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Fire Regimes: Spatial and Temporal Variability and Their Effects on Forests

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038423904 9783038423911 Year: Pages: VIII, 424 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-391-1
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-02 09:58:44
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Fire regimes (occurrence, cycle, severity, size, etc.) are key factors in many forest ecosystems, as they are often critical drivers of forest composition, dynamics, and ecosystem processes. Fire regimes vary in space and time according to climatic, physical and biological factors. A better understanding of the interacting factors controlling fire regimes may contribute to improving fire and forest management and their future projection in the context of global change. Knowledge of how fire regimes affect natural landscapes is also used in forestry as a template to manage the forest for wood production. This approach, keeping biodiversity and ecological processes associated with natural fire regimes, may also help in maintaining forest productivity and resilience in the face of climate change. This Special Issue aims to synthesize current understanding of factors affecting fire regime characteristics, to present recent research on fire regimes and their effects on forest ecosystems, and to illustrate how this knowledge could be translated into forest or fire management strategies in the context of global change.

Tropical Forest Ecosystem Responses to Increasing Nutrient Availability

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452279 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-227-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Geography --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Deforestation and land use change have led to a strong reduction of tropical forest cover during the last decades. Climate change will amplify the pressure to the remaining refuges in the next years. In addition, tropical regions are facing increasing atmospheric inputs of nutrients, which will have unknown consequences for the structure and functioning of these systems, no matter if they are within protected areas or not. Even remote areas are expected to receive rising amounts of nutrients. The effects of higher rates of atmospheric nutrient deposition on the biological diversity and ecosystem functioning of tropical ecosystems are poorly understood and our knowledge of nutrient fluxes and nutrient limitation in tropical forest ecosystems is still limited. Yet, it will be of paramount importance to know the effects of increased nutrient availability to conserve these ecosystems with their biological and functional diversity. During the last years, research efforts have more and more focused on the understanding of the role of nutrients in tropical ecosystems and several coordinated projects have been established that study the effects of experimental nutrient addition. This Research Topic combines results from experiments and from observational studies with the aim to review and conclude on our current knowledge on the role of additional nutrients in ecosystems.

Nutrient Cycling and Plant Nutrition in Forest Ecosystems

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038423850 9783038423843 Year: Pages: XII, 252 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-30 09:18:22
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Nutrient cycling is essential for maintaining nutrient supply to forest plants and for enhancing forest productivity. Nutrient cycling is also strongly linked to greenhouse gas emissions and thus to global climate change. Nutrient cycling and plant nutrition can be severely affected by anthropogenic and natural disturbance regimes. This Special Issue will provide an avenue to publish recent progress on research on nutrient cycling and plant nutrition in forest ecosystems and how nutrient cycling and plant nutrition are affected by disturbance regimes such as harvesting, atmospheric deposition and climate change.

Global Change, Clonal Growth, and Biological Invasions by Plants

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450466 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-046-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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There are few more active frontiers in plant science than helping understand and predict the ecological consequences of on-going, global changes in climate, land use and cover, nutrient cycling, and acidity. This collection of research papers and reviews focuses on how these changes are likely to interact with two important factors, clonal growth in plants and the introduction of species into new regions by humans, to reshape the ecology of our world. Clonal growth is vegetative reproduction in which offspring remain attached to the parent at least until establishment. Clonal growth is associated with the invasiveness of introduced species, their tendency to spread after introduction and negatively affect other species. Will changes in climate, land cover, or nutrients further increase biological invasions by introduced, clonal plants? The articles in this book seek to address this question with new research and theory on clonal growth and its interactions with invasiveness and other components of global change.

Urban Land and Sustainable Development

ISBN: 9783038422617 9783038422600 Year: Pages: XVI, 368 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-28 09:15:21
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According to the 2014 revision of the World Urbanization Prospects by UN DESA, urbanization could add another 2.5 billion people to urban population by 2050, with close to 90 percent of the increase concentrated in Asia and Africa. This unprecedented increase in urban population not only poses challenges to providing jobs, housing, and infrastructure, but also exerts an increased pressure on urban land and sustainability. As land is a vital yet limited resource, sustainable management of urban land to cater the needs of this growing urban population is seen as one of the key challenges for achieving an economically efficient, socially equitable, and environmentally safe society. A key tenet for sustainable economic development and smart growth is promoting equitable sustainable urban land development and mitigating land use conflicts.While a large body of literature has dealt with both land use and sustainable development, the study of the interactive effects of these two remains limited. We need more sophisticated empirical studies examining processes, mechanisms, institutions, equity, and sustainability of urban land use. This book is based on a Special Issue published in Sustainability, and examines patterns, structure, and dynamics of urban land development and sustainability from multiple perspectives, in various contexts and at multiple dimensions (economic, social, political, developmental, and environmental, etc.). The research articles examine urban land development and sustainability arising from globalization, urbanization and institutional change.We have drawn papers from both developed and developing countries, with a focus on China due to the rapid rate of urbanization and change there. This book includes 14 articles, with various research emphases, methodologies and study areas, reflecting the inter-disciplinarily that characterizes urban and land use studies. The book has examined patterns and processes of urban land expansion and sprawl, and also studies new dimensions of urban space, including social media. These papers can provide us insights into the underlying structure and mechanisms of urban land expansion, and open new frontiers on the effects of urban land development on both the natural and human environments. We hope that this book will contribute to the understanding of urban land use patterns and processes, and their implications for sustainable development.

Remote Sensing of Environmental Changes in Cold Regions

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783039215706 9783039215713 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-571-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This Special Issue gathers papers reporting recent advances in the remote sensing of cold regions. It includes contributions presenting improvements in modeling microwave emissions from snow, assessment of satellite-based sea ice concentration products, satellite monitoring of ice jam and glacier lake outburst floods, satellite mapping of snow depth and soil freeze/thaw states, near-nadir interferometric imaging of surface water bodies, and remote sensing-based assessment of high arctic lake environment and vegetation recovery from wildfire disturbances in Alaska. A comprehensive review is presented to summarize the achievements, challenges, and opportunities of cold land remote sensing.

Gas Hydrate: Environmental and Climate Impacts

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039218448 9783039218455 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-845-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This Special Issue reports research spanning from the analysis of indirect data, modeling, and laboratory and geological data confirming the intrinsic multidisciplinarity of gas hydrate studies. The study areas are (1) Arctic, (2) Brazil, (3) Chile, and (4) the Mediterranean region. The results furnished an important tessera of the knowledge about the relationship of a gas hydrate system with other complex natural phenomena such as climate change, slope stability and earthquakes, and human activities.

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