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Grassland-Invertebrate Interactions: Plant Productivity; Resilience and Community Dynamics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452903 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-290-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Natural and anthropogenic grasslands such as prairies, meadows, rangelands, and pastures cover more than 40% of the planet’s surface and provide a wealth of ecological services. Grasslands alone store one third of the global carbon stocks and grass roots, through their specific architectures, ensure water cycling and prevent the erosion of fertile topsoil. In addition, grasslands are of vital importance for human food production as vast areas of rangelands and pastures provide feed for livestock. Pastoral legumes mobilize atmospheric nitrogen and improve fertility of arable soils. Not least, grasslands are an essential genetic resource. The three major crop species that feed half of the global population have been bred from wild grasses. Ancestors of our contemporary turf cultivars, common components of urban landscapes and recreation spaces, originated from wild grasslands. Although natural and managed grasslands represent pivotal ecosystems, many aspects of how they function are poorly understood. To date, most attention has focused on grassland primary producers (i.e. forage plants) and mammalian grazers but invertebrates are likely to play an equally, if not more important role in grassland ecosystem functioning. In Australian pastures, for example, the biomass of root-feeding scarab beetles can often exceed that of sheep and plant damage caused by invertebrates is sometimes equivalent to an average dairy cow’s grass consumption. Indeed, grasslands are one of the most densely populated ecosystems with invertebrates being probably the most important engineers that shape both plant communities and the grassland as a whole. In a rapidly changing world with increasing anthropogenic pressure on grasslands, this Research Topic focuses on: 1. How grassland habitats shape invertebrate biodiversity2. Impacts of climate change on grassland-invertebrate interactions3. Plant and invertebrate pest monitoring and management4. Plant-mediated multitrophic interactions and biological control in grasslands5. Land use and grassland invertebrates6. Plant resistance to invertebrate pests Given the increasing demand for food and land for human habitation, unprecedented threats to grasslands are anticipated. Resilient to some extent, these key ecosystems need to be better comprehended to guarantee their sustainable management and ecosystem services.

Remote Sensing of Above Ground Biomass

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ISBN: 9783039212095 9783039212101 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-210-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Above ground biomass has been listed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change as one of the five most prominent, visible, and dynamic terrestrial carbon pools. The increased awareness of the impacts of climate change has seen a burgeoning need to consistently assess carbon stocks to combat carbon sequestration. An accurate estimation of carbon stocks and an understanding of the carbon sources and sinks can aid the improvement and accuracy of carbon flux models, an important pre-requisite of climate change impact projections. Based on 15 research topics, this book demonstrates the role of remote sensing in quantifying above ground biomass (forest, grass, woodlands) across varying spatial and temporal scales. The innovative application areas of the book include algorithm development and implementation, accuracy assessment, scaling issues (local–regional–global biomass mapping), and the integration of microwaves (i.e. LiDAR), along with optical sensors, forest biomass mapping, rangeland productivity and abundance (grass biomass, density, cover), bush encroachment biomass, and seasonal and long-term biomass monitoring.

Keywords

multi-angle remote sensing --- forest structure information --- vegetation indices --- forest biomass --- Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Factor --- biomass --- yield --- AquaCrop model --- spectral index --- particle swarm optimization --- winter wheat --- TerraSAR-X --- Landsat --- pasture biomass --- Wambiana grazing trial --- foliage projective cover --- fractional vegetation cover --- ALOS2 --- mixed forest --- biomass --- lidar --- NDVI --- grass biomass --- SPLSR --- vegetation indices --- estimation accuracy --- pasture biomass --- ground-based remote sensing --- ultrasonic sensor --- field spectrometry --- sensor fusion --- short grass --- alpine grassland conservation --- anthropogenic disturbance --- ecological policies --- climate change --- grazing exclusion --- grazing management --- regional sustainability --- rice --- biomass --- dry matter index --- chlorophyll index --- CIRed-edge --- NDLMA --- forest above ground biomass (AGB) --- random forest --- mapping --- alpine meadow grassland --- above-ground biomass --- inversion model --- error analysis --- applicability evaluation --- Land Surface Phenology --- wetlands --- above ground biomass --- NDVI --- MODIS time series --- food security --- Sahel --- Niger --- rangeland productivity --- livestock --- MODIS --- NDVI --- aboveground biomass --- Atriplex nummularia --- carbon mitigation --- carbon inventory --- forage crops --- remote sensing --- vegetation index --- stem volume --- dry biomass --- conifer --- broadleaves --- light detection and ranging (LiDAR) --- regression analysis --- correlation coefficient --- n/a

New Approaches for the Discovery of Pharmacologically-Active Natural Compounds

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ISBN: 9783039211043 9783039211050 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-105-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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A major source of active compounds, natural products from different sources supply a large variety of molecules that have been approved for clinical use or used as the starting points of optimization programs. This book features nine papers (eight full articles and one review paper) written by more than 45 scientists from around the world. These papers illustrate the development and application of a broad range of computational and experimental techniques applied to natural product research. On behalf of the contributors to the book, our hope is that the research presented here contributes to advancements in the field, and encourages multidisciplinary teams, young scientists, and students to further advance in the discovery of pharmacologically-active natural compounds

Drones for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Monitoring

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ISBN: 9783039219803 9783039219810 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-981-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have already become an affordable and cost-efficient tool to quickly map a targeted area for many emerging applications in the arena of ecological monitoring and biodiversity conservation. Managers, owners, companies, and scientists are using professional drones equipped with high-resolution visible, multispectral, or thermal cameras to assess the state of ecosystems, the effect of disturbances, or the dynamics and changes within biological communities inter alia. We are now at a tipping point on the use of drones for these type of applications over natural areas. UAV missions are increasing but most of them are testing applicability. It is time now to move to frequent revisiting missions, aiding in the retrieval of important biophysical parameters in ecosystems or mapping species distributions. This Special Issue shows UAV applications contributing to a better understanding of biodiversity and ecosystem status, threats, changes, and trends. It documents the enhancement of knowledge in ecological integrity parameters mapping, long-term ecological monitoring based on drones, mapping of alien species spread and distribution, upscaling ecological variables from drone to satellite images: methods and approaches, rapid risk and disturbance assessment using drones, mapping albedo with UAVs, wildlife tracking, bird colony and chimpanzee nest mapping, habitat mapping and monitoring, and a review on drones for conservation in protected areas.

