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Marine Biomolecules

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196616 Year: Pages: 97 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-661-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Abstract

Oceans include the greatest extremes of pressure, temperature and light, and habitats can range from tropical waters to ocean trenches, several kilometers below sea level at high pressure. With its 70% of the surface of our planet marine ecosystem still remains largely unexplored, understudied and underexploited in comparison with terrestrial ecosystems, organisms and bioprocesses. The biological adaptation of marine organisms to a wide range of environmental conditions in the specific environment (temperature, salinity, tides, pressure, radiation, light, etc.) has made them an enormous reservoir of interesting biological material for both basic research and biotechnological improvements. As a consequence marine ecosystem is valued as a source of enzymes and other biomolecules exhibiting new functions and activities to fulfill human needs. Indeed, in recent years it has been recognised as an untapped source of novel enzymes and metabolites even though, with regard to the assignment of precise biological functions to genes, proteins and enzymes, it is still considered as the least developed. Using metagenomics to recover genetic material directly from environmental samples, this biogenetic diversification can be accessed but despite the contributions from metagenomic technologies the new field requires major improvements. A few words on the complexity of marine environments should be added here. This complexity ranges from symbiotic relationships to biology and chemistry of defence mechanisms and from chemoecology of marine invasions up to the strategies found in prokaryotes to adapt to extreme environments. The interdisciplinary study of this complexity will enable researchers to find an arsenal of enzymes and pathways greatly demanded in biotechnological applications. As far as marine enzymes are concerned they may carry novel chemical and stereochemical properties, thus biocatalytically oriented studies (testing of suitable substrates, appropriate checking of reaction conditions, study of stereochemical asset of catalysis) should be performed to appropriately reveal this “chemical biodiversity” which increases interest for these enzymes. Among other biomolecules, polysaccharides are the most abundant renewable biomaterial found on land and in oceans. Their molecular diversity is very interesting; except polysaccharides used traditionally in food and non-food industries, the structure and the functionality of most of them are unknown and unexplored. Brown seaweeds synthesize unique bioactive polysaccharides: laminarans, alginic acids and fucoidans. A wide range of biological activities (anticoagulant, antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammation, etc.) have been attributed to fucoidans and their role with respect to structure-activity relationship is still under debate. In this Research Topic, we wish to centralize and review contributions, idea and comments related to the issues above. In particular results of enzymatic bioprospecting in gross marine environment will be acknowledged along with research for structural characterization and biological function of biomolecules such as marine polysaccharides and all kind of research related to the complexity of bioprocesses in marine environments. Inter- and multi-disciplinary approach to this field is favoured in this Research Topic and could greatly be facilitated by the web and open access nature as well.

Marine Glycosides

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ISBN: 9783038979029 9783038979036 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-903-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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In recent years, there has been a steady increase in the publication of papers on the chemistry, biology, and potential clinical uses of marine glycosides. Indeed, more than half of the papers published in this field are less than a decade old. Glycosides have been isolated from species as diverse as algae, fungi, anthozoans, and echinoderms. Even fish of the genus Pardachirus produce glycosides, which they use as shark repellents.The major interest in these compounds as potential drugs stems from their broad spectrum of biological effects. They have been shown to have antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, immune modulatory, and anticancer effects. The anticancer effects of marine glycosides include cell cycle suppression, the induction of apoptosis, and the inhibition of migration, invasion, and metastasis, as well as antiangiogenesis. Marine glycosides influence membrane permeability and have been shown to influence membrane transport at the molecular level through effects on transport carriers and pumps, as well as effects on ligand-gated and voltage-gated channels. Various marine glycosides have been shown to activate sphingomyelinase and ceramide synthesis, to inhibit topoisomerase activity, receptor tyrosine kinase activity, and multidrug resistance protein activity, and to antagonize eicosanoid receptors.This Special Issue covers the entire scope of marine organism-derived glycosides that are of potential value as pharmaceutical agents or leads. These include, but are not limited to, tetracyclic triterpene glycosides, other triterpene glycosides, steroid glycosides, and glycosides of non-isoprenoid aglycones.

New Approaches for the Discovery of Pharmacologically-Active Natural Compounds

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ISBN: 9783039211043 / 9783039211050 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-105-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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A major source of active compounds, natural products from different sources supply a large variety of molecules that have been approved for clinical use or used as the starting points of optimization programs. This book features nine papers (eight full articles and one review paper) written by more than 45 scientists from around the world. These papers illustrate the development and application of a broad range of computational and experimental techniques applied to natural product research. On behalf of the contributors to the book, our hope is that the research presented here contributes to advancements in the field, and encourages multidisciplinary teams, young scientists, and students to further advance in the discovery of pharmacologically-active natural compounds

Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Bioactive Compounds (Dedicated to the memory of the late Professor Charles D. Hufford)

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ISBN: 9783038977803 9783038977810 Year: Pages: 276 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-781-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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We are very pleased to introduce the Book Version of our Special Issue in Molecules dedicated to the memory of the late Professor Dr. Charles D. Hufford. The issue has been a huge success, with 22 full-length peer-reviewed papers and a tribute by Professor Alice M.Clark. Authors, reviewers, and collaborators from many countries across the worldhave contributed to this endeavour, and we are truly grateful to all. This Special Issue isrepresentative of the broad impact that “Charlie” had on the field of bioactive naturalproducts. This Special Issue comprises papers from Professor Hufford’s former students,colleagues, and collaborators throughout the world who have utilized a wide array ofstate-of-the-art techniques to examine diverse natural sources to isolate and identify avariety of natural products with a wide spectrum of biological activities, including somenew microbial transformations and insights into bioactive molecules. Many new bioactive compounds are described and reported here for the first time. Bioactivities reportedinclude cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, anti-inflammatory activity, antileishmanialactivity, antitrypanosomal activity, antimalarial activity, analgesic activity, and beneficialliver activities, just to name a few. This Special Issue will undoubtedly have a lasting impact on the field of bioactive natural products, as exemplified by the career of Dr. Hufford.Lastly, without the timely and outstanding contributions from all of you, this Special Issue would not have been possible. We thank you all very much for your contributions and your time devoted to this Special Issue in memory of a special person. Finally, we express ourgratitude and thanks to the journal Molecules and their excellent team of expert reviewers for giving us the support and opportunity to make this Special Issue a huge success!

