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Optomechatronics

ISBN: 9783038420019 9783038420088 Year: Pages: 276 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-20 15:03:42
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The field of optomechatronics provides synergistic effects of optics, mechanics and electronics for efficient sensor development. Optical sensors for the measurement of mechanical quantities, equipped with appropriate electronic signal (pre)processing means have a wide range of applications, from surface testing, stress monitoring, thin film analysis to biochemical sensing. The aim of this special issue is to provide an overview of actual research and innovative applications of optomechatronics in sensors. Papers addressing, inter alia, optical sensor principles, fiber-optic sensors, electronic speckle pattern interferometry, surface analysis, thin film measurement, FGB sensors, and biochemical sensors are provided.

Optical MEMS

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039213030 9783039213047 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-304-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Optical microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), microoptoelectromechanical systems (MOEMS), or optical microsystems are devices or systems that interact with light through actuation or sensing at a micro- or millimeter scale. Optical MEMS have had enormous commercial success in projectors, displays, and fiberoptic communications. The best-known example is Texas Instruments’ digital micromirror devices (DMDs). The development of optical MEMS was impeded seriously by the Telecom Bubble in 2000. Fortunately, DMDs grew their market size even in that economy downturn. Meanwhile, in the last one and half decade, the optical MEMS market has been slowly but steadily recovering. During this time, the major technological change was the shift of thin-film polysilicon microstructures to single-crystal–silicon microsructures. Especially in the last few years, cloud data centers are demanding large-port optical cross connects (OXCs) and autonomous driving looks for miniature LiDAR, and virtual reality/augmented reality (VR/AR) demands tiny optical scanners. This is a new wave of opportunities for optical MEMS. Furthermore, several research institutes around the world have been developing MOEMS devices for extreme applications (very fine tailoring of light beam in terms of phase, intensity, or wavelength) and/or extreme environments (vacuum, cryogenic temperatures) for many years. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on (1) novel design, fabrication, control, and modeling of optical MEMS devices based on all kinds of actuation/sensing mechanisms; and (2) new developments of applying optical MEMS devices of any kind in consumer electronics, optical communications, industry, biology, medicine, agriculture, physics, astronomy, space, or defense.

Keywords

scanning micromirror --- electromagnetic actuator --- angle sensor --- flame retardant 4 (FR4) --- variable optical attenuator (VOA) --- wavelength dependent loss (WDL) --- polarization dependent loss (PDL) --- micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) --- tunable fiber laser --- echelle grating --- DMD chip --- MEMS scanning micromirror --- fringe projection --- laser stripe scanning --- quality map --- large reflection variations --- 3D measurement --- laser stripe width --- vibration noise --- MLSSP --- MEMS scanning mirror --- wavefront sensing --- digital micromirror device --- ocular aberrations --- dual-mode liquid-crystal (LC) device --- infrared Fabry–Perot (FP) filtering --- LC micro-lenses controlled electrically --- spectrometer --- infrared --- digital micromirror device (DMD) --- signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) --- stray light --- programmable spectral filter --- digital micromirror device --- optical switch --- microscanner --- input shaping --- open-loop control --- quasistatic actuation --- residual oscillation --- usable scan range --- higher-order modes --- resonant MEMS scanner --- electrostatic --- parametric resonance --- NIR fluorescence --- intraoperative microscope --- 2D Lissajous --- fluorescence confocal --- metasurface --- metalens --- field of view (FOV) --- achromatic --- Huygens’ metalens --- bio-optical imaging --- optical coherence tomography --- confocal --- two-photon --- spectrometer --- MEMS mirror --- electrothermal bimorph --- Cu/W bimorph --- electrothermal actuation --- reliability --- n/a

Novel Insights into Orbital Angular Momentum Beams: From Fundamentals, Devices to Applications

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783039212231 9783039212248 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-224-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General) --- Optics and Lights
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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It is well-known by now that the angular momentum carried by elementary particles can be categorized as spin angular momentum (SAM) and orbital angular momentum (OAM). In the early 1900s, Poynting recognized that a particle, such as a photon, can carry SAM, which has only two possible states, i.e., clockwise and anticlockwise circular polarization states. However, only fairly recently, in 1992, Allen et al. discovered that photons with helical phase fronts can carry OAM, which has infinite orthogonal states. In the past two decades, the OAM-carrying beam, due to its unique features, has gained increasing interest from many different research communities, including physics, chemistry, and engineering. Its twisted phase front and intensity distribution have enabled a variety of applications, such as micromanipulation, laser beam machining, nonlinear matter interactions, imaging, sensing, quantum cryptography and classical communications. This book aims to explore novel insights of OAM beams. It focuses on state-of-the-art advances in fundamental theories, devices and applications, as well as future perspectives of OAM beams.