Managing Forests and Water for People under a Changing Environment

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039288236 / 9783039288243 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-824-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Forests cover 30% of the Earth’s land area, or nearly four billion hectares. Enhancing the benefits and ecosystem services of forests has been increasingly recognized as an essential part of nature-based solutions for solving many emerging global environmental problems today. A core science supporting forest management is understanding the interactions of forests, water, and people. These interactions have become increasingly complex under climate change and its associated impacts, such as the increases in the intensity and frequency of drought and floods, increasing population and deforestation, and a rise in global demands for multiple ecosystem services including clean water supply and carbon sequestration. Forest watershed managers have recognized that water management is an essential component of forest management. Global environmental change is posing more challenges for managing forests and water toward sustainable development. New science on forest and water is critically needed across the globe. The International Forests and Water Conference 2018, Valdivia, Chile (http://forestsandwater2018.cl/), a joint effort of the 5th IUFRO International Conference on Forests and Water in a Changing Environment and the Second Latin American Conference on Forests and Water provided a unique forum to examine forest and water issues in Latin America under a global context. This book represents a collection of some of the peer-reviewed papers presented at the conference that were published in a Special Issue of Forests.

Arid Land Systems: Sciences and Societies

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ISBN: 9783039213474 9783039213481 Year: Pages: 380 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-348-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Understanding deserts and drylands is essential, as arid landscapes cover >40% of the Earth and are home to two billion people. Today's problematic environment–human interaction needs contemporary knowledge to address dryland complexity. Physical dimensions in arid zones—land systems, climate and hazards, ecology—are linked with social processes that directly impact drylands, such as land management, livelihoods, and development. The challenges require integrated research that identifies systemic drivers across global arid regions. Measurement and monitoring, field investigation, remote sensing, and data analysis are effective tools to investigate natural dynamics. Equally, inquiry into how policy and practice affect landscape sustainability is key to mitigating detrimental activity in deserts. Relations between socio-economic forces and degradation, agro-pastoral rangeland use, drought and disaster and resource extraction reflect land interactions. Contemporary themes of food security, conflict, and conservation are interlinked in arid environments. This book unifies desert science, arid environments, and dryland development. The chapters identify land dynamics, address system risks and delineate human functions through original research in arid zones. Mixed methodologies highlight the vital links between social and environmental science in global deserts. The book engages with today's topical themes and presents novel analyses of arid land systems and societies.

Keywords

Central Asia --- landscape --- One Belt --- One Road --- Kazakhstan --- Kyrgyzstan --- infrastructure --- environment --- New Silk Road --- drylands --- wind erosion modelling --- drag partition --- aerodynamic roughness --- remote sensing --- computational fluid dynamics --- cellular automata --- remote sensing --- modelling --- coverage --- grass height --- Cuchillas de la Zarca --- Chobe --- forest resources --- ecosystem services --- non-linear change --- protected areas --- disturbance --- drought --- sustainable livelihoods --- ecotone --- dryland --- KAZA --- Southern Africa --- nomadic pastoralism --- spatial migration model --- Afar --- livestock --- fodder demand --- fodder supply --- Asian dust --- human health --- Mongolia --- Japan --- subarctic agriculture --- Greenland --- soil quality index --- farming at its limits --- air temperature increase --- increase of growing season --- dry lake beds --- dust storm emission --- remote sensing --- Gobi Desert region --- communal rangelands --- property rights --- environmental impacts --- policy implementation --- drylands --- arid region --- LUCC --- driving forces --- snow index --- SPOT VGT --- Kashgar Region --- degrading --- tamarind age --- regeneration --- invasive vine --- vegetation survey --- erosion --- rotational grazing --- continuous grazing --- grassland degradation --- case study of nomadic and settlement grazing system --- remote sensing --- Mongolian grassland --- arid area --- land use change --- soil carbon storage --- global carbon balance --- the Shiyang River Basin --- riparian ecosystems --- Sonoran desert --- remote sensing --- land cover/land use --- drip irrigation --- groundwater --- common-pool resource --- water rights --- local farming --- desert reclamation --- desertification --- river basin development --- political ecology --- water --- vegetation response to precipitation --- dust storm outbreak --- cross correlation analysis --- the Hovmoller diagram --- environmental regime shift --- Gobi desert of Mongolia --- climate hazard --- Asia --- drylands --- risk --- drought --- desert --- Central Asia --- Kyrgyzstan --- infrastructure --- environment --- mining --- social movements --- protest --- environmental justice --- subversive clientelism --- China --- Tibetan Plateau --- Sanjiangyuan region --- social–ecological systems --- pastoralism --- partnerships --- co-management --- national parks --- Belt and Road Initiative --- mountains of Central Asia --- pastoralism --- Ethiopia --- South Omo --- Nyangatom --- Jordan River Basin --- water productivity --- Jordan --- Israel --- Palestine --- agriculture --- agricultural water intensity --- decoupling --- water security --- institutional change --- ecosystem services --- economic valuation --- drylands --- absence --- afforestation --- charisma --- China --- conservation --- desertification --- Gobi --- Mongolia

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