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Arsenic in groundwater of West Bengal: Implications from a field study

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Book Series: Karlsruher mineralogische und geochemische Hefte : Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Mineralogie und Geochemie ISSN: 16182677 ISBN: 9783866449411 Year: Volume: 39 Pages: XX, 295 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000030868 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Astronomy (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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This publication presents results of an interdisciplinary field study assessing the contribution of biological and inorganic processes in the mobilisation and accumulation of arsenic in groundwater of the Bengal Delta Plain, West Bengal. Investigations were focussed on the distribution of arsenic in sediments and shallow groundwater of two representative study sites. All results were combined in an effort to develop a conceptional model describing the mobility of arsenic in West Bengal aquifers.

Groundwater Contamination and Remediation

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038974291 9783038974307 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-430-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-07 09:01:53
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This Special Issue of Water brings together 10 studies on groundwater contamination and remediation. Common themes include practical techniques for plume identification and delineation, the central role of subsurface processes, the pervasiveness of non-Fickian transport, and the importance of bacterial communities in the broader context of biogeochemistry.

Geomicrobes: Life in Terrestrial Deep Subsurface

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451791 Year: Pages: 141 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-179-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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The deep subsurface is, in addition to space, one of the last unknown frontiers to human kind. A significant part of life on Earth resides in the deep subsurface, hiding great potential of microbial life of which we know only little. The conditions in the deep terrestrial subsurface are thought to resemble those of early Earth, which makes this environment an analog for studying early life in addition to possible extraterrestrial life in ultra-extreme conditions. Early microorganisms played a great role in shaping the conditions on the young Earth. Even today deep subsurface microorganisms interact with their geological environment transforming the conditions in the groundwater and on rock surfaces. Essential elements for life are richly present but in difficultly accessible form. The elements driving the microbial deep life is still not completely identified. Most of the microorganisms detected by novel molecular techniques still lack cultured representatives. Nevertheless, using modern sequencing techniques and bioinformatics the functional roles of these microorganisms are being revealed. We are starting to see the differences and similarities between the life in the deep subsurface and surface domains. We may even begin to see the function of evolution by comparing deep life to life closer to the surface of Earth. Deep life consists of organisms from all known domains of life. This Research Topic reveals some of the rich diversity and functional properties of the great biomass residing in the deep dark subsurface.

Applications of Remote Sensing/ GIS in Water Resources and Flooding Risk Managements

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ISBN: 9783038429821 9783038429814 Year: Pages: VIII, 222 Language: englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-21 16:57:04
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Remote sensing and GIS play critical roles in water resource and flood inundation mapping and risk management. Remote sensing provides data sources for mapping water resources (snow and glaciers, water bodies, soil moisture and groundwater), measuring hydrological fluxes (ET, precipitation and river discharge), and monitoring drought and flooding inundation, while GIS provides the best tools for water resources, drought and flooding risk management and for setting up hydrologic models, inputting data processing and output analyses and visualizations. This Special Issue Book presents the best practices, cutting-edge technologies and applications of remote sensing, GIS and hydrologic models for water resources mapping, satellite rainfall measurements, runoff simulation, water body and flood inundation mapping and risk management. The latest technologies applied include 3D model analysis and visualization of glaciers, UAV video image classification for turf grass mapping and irrigation planning, ground penetration radar for soil moisture estimates, TRMM and GPM satellite rainfall measurements, storm hyetograph analysis, rainfall runoff and urban flooding simulation, satellite radar and optical image classification for urban water bodies and flooding inundation. The application of these technologies is expected to greatly relieve the pressures on water resources and assist in better mitigating and adapting to the impact of drought and flooding.

Water Resources Assessment and Management in Drylands

ISBN: 9783038422471 9783038422488 Year: Pages: XXII, 302 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-15 12:12:28
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Drylands are fragile environments and, therefore, highly susceptible to environmental changes. They cover nearly 50% of the world’s land surface and are increasingly being reclaimed by a growing population for food production and urbanization. This makes water resources management in drylands an extremely important issue. The unplanned water resources development may result in aquifer depletion, soil and/or water salinization, loss of water through evapotranspiration due to inadequate irrigation systems, and land degradation (e.g., soil erosion, soil crusting, and sand encroachment).

