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Microbial Ecology of Arid Terrestrial Systems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199693 Year: Pages: 127 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-969-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Water is usually referred to as the ‘Molecule of Life’. It constitutes the most abundant molecule in living (micro)organisms and is also essential for critical biochemical reactions, both for the global functioning and maintenance of Ecosystems (e.g., Photosynthesis) and individual (microbial) cells (e.g., ATP hydrolysis). However, most of Earth’s terrestrial environments present deficiencies in bioavailable water. Arid environments cover around a third of the land’s surface, are found on the six continents and, with the anthropogenic desertification phenomenon, will increase. Commonly defined by having a ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration (P/PET) below 1, arid environments, being either hot or cold, are characterized by scant and erratic plant growth and low densities in macro-fauna. Consequently, these ecosystems are microbially mediated with microbial communities particularly driving the essential Na and C biogeochemical cycles. Due to the relatively simple trophic structure of these biomes, arid terrestrial environments have subsequently been used as ideal ecosystems to capture and model interactions in edaphic microbial communities. To date, we have been able to demonstrate that edaphic microorganisms (i.e., Fungi, Bacteria, Archaea, and Viruses) in arid environments are abundant, highly diverse, different from those of other terrestrial systems (both in terms of diversity and function), and are important for the stability and productivity of these ecosystems. Moreover, arid terrestrial systems are generally considered Mars-like environments. Thus, they have been the favored destination for astro(micro)biologists aiming to better understand life’s potential distribution and adaptation strategies in the Universe and develop terraforming approaches. Altogether, these points demonstrate the importance of significantly improving our knowledge in the microbial community composition (particularly for Fungi, Archaea and Viruses), assembly processes and functional potentials of arid terrestrial systems, as well as their adaptation mechanisms to aridity (and generally to various other environmental stresses). This Research Topic was proposed to provide further insights on the microbial ecology of hot and cold arid edaphic systems. We provide a detailed review and nine research articles, spanning hot and cold deserts, edaphic, rhizospheric, BSC and endolithic environments as well as culture-dependent and -independant approaches.

Deformation Behavior of Thin Metallic Wires under Tensile and Torsional Loadings

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783731500490 Year: Volume: 26 Pages: V, 158 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000035547 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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Size effects are widely observed in the mechanics of materials at the micron scale. However, the underlying deformation mechanisms remain ambiguous, particularly in the presence of strain gradients. In this work, combined microstructural investigations and mechanical tests (tension and torsion) were conducted on polycrystalline gold micro wires to determine the influences of specimen size, grain size, strain rate and loading type on the deformation behavior of the wires.

Microbial Role in the Carbon Cycle in Tropical Inland Aquatic Ecosystems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451272 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-127-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Aquatic microorganisms are tidily related to the carbon cycle in aquatic systems, especially in respect to its accumulation and emission to atmosphere. In one hand, the autotrophs are responsible for the carbon input to the ecosystems and trophic chain. On the other hand, the heterotrophs traditionally play a role in the carbon mineralization and, since microbial loop theory, may play a role to carbon flow through the organisms. However, it is not yet clear how the heterotrophs contribute to carbon retention and emission especially from tropical aquatic ecosystems. Most of the studies evaluating the role of microbes to carbon cycle in inland waters were performed in high latitudes and only a few studies in the tropical area. In the prospective of global changes where the warm tropical lakes and rivers become even warmer, it is important to understand how microorganisms behave and interact with carbon cycle in the Earth region with highest temperature and light availability. This research topic documented microbial responses to natural latitudinal gradients, spatial within and between ecosystems gradients, temporal approaches and temperature and nutrient manipulations in the water and in the sediment.

Biological Crystallization

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ISBN: 9783039214037 / 9783039214044 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-404-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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For at least six hundred million years, life has been a fascinating laboratory of crystallization, referred to as biomineralization. During this huge lapse of time, many organisms from diverse phyla have developed the capability to precipitate various types of minerals, exploring distinctive pathways for building sophisticated structural architectures for different purposes. The Darwinian exploration was performed by trial and error, but the success in terms of complexity and efficiency is evident. Understanding the strategies that those organisms employ for regulating the nucleation, growth, and assembly of nanocrystals to build these sophisticated devices is an intellectual challenge and a source of inspiration in fields as diverse as materials science, nanotechnology, and biomedicine. However, “Biological Crystallization” is a broader topic that includes biomineralization, but also the laboratory crystallization of biological compounds such as macromolecules, carbohydrates, or lipids, and the synthesis and fabrication of biomimetic materials by different routes. This Special Issue collects 15 contributions ranging from biological and biomimetic crystallization of calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, and silica-carbonate self-assembled materials to the crystallization of biological macromolecules. Special attention has been paid to the fundamental phenomena of crystallization (nucleation and growth), and the applications of the crystals in biomedicine, environment, and materials science.