Keywords

fusidic acid --- Cunninghamella echinulata --- C-26-oxidation --- C-27-oxidation --- Morus alba L. --- aldose reductase inhibitor --- neuroprotective agent --- natural products --- Mitracarpus scaber Zucc. --- pentalogin --- anti-inflammatory --- MS/MS --- Il-8 --- Crinum amabile --- augustine N-oxide --- buphanisine N-oxide --- biological activities --- Cryptococcus neoformans --- cryptococcosis --- HepG2 --- Prosopis glandulosa --- prosopilosidine --- amphotericin B --- fluconazole --- resveratrol --- dietary supplement --- gastro-resistant --- microparticles --- obesity --- HPLC --- Jatropha pelargoniifolia --- alkaloids --- flavonoids --- coumarinolignans --- diterpenes --- anti-inflammatory --- analgesic --- antipyretic --- Cochlospermum vitifolium --- Cochlospermaceae --- flavonoids --- lignans --- aromatic compounds --- carotenoids --- sterols --- liver activity --- Arthrinium sp. --- chromone --- polyketide --- antioxidant activity --- Rubiaceae --- jenipapo --- HPLC-ESI-IT-MS/MS --- flavonoids glycosides --- Baccharis --- antimalarial activity --- antitrypanosomal activity --- insecticidal activity --- GC/MS --- DNA barcoding --- microscopy --- antibacterial --- channel catfish --- columnaris disease --- Flavobacterium columnare --- stilbenes --- muscadine --- pyranoanthocyanin --- anti-leishmanial activity --- Leishmania donovani --- maleimides --- cytotoxicity --- SAR --- phlorogluciniol --- acylphloroglucinol --- anti-inflammatory --- iNOS --- NF-?B --- endophytic fungi --- sesterterpene --- cytotoxic activity --- pancreatic cancer --- Stevia rebaudiana --- diterpene glycosides --- rebaudioside A isomers --- 13(S)-hydroxyatisenoic acid derivative --- iso-stevioside X-ray structure --- Litsea cubeba --- cytotoxicity --- isolation and elucidation --- lignans --- antimicrobial resistance --- multi-drug resistant (MDR) --- methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) --- Zingiber monatnum --- terpenes --- (E)-8(17),12-labdadiene-15,16-dial --- zerumbol --- microbial transformation --- hop prenylflavanone --- isoxanthohumol --- cardiomyogenesis --- factor VII --- factor X --- inflammation --- thrombosis --- vasculogenesis --- herbal medicine --- n/a --- Nemania --- Xylariaceae --- Torreya taxifolia --- plant pathogenic and endophytic fungi --- cytochalasins --- malaria --- cytotoxicity --- phytotoxicity --- acacetin 7-methyl ether --- acacetin --- monoamine oxidase-A --- monoamine oxidase-B --- molecular docking --- molecular dynamics --- neurological disorder --- Turnera diffusa

Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants

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ISBN: 9783039214372 / 9783039214389 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-438-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Abstract

The Special Issue “Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants” gives an updated view on antioxidants—both in their extractable and non-extractable form—in the different food groups, their products thereof, and food preparations as well as byproducts and biomass waste. The potential beneficial properties of these compounds and nutraceutical formulations are described in the various studies covered in this Special Issue.

Keywords

anthocyanins --- polyphenolic compounds --- classic extraction --- ultrasound assisted extraction --- antioxidant capacity --- daidzein --- cyclodextrin --- inclusion complex --- antioxidant activity --- trans-cinnamaldehyde --- ?-cyclodextrin --- self-inclusion --- anti-inflammation --- antioxidant --- Pleurotus ostreatus --- antioxidant activity --- polyphenols --- digestibility --- fermentation --- cereals --- legumes --- Chinese mistletoes --- phenolics --- phenolic contents --- antioxidant activity --- forest residues --- phenolic compounds --- natural antioxidants --- quercitrin --- value-added by-products --- Camellia sinensis --- black teas --- catechins --- antioxidant activity --- LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS --- principal component analysis --- extractable --- non-extractable --- antioxidant activity --- agglomerative hierarchical clustering --- principal component analysis --- multivariate analysis --- nuclear magnetic spectroscopy --- nitric oxide scavengers --- pre-column HPLC method --- Aloysia triphylla --- phenolics --- antioxidants --- dietary supplements --- botanicals --- bioactive compounds --- antioxidants --- study approach --- integrated food research --- dedicated databases --- dietary assessment. --- biorefinery --- circular economy --- grape seed --- bio-based --- chemometrics --- Cagnulari marc --- Naviglio Extractor® --- green extraction --- endothelial cell --- oxidative stress --- polyphenols --- berries jam --- phenolic acids --- flavonols glycosides --- degradation --- HPLC-ESI/MS --- antioxidant properties --- digestive enzyme --- nutrient --- polymerization --- proanthocyanidins --- eggplant --- flour --- phenolics --- antioxidant activity --- functional ingredient --- sour cherry --- anthocyanins --- extractable polyphenols --- non-extractable polyphenols --- Italian popular recipes --- food composition database --- antioxidant properties --- extractable compounds --- non-extractable compounds --- ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) --- total polyphenol content (TPC) --- n/a

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