Ultrasound B-mode Imaging: Beamforming and Image Formation Techniques

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039211999 9783039212002 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-200-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Ultrasound medical imaging stands out among the other diagnostic imaging modalities for its patient-friendliness, high temporal resolution, low cost, and absence of ionizing radiation. On the other hand, it may still suffer from limited detail level, low signal-to-noise ratio, and narrow field-of-view. In the last decade, new beamforming and image reconstruction techniques have emerged which aim at improving resolution, contrast, and clutter suppression, especially in difficult-to-image patients. Nevertheless, achieving a higher image quality is of the utmost importance in diagnostic ultrasound medical imaging, and further developments are still indispensable. From this point of view, a crucial role can be played by novel beamforming techniques as well as by non-conventional image formation techniques (e.g., advanced transmission strategies, and compounding, coded, and harmonic imaging). This Special Issue includes novel contributions on both ultrasound beamforming and image formation techniques, particularly addressed at improving B-mode image quality and related diagnostic content. This indeed represents a hot topic in the ultrasound imaging community, and further active research in this field is expected, where many challenges still persist.

Selected Papers from the 9th Symposium on Micro-Nano Science and Technology on Micromachines

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039216963 9783039216970 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-697-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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This Special Issue presents selected papers from the 8th

Keywords

vibration-induced flow --- micro-pillar --- numerical analysis --- micro-PIV --- acoustofluidics --- microscale thermophoresis --- multiphase flow --- microfluidic channels --- nano/microparticle separation --- micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) technologies --- magneto-impedance sensor --- thin-film --- high frequency --- logarithmic amplifier --- nondestructive inspection --- microfluidics --- biofabrication --- adipose tissue --- lipolysis --- tactile display --- thermal tactile display --- thermal sensation --- thermal conductivity --- liquid metal --- flexible device --- stretchable electronic substrate --- kirigami structure --- mechanical metamaterials --- surface mounting --- flexible electronic device --- contact resistance --- contact pressure --- myoblast --- skeletal muscle --- core-shell hydrogel fiber --- cyclic stretch --- engineered muscle --- laser direct writing --- femtosecond laser --- glyoxylic acid Cu complex --- reduction --- Cu micropattern --- near-infrared --- spectroscopy --- surface plasmon resonance --- Schottky barrier --- grating --- Si --- connector --- artificial blood vessel --- medical device --- blood coagulation --- implant --- artificial kidney --- biocompatible --- 4D printing --- 3D printing --- stimuli-responsive hydrogel --- electrical impedance measurement --- three-dimensional cell culture --- adipocyte --- lipid droplet --- 3T3-L1 --- functional surface --- condensation --- molecular dynamics --- wettability --- nanoscale structure --- n/a

Glassy Materials Based Microdevices

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ISBN: 9783038976189 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-619-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 15:50:41
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Microtechnology has changed our world since the last century, when silicon microelectronics revolutionized sensor, control and communication areas, with applications extending from domotics to automotive, and from security to biomedicine. The present century, however, is also seeing an accelerating pace of innovation in glassy materials; as an example, glass-ceramics, which successfully combine the properties of an amorphous matrix with those of micro- or nano-crystals, offer a very high flexibility of design to chemists, physicists and engineers, who can conceive and implement advanced microdevices. In a very similar way, the synthesis of glassy polymers in a very wide range of chemical structures offers unprecedented potential of applications. The contemporary availability of microfabrication technologies, such as direct laser writing or 3D printing, which add to the most common processes (deposition, lithography and etching), facilitates the development of novel or advanced microdevices based on glassy materials. Biochemical and biomedical sensors, especially with the lab-on-a-chip target, are one of the most evident proofs of the success of this material platform. Other applications have also emerged in environment, food, and chemical industries. The present Special Issue of Micromachines aims at reviewing the current state-of-the-art and presenting perspectives of further development. Contributions related to the technologies, glassy materials, design and fabrication processes, characterization, and, eventually, applications are welcome.