Keywords

polymyxin resistance --- colistin resistance --- MCR-1 --- protein crystal nucleation --- thermodynamic and energetic approach --- protein ‘affinity’ to water --- solubility --- balance between crystal bond energy and destructive surface energies --- supersaturation dependence of the crystal nucleus size --- ependymin (EPN) --- ependymin-related protein (EPDR) --- mammalian ependymin-related protein (MERP) --- Campylobacter consisus --- Crohn’s disease --- circular dichroism --- protein crystallization --- Csep1p --- protein crystallization --- biochemical aspects of the protein crystal nucleation --- classical and two-step crystal nucleation mechanisms --- bond selection during protein crystallization --- equilibration between crystal bond and destructive energies --- protein crystal nucleation in pores --- crystallization in solution flow --- crystallization --- microseed matrix screening --- seeding --- optimization --- human carbonic anhydrase IX --- neutron protein crystallography --- microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) --- heavy metals --- wastewater treatment --- bioprecipitation --- calcium carbonate --- drug discovery --- education --- crystallization --- crystallography --- nucleation --- micro-crystals --- agarose --- ferritin --- lysozyme --- proteinase k --- insulin --- calcium carbonate --- {00.1} calcite --- lithium ions --- ultrasonic irradiation --- vaterite transformation --- adsorption --- calcein --- crystal violet --- dyes --- diffusion --- H3O+ --- reductants --- color change --- gradients --- biomorphs --- barium carbonate --- silica --- PCDA --- pyrrole --- droplet array --- crystal growth --- calcium carbonate --- high-throughput --- biomimetic crystallization --- biomineralization --- polyacrylic acid --- Cry protein crystals --- metallothioneins --- bioremediation --- heavy metal contamination --- nanoapatites --- graphene --- crystallization --- nanocomposites --- lysozyme --- L-tryptophan --- N-acetyl-D-glucosamine --- chitosan --- MTT assay --- GTL-16 cells --- Haloalkane dehalogenase --- halide-binding site --- random microseeding --- biomineralization --- biomimetic materials --- biomorphs --- calcium carbonate --- nanoapatites --- nucleation --- growth --- crystallization of macromolecules --- bioremediation --- materials science --- biomedicine

Tropical Forest Ecology and Management for the Anthropocene

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ISBN: 9783039219643 / 9783039219650 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-965-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This Special Issue looks forward as well as backward to best analyze the forest conservation challenges of the Caribbean. This is made possible by 75 years of research and applications by the United States Department of Agriculture, International Institute of Tropical Forestry (the Institute) of Puerto Rico. It transforms Holocene-based scientific paradigms of the tropics into Anthropocene applications and outlooks of wilderness, managed forests, and urban environments. This volume showcases how the focus of the Institute’s programs is evolving to support sustainable tropical forest conservation despite uncertain conditions. The manuscripts showcased here highlight the importance of shared stewardship and a long-term, hands-on approach to conservation, research programs, and novel organizations intended to meet contemporary conservation challenges. Policies relevant to the Anthropocene, as well as the use of experiments to anticipate future responses of tropical forests to global warming, are reexamined in these pages. Urban topics include how cities can co-produce new knowledge to spark sustainable and resilient transformations. Long-term results and research applications of topics such as soil biota, migratory birds, tropical vegetation, substrate chemistry, and the tropical carbon cycle are also described in the volume. Moreover, the question of how to best use land on a tropical island is addressed. This volume is intended to be of interest to all actors involved in long-term sustainable forest management and research in light of the historical lessons and future directions that may come out of a better understanding of tropical cities and forests in the Anthropocene epoch.

