Search results: Found 4

Listing 1 - 4 of 4
Sort by
Chemokines and chemokine receptors in brain homeostasis

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196166 Year: Pages: 124 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-616-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Virtually involved in all pathologies that present an inflammatory component, it is now evident that, in the central nervous system, chemokines and chemokine receptors possess pleiotropic properties beyond chemotaxis: costitutive brain expression of chemokines and their receptors on endothelial cells, but also on neurons and glia, suggests a role for such molecules in mediating homeostatic cross-talk between cells of the brain perenchyma. Cross-talk between neurons and glia is determinant to the establishment and maintenance of a brain enviroment that ensure normal function, and in particular glial cells are active players that respond to enviromental changes and act for the survival, growth, differentiation and repair of the nervous tissue: in this regard brain endogenous chemokines represent key molecules that play a role in brain development, neurogenesis, neurotransmission and neuroprotection. As important regulators of peripheral immune response, chemokines are molecules of the immune system that play a central role in coordinating communication between the nervous and the immune systems, in the context of infections and brain injury. Indeed, in phatological processes resulting from infections, brain trauma, ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases, chemokines represent important neuroinflammatory mediators that drive leucocytes trafficking into the central nervous system, facilitating an immune response by targeting cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. The third edition of the international conference "Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in the Nervous System", hold in Rome in October 2013, represented an exciting platform to promote discussion among researchers in different disciplines to understand the role of chemokines in brain homoestasis. This Frontiers Research Topic arises from this conference, and wants to be an opportunity to further discuss and highlight the importance of brain chemokines as key molecules that, not only grant the interplay between the immune and the nervous systems, but in addition drive modulatory functions on brain homeoastasis orchestrating neurons, microglia, and astrocytes communication.

Filamentous Bacteriophage in Bio/Nano/Technology, Bacterial Pathogenesis and Ecology

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450954 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-095-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Filamentous phage (genus Inovirus) infect almost invariably Gram-negative bacteria. They are distinguished from all other bacteriophage not only by morphology, but also by the mode of their assembly, a secretion-like process that does not kill the host. “Classic” Escherichia coli filamentous phage Ff (f1, fd and M13) are used in display technology and bio/nano/technology, whereas filamentous phage in general have been put to use by their bacterial hosts for adaptation to environment, pathogenesis, biofilm formation, horizontal gene transfer and modulating genome stability. Many filamentous phage have a “symbiotic” life style that is often manifested by inability to form plaques, preventing their identification by standard phage-hunting techniques; while the absence or very low sequence conservation between phage infecting different species often complicates their identification through bioinformatics. Nevertheless, the number of discovered filamentous phage is increasing rapidly, along with realization of their significance. “Temperate” filamentous phage whose genomes are integrated into the bacterial chromosome of pathogenic bacteria often modulate virulence of the host. The Vibrio cholerae phage CTXf genome encodes cholera toxin, whereas many filamentous prophage influence virulence without encoding virulence factors. The nature of their effect on the bacterial pathogenicity and overall physiology is the next frontier in understanding intricate relationship between the filamentous phage and their hosts. Phage display has been widely used as a combinatorial technology of choice for discovery of therapeutic antibodies and peptide leads that have been applied in the vaccine design, diagnostics and drug development or targeting over the past thirty years. Virion proteins of filamentous phage are integral membrane proteins prior to assembly; hence they are ideal for display of bacterial surface and secreted proteins. The use of this technology at the scale of microbial community has potential to identify host-interacting proteins of uncultivable or low-represented community members. Recent applications of Ff filamentous phage extend into protein evolution, synthetic biology and nanotechnology. In many applications, phage serves as a monodisperse long-aspect nano-scaffold of well-defined shape. Chemical or chenetic modifications of this scaffold are used to introduce the necessary functionalities, such as fluorescent labels, ligands that target specific proteins, or peptides that promote formation of inorganic or organic nanostructures. We anticipate that the future holds development of new strategies for particle assembly, site-specific multi-functional modifications and improvement of existing modification strategies. These improvements will render the production of filamentous-phage-templated materials safe and affordable, allowing their applications outside of the laboratory.