Keywords

micro-crack propagation --- severing force --- quartz glass --- micro-grinding --- microfluidics --- single-cell analysis --- polymeric microfluidic flow cytometry --- single-cell protein quantification --- glass molding process --- groove --- roughness --- filling ratio --- label-free sensor --- optofluidic microbubble resonator --- detection of small molecules --- chalcogenide glass --- infrared optics --- precision glass molding --- aspherical lens --- freeform optics --- micro/nano patterning --- 2D colloidal crystal --- soft colloidal lithography --- strain microsensor --- vectorial strain gauge --- compound glass --- microsphere --- resonator --- lasing --- sensing --- microresonator --- whispering gallery mode --- long period grating --- fiber coupling --- distributed sensing --- chemical/biological sensing --- direct metal forming --- glassy carbon micromold --- enhanced boiling heat transfer --- metallic microstructure --- microspheres --- microdevices --- glass --- polymers --- solar energy --- nuclear fusion --- thermal insulation --- sol-gel --- Ag nanoaggregates --- Yb3+ ions --- down-shifting --- photonic microdevices --- alkali cells --- MEMS vapor cells --- optical cells --- atomic spectroscopy --- microtechnology --- microfabrication --- MEMS --- microfluidic devices --- laser materials processing --- ultrafast laser micromachining --- ultrafast laser welding --- enclosed microstructures --- glass --- porous media --- fluid displacement --- spray pyrolysis technique --- dielectric materials --- luminescent materials --- photovoltaics --- frequency conversion --- device simulations --- europium --- luminescence --- hybrid materials --- microdevices --- light --- photon --- communications --- waveguides --- fibers --- biosensors --- microstructured optical fibers --- whispering gallery modes --- light localization --- optofluidics --- lab-on-a-chip --- femtosecond laser --- laser micromachining --- diffusion

Micro/Nano Manufacturing

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039211692 9783039211708 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-170-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Micro manufacturing involves dealing with the fabrication of structures in the size range of 0.1 to 1000 µm. The scope of nano manufacturing extends the size range of manufactured features to even smaller length scales—below 100 nm. A strict borderline between micro and nano manufacturing can hardly be drawn, such that both domains are treated as complementary and mutually beneficial within a closely interconnected scientific community. Both micro and nano manufacturing can be considered as important enablers for high-end products. This Special Issue of Applied Sciences is dedicated to recent advances in research and development within the field of micro and nano manufacturing. The included papers report recent findings and advances in manufacturing technologies for producing products with micro and nano scale features and structures as well as applications underpinned by the advances in these technologies.

Keywords

fluid jet polishing --- deterministic polishing --- variable pitch path --- residual error optimization --- path adaptability --- chatter identification --- three-dimensional elliptical vibration cutting --- empirical mode decomposition --- intrinsic mode function --- feature extraction --- micro-EDM molds --- micro-lens array --- contactless embossing --- friction coefficient --- micro 3D printing --- micro stereolithography --- process parameter optimization --- Taguchi’s method --- multi-objective particle swarm optimization --- flow control --- culture dish adapter --- small recess structure --- closed environment --- perfusion culture --- optical encoder --- grating --- blaze --- injection molding --- micro assembly --- active alignment --- opto-ASIC --- wafer-level optics --- antireflection nanostructure --- microlens array mold --- ultraprecision machining --- anodic aluminum oxide --- spatial uncertainty modeling --- additive manufacturing --- uncertainty quantification --- Image segmentation --- gaussian process modeling --- additive manufacturing --- selective laser melting --- surface roughness --- design of experiments --- Ti6Al4V --- SERS --- Surface-enhanced Raman scattering --- nanosphere array --- nanocone array --- hot embossing --- nanoimprinting --- plasma nitriding --- micro-nozzle --- micro-spring --- nitrogen supersaturation --- hardening --- hydrophobicity --- stiffness control --- product development --- conceptual design --- micro assembly --- data structure --- design for manufacturability --- low PC clinker --- Portland limestone ternary fiber–cement nanohybrids --- flexural strength --- TGA/dTG --- XRD --- MIP --- water impermeability tests --- micro and nano manufacturing --- micro-fluidics --- micro-optics --- micro and nano additive manufacturing --- micro-assembly --- surface engineering and interface nanotechnology --- micro factories --- micro reactors --- micro sensors --- micro actuators