Keywords

Anthropocene --- Forest Service --- vision --- contemporary conservation --- biomass --- allometry --- volume expansion factors --- soil organic carbon --- tropical forest area --- forest inventory data --- novel forests --- tree plantations --- secondary forests --- mature forests --- dry tropical forests --- humid tropical forests --- tropical deforestation --- annual cycle --- carry over effects --- climate change --- Guánica --- Nearctic-Neotropical --- novel forests --- stoichiometry of leaf litter --- nitrogen fixing trees --- naturalized species --- C/N --- C/P --- and N/P ratios --- Puerto Rico --- Caribbean --- element concentration in leaf litter --- succession --- species dominance --- tropical forests --- invertebrates --- microbiota --- soil biota --- litter --- wood --- latitude --- elevation --- disturbance --- gradients --- tropical karst --- element concentration --- N/P ratios --- Ca/Al relationship --- ?13C --- ?15N --- knowledge co-production --- idiom of co-production --- knowledge infrastructures --- knowledge systems --- knowledge systems analysis --- cities --- land use governance --- Anthropocene --- disturbance --- hurricane --- succession --- long-term --- basal area --- species composition --- trees --- tropical --- Luquillo Experimental Forest --- Caribbean --- land use planning --- tropical agriculture --- tropical forests --- geospatial analyses --- n/a --- landscape conservation --- network governance --- strategic teams --- communications --- leadership --- adaptive management --- tropical forest --- Anthropocene --- U.S. Forest Service Planning Rule --- El Yunque National Forest --- Luquillo Experimental Forest --- introduced species --- leaf C and N densities --- novel forests --- photosynthetic nitrogen use-efficiency --- leaf mass per area --- Tropical Forestry Research --- Long-Term Ecological Research --- Tropical Forest Management --- Tropical Forest Conservation --- Luquillo Experimental Forest --- tropical --- experiments --- manipulations --- large-scale --- Puerto Rico --- Caribbean --- conservation --- American tropics --- long-term ecological research --- tropical forest management --- Anthropocene --- Puerto Rico

Drug Delivery Technology Development in Canada

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ISBN: 9783039280049 / 9783039280056 Year: Pages: 352 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-005-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:21:22
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Canada continues to have a rich history of ground-breaking research in drug delivery within academic institutions, pharmaceutical industry and the biotechnology community.

Keywords

doxorubicin --- MG63 --- Vitamin D --- DOX-Vit D --- hypoxia-induced chemoresistance --- cisplatin --- polymeric micelle --- EGFR-targeted therapy --- STAT3 --- HIF-1 --- GE11 peptide --- pharmacological Inhibitors of HIF-1 and STAT3 --- combination therapy --- pharmacokinetics --- antibodies --- radiolabeling --- biodistribution --- mouse models --- oral formulation --- amphotericin B --- fungal infections --- parasitic infections --- developing world --- drug delivery --- liposomes --- drug delivery systems --- innovation --- lipid nanoparticles --- Metaplex --- triggered drug release --- liposomes --- ultrasound --- magnetic fields --- radiation --- oral delivery --- biological barriers --- co-delivery --- throughput --- sustained delivery --- phospholipid complex --- rosmarinic acid --- bioaccessibility --- dissolution --- TNO gastrointestinal model --- gastrointestinal simulator --- phytosterols --- tocopherols --- liposomes --- canola oil deodorizer distillate --- model orange juice --- virus --- plant --- bacteriophage --- phage display --- drug discovery --- encapsulation --- drug delivery --- blood-brain barrier --- intra-arterial chemotherapy --- malignant gliomas --- primary central nervous system lymphomas --- transdermal drug delivery --- Canada --- skin --- permeation enhancers --- oral, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma --- targeted therapies --- drug delivery systems --- nanoparticles --- controlled drug delivery --- circadian clock --- chronotherapy --- precision medicine --- cationic gemini surfactant --- melphalan --- inclusion complex --- ROESY NMR spectroscopy --- 3D spheroid --- drug-resistant melanoma --- liposome --- water miscible solvents --- remote loading --- staurosporine --- cancer --- gambogic acid --- loading gradients --- mefloquine --- child friendly formulation --- blood-brain barrier (BBB) --- drug delivery --- transient modulation --- HAV6 cadherin peptide --- adenanthin --- magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) --- medulloblastoma --- drug delivery --- pharmaceutics --- drug development --- formulation and dosage form development --- translational research --- biologicals --- small molecules --- clinical trials --- pharmacokinetics --- medical devices --- route of administration --- nifedipine --- emulsion --- flavonoids --- topical formulation --- quercetin --- photostabilizers

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