Immunotherapy for Tumor in the Brain: Insights From - and For - Other Tumor Sites

Author:
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455355 Year: Pages: 95 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-535-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Tumor immunotherapy has now shown its promise for many, its disappointments and failings for others. Going forward, brain tumor patients can both benefit and contribute.Tumor immunotherapy is steadily progressing. As experience accumulates, it is important to consider its generality. The reviews herein emphasize the brain’s place among other tumor sites. Two major topics are addressed.THE SITE: WHAT CAN WE EXPECT FROM IMMUNOTHERAPY WHEN THE TARGET IS IN THE BRAIN?Experience with immunotherapy for different targets in the brain, including tumor and also pathogens, is reviewed. Long-standing assumptions are confronted. The potential for beneficial responses is stressed.BRAIN TUMOR IMMUNOTHERAPY: WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED SO FAR?Clinical experience with brain tumor immunotherapy, from a variety of centers, is reviewed. Primary tumors, emphasizing glioblastoma, and brain metastases are each considered.

Transcriptional Regulation: Molecules, Involved Mechanisms and Misregulation

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039212651 / 9783039212668 Year: Pages: 356 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-266-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Transcriptional regulation is a critical biological process involved in the response of a cell, a tissue or an organism to a variety of intra- and extra-cellular signals. Besides, it controls the establishment and maintenance of cell identity throughout developmental and differentiation programs. This highly complex and dynamic process is orchestrated by a huge number of molecules and protein networks and occurs through multiple temporal and functional steps. Of note, many human disorders are characterized by misregulation of global transcription since most of the signaling pathways ultimately target components of transcription machinery. This book includes a selection of papers that illustrate recent advances in our understanding of transcriptional regulation and focuses on many important topics, from cis-regulatory elements to transcription factors, chromatin regulators and non-coding RNAs, other than several transcriptome studies and computational analyses.

Keywords

major depressive disorder --- glioblastoma --- differentially expressed genes --- transcriptomics --- common pathway --- mouse --- miR-25-3p --- Akt1 --- AP-2? --- promoter --- cell metabolism --- p57Kip2 --- CDKN1C --- epigenetics --- disease --- cell differentiation --- placenta --- long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) --- human --- pregnancy --- high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) --- transcriptome --- Rsh regulon --- Novosphingobium pentaromativorans US6-1 --- sphingomonads --- RNA-seq --- N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone --- ppGpp --- selenium --- selenocysteine --- selenoproteins --- selenocysteine insertion sequence --- nonsense-mediated decay --- G-quadruplex --- transcriptional regulation --- promoter --- CRISPR/Cas9 --- PRDM gene family --- TCGA data analysis --- somatic mutations --- transcriptome profiling --- human malignancies --- tristetraprolin (TTP) --- tumorigenesis --- posttranscriptional regulation --- adenosine and uridine-rich elements (AREs) --- circRNA-disease associations --- pathway --- heterogeneous network --- Patau Syndrome --- cytogenetics --- FOXO1 --- transcription factor --- molecular pathways --- bioinformatics --- molecular docking --- and drug design --- transcription regulation --- gene expression --- causal inference --- enhancer activity --- insect --- transcription factors --- structures and functions --- research methods --- progress and prospects --- Pax3 --- Pteria penguin (Röding, 1798) --- tyrosinase --- melanin --- RNA interference --- liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) --- epigenetics --- gene expression --- nutrition --- transcription --- disorders --- mechanisms --- Crassostrea gigas --- Pacific oyster --- pediveliger larvae --- bioadhesive --- transcriptome --- gene expression --- interactome --- microscopy --- fertilization --- self-incompatibility --- transcriptome --- tea --- long non-coding RNAs --- cancer --- acute leukemia --- therapeutic targets --- Adiponectin --- cancer --- Adiponectin receptors --- obesity --- inflammatory response --- inflammation --- nutritional status --- n/a

Listing 1 - 4 of 4
Sort by
Narrow your search