MEMS/NEMS Sensors: Fabrication and Application

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039216345 9783039216352 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-635-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Due to the ever-expanding applications of micro/nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS/MEMS) as sensors and actuators, interest in their development has rapidly expanded over the past decade. Encompassing various excitation and readout schemes, the MEMS/NEMS devices transduce physical parameter changes, such as temperature, mass or stress, caused by changes in desired measurands, to electrical signals that can be further processed. Some common examples of NEMS/MEMS sensors include pressure sensors, accelerometers, magnetic field sensors, microphones, radiation sensors, and particulate matter sensors. Despite a long history of development, fabrication of novel MEMS/NEMS devices still poses unique challenges due to their requirement for a suspended geometry; and many new fabrication techniques have been proposed to overcome these challenges. However, further development of these techniques is still necessary, as newer materials such as compound semiconductors, and 2-dimensional materials are finding their way in various MEMS/NEMS applications, with more complex structures and potentially smaller dimensions.

Keywords

thermoelectric power sensor --- wideband --- GaAs MMIC --- MEMS --- floating slug --- back cavity --- microwave measurement --- MEMS --- high temperature pressure sensors --- AlGaN/GaN circular HFETs --- GaN diaphragm --- adaptive control --- backstepping approach --- tracking performance --- microgyroscope --- resonant frequency --- resistance parameter --- micro fluidic --- oil detection --- MEMS --- microactuator --- magnetic --- micro-NIR spectrometer --- scanning grating mirror --- deflection position detector --- dual-mass MEMS gyroscope --- frequency tuning --- frequency split --- quadrature modulation signal --- frequency mismatch --- suspended micro hotplate --- single-layer SiO2 --- temperature uniformity --- power consumption --- infrared image --- MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) --- inertial switch --- acceleration switch --- threshold accuracy --- squeeze-film damping --- photonic crystal cavity --- photonic crystal nanobeam cavity --- optical sensor --- refractive index sensor --- nanoparticle sensor --- optomechanical sensor --- temperature sensor --- Accelerometer readout --- low noise --- low zero-g offset --- microfluidic --- femtosecond laser --- rapid fabrication --- glass welding --- bonding strength --- accelerometer design --- spring design --- analytical model --- gas sensor --- micropellistor --- microdroplet --- pulse inertia force --- methane --- tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) --- wet etching --- silicon --- 3D simulation --- level-set method --- single crystal silicon --- anisotropy --- vibrating ring gyroscope --- frequency split --- accelerometer --- tunnel magnetoresistive effect --- electrostatic force feedback --- n/a

Ultrasonic Guided Waves

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ISBN: 9783039282982 9783039282999 Year: Pages: 376 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-299-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in solids is an important area of scientific inquiry, primarily due to their practical applications for nondestructive characterization of materials, such as nondestructive inspection, quality assurance testing, structural health monitoring, and providing a material state awareness. This Special Issue of Applied Sciences covers all aspects of ultrasonic guided waves (e.g., phased array transducers, meta-materials to control wave propagation characteristics, scattering, attenuation, and signal processing techniques) from the perspective of modeling, simulation, laboratory experiments, or field testing. In order to fully utilize ultrasonic guided waves for these applications, it is necessary to have a firm grasp of their requisite characteristics, which include that they are multimodal, dispersive, and are comprised of unique displacement profiles through the thickness of the waveguide.

