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Biofuels and Biochemicals Production

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ISBN: 9783038425540 9783038425557 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-555-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-10 12:39:10
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The high demand and depletion of petroleum reserves and the associated impact on the environment, together with volatility in the energy market price over the past three decades, have led to tremendous efforts in bio-based research activities, especially in biofuels and biochemicals. Most people associate petroleum with gasoline, however, approximately 6000 petroleum-derived products are available on the market today. Ironically, these petroleum-derived products have not elicited a high level of interest among the populace and media due, in part, to little awareness of the origins of these important products. Given the finite nature of petroleum, it is critical to devote substantial amounts of energy and resources on the development of renewable chemicals, as is currently done for fuels. Theoretically, the bioproduction of gasoline-like fuels and the 6000 petroleum-derived products are within the realm of possibility since our aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems contain abundant and diverse microorganisms capable of catalyzing unlimited numbers of reactions. Moreover, the fields of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering have evolved to the point that a wide range of microorganisms can be enticed or manipulated to catalyze foreign, or improve indigenous, biosynthetic reactions. To increase the concentration of products of interest and to ensure consistent productivity and yield, compatible fermentation processes must be used. Greater agricultural and chemical production during the past three decades, due in part to population increase and industrialization, has generated increasing levels of waste, which must be treated prior to discharge into waterways or wastewater treatment plants. Thus, in addition to the need to understand the physiology and metabolism of microbial catalysts of biotechnological significance, development of cost-effective fermentation strategies to produce biofuels and chemicals of interests while generating minimal waste, or better yet, converting waste into value-added products, is crucial. In this Special Issue, we invite authors to submit original research and review articles that increase our understanding of fermentation technology vis-à-vis production of liquid biofuels and biochemicals, and fermentation strategies that alleviate product toxicity to the fermenting microorganism while enhancing productivity. Further, original research articles and reviews focused on anaerobic digestion, production of gaseous biofuels, fermentation optimization using modelling and simulations, metabolic engineering, or development of tailor-made fermentation processes are welcome.

Catalytic Processes for The Valorisation of Biomass Derived Molecules

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ISBN: 9783039219148 / 9783039219155 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-915-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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In the last decades, inedible lignocellulosic biomasses have attracted significant attention for being abundant resources that are not in competition with agricultural land or food production and, therefore, can be used as starting renewable material for the production of a wide variety of platform chemicals. The three main components of lignocellulosic biomasses are cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, complex biopolymers that can be converted into a pool of platform molecules including sugars, polyols, alchols, ketons, ethers, acids and aromatics. Various technologies have been explored for their one-pot conversion into chemicals, fuels and materials. However, in order to develop new catalytic processes for the selective production of desired products, a complete understanding of the molecular aspects of the basic chemistry and reactivity of biomass derived molecules is still crucial. This Special Issue reports on recent progress and advances in the catalytic valorization of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin model molecules promoted by novel heterogeneous systems for the production of energy, fuels and chemicals.

Plant Innate Immunity 2.0

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ISBN: 9783038975809 Year: Pages: 386 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-581-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Plants possess a rather complex and efficient immune system. During their evolutionary history, plants have developed various defense strategies in order to recognize and distinguishing between self and non-self, and face pathogens and animal pests. Accordingly, to study the plant innate immunity represents a new frontier in the plant pathology and crop protection fields. This book is structured in 6 sections. The first part introduces some basic and general aspects of the plant innate immunity and crop protection. Sections 2–5 focus on fungal and oomycete diseases (section 2), bacterial and phytoplasma diseases (section 3), virus diseases (section 4), and insect pests (section 5), with a number of case studies and plant–pathogen/pest interactions. The last section deals with plant disease detection and control. The book aims to highlight new trends in these relevant areas of plant sciences, providing a global perspective that is useful for future and innovative ideas.

