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Glycosaminoglycans and Proteoglycans

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ISBN: 9783038428350 9783038428367 Year: Pages: XVI, 230 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-04 13:46:48
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Proteoglycans (PGs) are glycoconjugates in which a protein or peptide core is substituted with polysaccharide chains known as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The GAG sidechains carry a significant proportion of the functionality of PGs, interacting with many proteins to form structural units in the extracellular matrix and to modulate the transport and signalling of small proteins acting as morphogens, growth factors and cytokines. Purified GAGs such as heparin and hyaluronan are in common use as therapeutic agents, with many more PG-based natural products, synthetic and semi-synthetic mimetics on the way; in addition, potential therapeutic strategies involving PG/GAG biosynthesis and degradation as targets are currently in development.

Carbohydrates: The yet to be tasted sweet spot of immunity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196258 Year: Pages: 93 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-625-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Carbohydrates are extremely abundant bio-molecules; they are on all mammalian cell surfaces as well as on bacterial cell surfaces. In mammals most secreted proteins are glycosylated, with the glycan component comprising a significant amount by mass of the glycoprotein. Although, many years ago carbohydrate-protein recognition events were demonstrated as involved in invertebrate self-non self recognition, the contribution of carbohydrate-protein binding events to the mechanisms of the mammalian immune response was not embraced with the same enthusiasm. Adaptive immunity and the contribution of antibodies, T cells and T-lymphocyte sub-sets and protein antigen presentation dominated immunological theory. Unlike protein structures, carbohydrate structures are not template driven yet the numerous enzymes involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis and modification are encoded by a major component of the genome, and the expression of these enzymes is tightly regulated. As a consequence carbohydrate structures are also regulated, with different structures appearing according to the stage of cell differentiation and according to the age or health of the individual. The advent of technologies that have allowed carbohydrate structures and carbohydrate-protein binding events to be more easily interrogated has resulted in these types of interactions taking their place in modern immunology. We now know that glycans and their ligands (or lectins) are involved in numerous immunological pathways of both the innate and adaptive systems. However, it is clear that our understanding is still in its infancy, as more and more examples where carbohydrate structures contribute to aspects of the immune response are being recognised. The goal of this research topic is to explore the variety of roles undertaken by glycans and lectins in all aspects of the immune response. The particular focus is how the interactions of glycans with their ligands contribute to the mechanism of immune responses.

Regulation of Chemokine- Receptor Interactions and Functions

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ISBN: 9783038427285 9783038427278 Year: Pages: 228 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-26 15:44:06
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A hallmark of inflammation is the accumulation of leukocytes, which can serve to remove pathogens and necrotic tissue, but may also damage healthy tissue and exacerbate the inflammatory response. Our understanding of leukocyte recruitment in inflammation was revolutionized in the late 1980s by the discovery of chemokines (chemotactic cytokines), a family of small, secreted proteins that induce migration of selective subsets of leukocytes. Shortly afterwards, chemokines were found to exert their functions through the now familiar chemokine receptors, members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. As their physiological and pathological functions were elucidated, chemokine receptors have become popular targets for drug development in inflammatory diseases as well as cancer metastasis and HIV infection. Extensive research has revealed that the functions of chemokines and their receptors are regulated at numerous levels, including: genetic mutations/polymorphisms; control of expression levels; ligand internalization via functional or decoy receptors; intrinsic selectivity of chemokine-receptor binding; hetero- or homo-oligomerization of chemokines or of receptors; alternative signalling pathways; interaction of chemokines with glycosaminoglycans; post-translational modifications; and binding to pathogen-derived inhibitors. This Special Issue of IJMS focused on the natural and pharmacological mechanisms by which the activities of chemokines and their receptors can be regulated.

Marine Glycobiology, Glycomics and Lectins

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ISBN: 9783039218202 / 9783039218219 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-821-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:39:37
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Glycans (carbohydrate chains) of marine creatures are rich and diverse in polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids. The chains that are metabolized by glycan-related enzymes (glycosyltransferases and glycosidases) are recognized by glycan-binding proteins (lectins) which regulate cellular processes such as growth, differentiation, and death. Marine glycomics that involves the genome and transcriptome accelerates our understanding of the evolution of glycans, glycan-related enzymes, and lectins. From 2017 to 2019, the Special Issue “Marine Glycobiology, Glycomics and Lectins” of the journal Marine Drugs published scientific articles and reviews, on the background of “glycobiology”—that is, glycan-based biosciences. The aim was to promote the discovery of novel biomolecules that contribute to drug development and clinical studies. This has great potential for establishing connections between the fields of both human health and marine life sciences.This book contains 11 scientific papers representing current topics in comprehensive glycosciences related to therapeutic agents from marine natural products, as outlined.

Biocatalysis and Pharmaceuticals: A Smart Tool for Sustainable Development

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ISBN: 9783039217083 / 9783039217090 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-709-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Biocatalysis, that is, the use of biological catalysts (enzymes, cells, etc.) for the preparation of highly valuable compounds is undergoing a great development, being considered an extremely sustainable approach to undertaking environmental demands. In this scenario, this book illustrates the versatility of applied biocatalysis for the preparation of drugs and other bioactive compounds through the presentation of different research articles and reviews, in which several authors describe the most recent developments in this appealing scientific area. By reading the excellent contributions gathered in this book, it is possible to have an updated idea about new advances and possibilities for a new exciting future.

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