Keywords

electromagnetic wave --- group velocity --- time-frequency domain reflectometry --- dispersive medium --- ultrasonic guided wave --- nondestructive testing --- square steel bar --- non-detection zone --- surface flaw --- Rayleigh wave --- scattering --- modified BEM --- reconstruction --- adhesive joint --- single lap joint --- non-destructive testing --- damage identification --- Lamb waves --- scanning laser vibrometry --- signal processing --- ultrasonic guided waves --- axial transmission --- ultrasonic guided waves --- fiber optics --- fiber Bragg grating --- nondestructive testing --- structural health monitoring --- pipe inspection --- partial wave method --- slowness curves --- lamb wave --- stoneley wave --- mode sorting --- acoustic leakage --- rayleigh wave --- surface waves --- elastodynamics --- guided waves --- lamb wave --- dispersion curves --- phase velocity --- group velocity --- signal processing --- SH0 mode --- circumferential scanning --- synthetic aperture focusing --- exploding reflector model --- Lamb wave --- local wavenumber --- air-coupled transducer --- wavenumber domain filtering --- hybrid and non-contact system --- signal processing --- SNR --- split-spectrum processing --- ultrasonic guided waves --- signal processing --- defect detection --- spatial domain --- array analysis --- pipeline inspection --- ultrasonic guided waves (UGWs) --- metamaterial --- resonator --- low-frequency --- lamb wave --- adaptive filtering --- leaky normalized mean square --- ultrasonic guided waves --- pipeline inspection --- SNR enhancement --- signal processing --- guided wave --- multi-wire cable --- wave structure --- contact acoustic nonlinearity --- energy transfer --- rail --- ultrasonic guided wave --- semi-analytical finite element --- single mode extraction algorithm --- defect location --- signal processing --- defect detection --- torsional wave --- power spectrum --- sliding window --- pipeline inspection --- ultrasonic guided-waves (UGWs) --- magnetostrictive patch transducer --- shear mode --- soft magnetic patch --- dynamic magnetic field optimization --- signal strength enhancement --- acoustic emission --- nondestructive testing --- leakage location --- fault diagnosis --- n/a --- lamb waves --- composite --- ultrasonic testing --- numerical modelling --- pressure vessels

Nanoelectronic Materials, Devices and Modeling

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039212255 9783039212262 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-226-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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As CMOS scaling is approaching the fundamental physical limits, a wide range of new nanoelectronic materials and devices have been proposed and explored to extend and/or replace the current electronic devices and circuits so as to maintain progress with respect to speed and integration density. The major limitations, including low carrier mobility, degraded subthreshold slope, and heat dissipation, have become more challenging to address as the size of silicon-based metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) has decreased to nanometers, while device integration density has increased. This book aims to present technical approaches that address the need for new nanoelectronic materials and devices. The focus is on new concepts and knowledge in nanoscience and nanotechnology for applications in logic, memory, sensors, photonics, and renewable energy. This research on nanoelectronic materials and devices will be instructive in finding solutions to address the challenges of current electronics in switching speed, power consumption, and heat dissipation and will be of great interest to academic society and the industry.

Keywords

UAV --- vision localization --- hierarchical --- landing --- information integration --- memristor --- synaptic device --- spike-timing-dependent plasticity --- neuromorphic computation --- memristive device --- ZnO films --- conditioned reflex --- quantum dot --- sample grating --- cross-gain modulation --- bistability --- distributed Bragg --- semiconductor optical amplifier --- topological insulator --- field-effect transistor --- nanostructure synthesis --- optoelectronic devices --- topological magnetoelectric effect --- drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) --- gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) --- silicon on insulator (SOI) --- graphene --- supercapacitor --- energy storage --- ionic liquid --- UV irradiation --- luminescent centres --- bismuth ions --- two-photon process --- oscillatory neural networks --- pattern recognition --- higher order synchronization --- thermal coupling --- vanadium dioxide --- band-to-band tunneling --- L-shaped tunnel field-effect-transistor --- double-gate tunnel field-effect-transistor --- corner-effect --- AlGaN/GaN --- high-electron mobility transistor (HEMTs) --- p-GaN --- enhancement-mode --- 2DEG density --- InAlN/GaN heterostructure --- polarization effect --- quantum mechanical --- gallium nitride --- MISHEMT --- dielectric layer --- interface traps --- current collapse --- PECVD --- gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) --- drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) --- recessed channel array transistor (RCAT) --- on-current (Ion) --- off-current (Ioff) --- subthreshold slope (SS) --- threshold voltage (VTH) --- saddle FinFET (S-FinFET) --- potential drop width (PDW) --- shallow trench isolation (STI) --- source/drain (S/D) --- conductivity --- 2D material --- Green’s function --- reflection transmision method --- variational form --- dual-switching transistor --- third harmonic tuning --- low voltage --- high efficiency --- CMOS power amplifier IC --- insulator–metal transition (IMT) --- charge injection --- Mott transition --- conductive atomic force microscopy (cAFM) --- gate field effect --- atomic layer deposition (ALD) --- zinc oxide --- silicon --- ZnO/Si --- electron affinity --- bandgap tuning --- conduction band offset --- heterojunction --- solar cells --- PC1D --- vertical field-effect transistor (VFET) --- back current blocking layer (BCBL) --- gallium nitride (GaN) --- normally off power devices --- n/a

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