structural alterations produced by drug of abuse in neurons, glial, and other cell types of the central nervous system.

Keywords

plasticity --- Dendrite --- Spine --- Glutamate --- Dopamine --- GABA --- Neuron --- glia --- astrocyte --- Addiction

Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Signaling in Neuroprotection

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9789811084874 9789811084881 Year: Pages: 191 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-8488-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Smoking Research Foundation
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-29 14:19:40
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This open access book presents the roles and mechanisms of signal transduction triggered by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) stimulation in neuroprotection against toxic effects of risk factors of neurodegenerative diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that nAChRs in the CNS play important roles not only in excitatory neurotransmission but also in neuronal survival and related functions. Neuroprotection mediated by nAChRs in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease is the major topic of this book. In response to rapidly evolving areas in clinical and laboratory neuropharmacology and neurochemistry, this volume provides in-depth coverage of neuroprotection in basic research and future developments in the clinical application of effective neuroprotective strategies in neurodegenerative diseases. This work appeals to both basic and clinical researchers in several fields, such as neuroscience, neurology, and pharmacology.

Neuronal Mechanics and Transport

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198238 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-823-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Understanding the underlying mechanisms of how axons and dendrites develop is a fundamental problem in neuroscience and a main goal of research on nervous system development and regeneration. Previous studies have provided a tremendous amount of information on signaling and cytoskeletal proteins regulating axonal and dendritic growth and guidance. However, relatively little is known about the relative contribution and role of cytoskeletal dynamics, transport of organelles and cytoskeletal components, and force generation to axonal elongation. Advancing the knowledge of these biomechanical processes is critical to better understand the development of the nervous system, the pathological progression of neurodegenerative diseases, acute traumatic injury, and for designing novel approaches to promote neuronal regeneration following disease, stroke, or trauma. Mechanical properties and forces shape the development of the nervous system from the cellular up to the organ level. Recent advances in quantitative live cell imaging, biophysical, and nanotechnological methods such as traction force microscopy, optical tweezers, and atomic force microscopy have enabled researchers to gain better insights into how cytoskeletal dynamics and motor-driven transport, membrane-dynamics, adhesion, and substrate rigidity influence axonal elongation. Given the complexity and mechanical nature of this problem, mathematical modeling contributes significantly to our understanding of neuronal mechanics. Nonetheless, there has been limited direct interaction and discussions between experimentalists and theoreticians in this research area. The purpose of this Frontiers Research Topic is to highlight exciting and important work that is currently developing in the fields of neuronal cell biology, neuronal mechanics, intracellular transport, and mathematical modeling in the form of primary research articles, reviews, perspectives, and commentaries.

The Role of Glia in Plasticity and Behavior

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196906 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-690-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Glial cells are no longer considered passive bystanders in neuronal brain circuits. Not only are they required for housekeeping and brain metabolism, they are active participants in regulating the physiological function and plasticity of brain circuits and the online control of behavior both in invertebrate and vertebrate model systems. In invertebrates, glial cells are essential for normal function of sensory organs (C. elegans) and necessary for the circadian regulation of locomotor activity (D. melanogaster). In the mamallian brain, astrocytes are implicated in the regulation of cortical brain rhythms and sleep homeostasis. Disruption of AMPA receptor function in a subset of glial cell types in mice shows behavioral deficits. Furthermore, genetic disruption of glial cell function can directly control behavioral output. Regulation of ionic gradients by glia can underlie bistability of neurons and can modulate the fidelity of synaptic transmission. Grafting of human glial progenitor cells in mouse forebrain results in human glial chimeric mice with enhanced plasticity and improved behavioral performance, suggesting that astrocytes have evolved to cope with information processing in more complex brains. Taken together, current evidence is strongly suggestive that glial cells are essential contributors to information processing in the brain. This Research Topic compiles recent research that shows how the molecular mechanisms underlying glial cell function can be dissected, reviews their impact on plasticity and behavior across species and presents novel approaches to further probe their function.

Keywords

glia --- Astrocytes --- plasticity --- Behavior --- Gq --- DREADD --- C. elegans --- Hippocampus --- Cerebellum --- Cortex

Chemokines and chemokine receptors in brain homeostasis

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196166 Year: Pages: 124 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-616-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Virtually involved in all pathologies that present an inflammatory component, it is now evident that, in the central nervous system, chemokines and chemokine receptors possess pleiotropic properties beyond chemotaxis: costitutive brain expression of chemokines and their receptors on endothelial cells, but also on neurons and glia, suggests a role for such molecules in mediating homeostatic cross-talk between cells of the brain perenchyma. Cross-talk between neurons and glia is determinant to the establishment and maintenance of a brain enviroment that ensure normal function, and in particular glial cells are active players that respond to enviromental changes and act for the survival, growth, differentiation and repair of the nervous tissue: in this regard brain endogenous chemokines represent key molecules that play a role in brain development, neurogenesis, neurotransmission and neuroprotection. As important regulators of peripheral immune response, chemokines are molecules of the immune system that play a central role in coordinating communication between the nervous and the immune systems, in the context of infections and brain injury. Indeed, in phatological processes resulting from infections, brain trauma, ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases, chemokines represent important neuroinflammatory mediators that drive leucocytes trafficking into the central nervous system, facilitating an immune response by targeting cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. The third edition of the international conference "Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in the Nervous System", hold in Rome in October 2013, represented an exciting platform to promote discussion among researchers in different disciplines to understand the role of chemokines in brain homoestasis. This Frontiers Research Topic arises from this conference, and wants to be an opportunity to further discuss and highlight the importance of brain chemokines as key molecules that, not only grant the interplay between the immune and the nervous systems, but in addition drive modulatory functions on brain homeoastasis orchestrating neurons, microglia, and astrocytes communication.

Minding Glial Cells in the Novel Understandings of Mental Illness

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451579 Year: Pages: 275 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-157-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Traditionally, abnormalities of neurons and neuronal networks including synaptic abnormalities and disturbance of neurotransmitters have dominantly been believed to be the main causes of psychiatric disorders. Recent cellular neuroscience has revealed various unknown roles of glial cells such as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia. These glial cells have proved to continuously contact with neurons /synapses, and have been shown to play important roles in brain development, homeostasis and various brain functions. Beyond the classic neuronal doctrine, accumulating evidence has suggested that abnormalities and disturbances of neuron-glia crosstalk may induce psychiatric disorders, while these mechanisms have not been well understood. This Research Topic of the Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience will focus on the most recent developments and ideas in the study of glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia) focusing on psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mood disorders and autism. Not only molecular, cellular and pharmacological approaches using in vitro / in vivo experimental methods but also translational research approaches are welcome. Novel translational research approaches, for example, using novel techniques such as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, may lead to novel solutions. We believe that investigations to clarify the correlation between glial cells and psychiatric disorders contribute to a novel understanding of the pathophysiology of these disorders and the development of effective treatment strategies.

Listing 1 - 10 of 13 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Narrow your search