Keywords

dieback --- disease management --- Lasiodiplodia theobromae --- mango --- pathogenicity --- Bromoviridae --- plant–virus interactions --- plant defense response --- Prune dwarf virus --- replication process --- systemic and local movement --- plant proteases --- plant immunity --- MTI --- ETI --- SAR --- ISR --- RNA silencing --- RTNLB --- Agrobacterium --- biotic stress responses --- calcium --- calcium signature --- calmodulin --- CMLs --- CDPKs --- plant immunity --- symbiosis --- cell wall --- cellulose synthase --- hypersensitive response --- pathogenesis related-protein 2 --- plant-virus interaction --- Potato virus Y --- ultrastructure --- aphid resistance --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- hydroperoxide lyase --- Macrosiphum euphorbiae --- Myzus persicae --- Solanum lycopersicum --- ?-3 fatty acid desaturase --- Arabidopsis --- azelaic acid --- glycerol-3-phosphate --- light dependent signalling --- methyl salicylate --- N-hydroxypipecolic acid --- pipecolic acid --- salicylic acid --- SAR signalling --- spectral distribution of light --- tobacco --- rice --- Chilo suppressalis --- mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 --- jasmonic acid --- salicylic acid --- ethylene --- herbivore-induced defense response --- downy mildew --- grapevine --- PRRs --- PTI --- VaHAESA --- bismerthiazol --- rice --- induced defense responses --- chemical elicitors --- Sogatella furcifera --- defense-related signaling pathways --- tomato gray mold --- tomato leaf mold --- Bacillus subtilis --- biological control --- Capsicum annuum --- Ralstonia solanacearum --- CaWRKY40b --- immunity --- negative regulator --- transcriptional modulation --- Capsicum annuum --- CaWRKY22 --- immunity --- Ralstonia Solanacearum --- WRKY networks --- metabolomics --- plant defence --- plant–microbe interactions --- priming --- pre-conditioning --- citrus decline disease --- Citrus sinensis --- Bakraee --- “Candidatus Liberibacter” --- “Candidatus Phytoplasma” --- microbiota --- innate immunity --- basal defense --- rice blast --- Magnaporthe oryzae --- proteomics --- iTRAQ --- candidate disease resistance gene --- disease resistance --- downy mildew --- garden impatiens --- leaf transcriptome --- New Guinea impatiens --- RNA-Seq --- polyphenol oxidase --- Camellia sinensis --- Ectropis obliqua --- wounding --- regurgitant --- rice --- OsGID1 --- gibberellin --- herbivore-induced plant defenses --- Nilaparvata lugens --- plant protection products --- agrochemicals --- sustainable crop protection --- food security

Polymer Clay Nano-composites

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ISBN: 9783039216529 / 9783039216536 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-653-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This Special Issue focuses on the current state-of-the-art of “Polymer Clay Nano-Composites” for biomedical, anticorrosion, antibacterial, and other applications. Clay–polymer composite nanomaterials represent an emerging area of research. Loading polymers with clay particles essentially enhances the composite strength features. Of particular interest are different nano-assembly methods, such as silane mono and multilayers, polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer assembly, and others. An important development was reached for tubular and fibrous clay nanoparticles, such as halloysite, sepiolite, and imogolite. Polymer clay nanoparticles can be prepared as sheets with 1-nm thickness and width of a few hundred nm (e.g., kaolin and montmorillonite). Fibrous clays significantly reinforce the nano-composites in the assembly with biopolymers and other green polymers, leading to functional hybrid bio nano-composites. The scope of this Special Issue comprehensively includes the synthesis and characterization of polymer clay nano-composites used for several applications, including nano-clay polymer composites and hybrid nano-assemblies.

Keywords

polyimide --- graphene oxide --- composite --- mechanical properties --- indentation recovery --- AFM --- carbon fibers --- surface grafting --- halloysite nanotubes --- polymer composites --- interface --- fish gelatin --- halloysite nanotubes --- glycerol --- mechanical properties --- water resistance --- LAP --- hyaluronic acid --- doxorubicin --- CD44 receptor targeted --- sacrificial bond --- ionic network --- organic montmorillonite --- 1,2-polybutadiene --- in-situ intercalation --- clay–polymer nanocomposites --- atrazine --- radical polymerization --- hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide --- phenyltrimethylammonium chloride --- FTIR --- TGA --- adsorption --- dental resins --- nanocomposite materials --- organically modified clays --- montmorillonite --- intercalation --- nanotechnology --- ammonium persulfate --- fuzzy optimization --- N,N?-methylenebisacrylamide --- Pareto set --- polyacrylic acid --- swelling capacity --- variable cost --- polyethylene oxide --- montmorillonite clays --- Pd catalysis --- catalytic composite --- positron annihilation --- doubly functionalized montmorillonite --- polystyrene --- soap-free emulsion polymerization --- thermal stability --- tribological property --- organo-clays --- polyamines --- clay-amine interaction mechanisms --- structure effects --- la uptake and release --- layered silicate --- sericite --- CTAB --- intercalation stability --- nanocomposites --- gelation kinetics --- sol–gel transition --- water shutoff --- silica sol --- cellulose nanofibrils --- halloysite nanotubes --- supercritical CO2 --- polystyrene foam --- blowing agent --- in situ polymerization --- attapulgite/polypyrrole nanocomposite --- halloysite nanotubes --- polysaccharide --- interfacial interactions --- reinforcing --- adsorption --- dispersion --- coatings --- whey protein isolate --- nanocomposites --- nanoclay, barrier --- morphology --- n/a

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