Progress in Water Footprint Assessment

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039210381 / 9783039210398 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-039-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Water Footprint Assessment is a young research field that considers how freshwater use, scarcity, and pollution relate to consumption, production, and trade patterns. This book presents a wide range of studies within this new field. It is argued that collective and coordinated action - at different scale levels and along all stages of commodity supply chains - is necessary to bring about more sustainable, efficient, and equitable water use. The presented studies range from farm to catchment and country level, and show how different actors along the supply chain of final commodities can contribute to more sustainable water use in the chain.

Flow and Transport Properties of Unconventional Reservoirs 2018

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039211166 / 9783039211173 Year: Pages: 364 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-117-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Unconventional reservoirs are usually complex and highly heterogeneous, such as shale, coal, and tight sandstone reservoirs. The strong physical and chemical interactions between fluids and pore surfaces lead to the inapplicability of conventional approaches for characterizing fluid flow in these low-porosity and ultralow-permeability reservoir systems. Therefore, new theories and techniques are urgently needed to characterize petrophysical properties, fluid transport, and their relationships at multiple scales for improving production efficiency from unconventional reservoirs. This book presents fundamental innovations gathered from 21 recent works on novel applications of new techniques and theories in unconventional reservoirs, covering the fields of petrophysical characterization, hydraulic fracturing, fluid transport physics, enhanced oil recovery, and geothermal energy. Clearly, the research covered in this book is helpful to understand and master the latest techniques and theories for unconventional reservoirs, which have important practical significance for the economic and effective development of unconventional oil and gas resources.

Keywords

fracturing fluid --- rheology --- chelating agent --- viscosity --- polymer --- fluid-solid interaction --- velocity profile --- the average flow velocity --- flow resistance --- pore network model --- shale gas --- volume fracturing --- finite volume method --- production simulation --- multi-scale flow --- multi-scale fracture --- shale gas reservoir --- fractured well transient productivity --- succession pseudo-steady state (SPSS) method --- complex fracture network --- multi-scale flow --- analysis of influencing factors --- tight sandstones --- spontaneous imbibition --- remaining oil distributions --- imbibition front --- imbibition recovery --- NMR --- slip length --- large density ratio --- contact angle --- pseudo-potential model --- lattice Boltzmann method --- micro-fracture --- dissolved gas --- experimental evaluation --- reservoir depletion --- recovery factor --- tight oil --- Lucaogou Formation --- tight oil --- pore structure --- prediction by NMR logs --- tight oil reservoir --- SRV-fractured horizontal well --- multiporosity and multiscale --- flow regimes --- productivity contribution degree of multimedium --- equilibrium permeability --- non-equilibrium permeability --- matrix–fracture interaction --- effective stress --- coal deformation --- porous media --- non-linear flow --- conformable derivative --- fractal --- hydraulic fracturing --- tight reservoirs --- fracture diversion --- extended finite element method --- fracture network --- gas adsorption capacity --- shale reservoirs --- influential factors --- integrated methods --- sulfonate gemini surfactant --- thickener --- temperature-resistance --- clean fracturing fluid --- low-salinity water flooding --- clay mineral composition --- enhanced oil recovery --- wetting angle --- pH of formation water --- fractional diffusion --- fractal geometry --- analytical model --- shale gas reservoir --- carbonate reservoir --- petrophysical characterization --- pore types --- pore structure --- permeability --- fractal dimension --- reservoir classifications --- deep circulation groundwater --- groundwater flow --- geothermal water --- faults --- isotopes --- shale permeability --- local effect --- global effect --- matrix-fracture interactions --- nanopore --- pore structure --- shale --- tight sandstone --- mudstone --- nitrogen adsorption --- fractal --- enhanced geothermal system --- well-placement optimization --- fracture continuum method --- 0-1 programming --- unconventional reservoirs --- petrophysical characterization --- fluid transport physics

Drinking Water Quality and Human Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977261 Year: Pages: 374 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-727-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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The quality of drinking water is paramount for public health. Despite important improvements in the last decades, access to safe drinking water is not universal. The World Health Organization estimates that almost 10% of the population in the world do not have access to improved drinking water sources. Among other diseases, waterborne infections cause diarrhea, which kills nearly one million people every year, mostly children under 5 years of age. On the other hand, chemical pollution is a concern in high-income countries and an increasing problem in low- and middle-income countries. Exposure to chemicals in drinking water may lead to a range of chronic non-communicable diseases (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular disease), adverse reproductive outcomes, and effects on children’s health (e.g., neurodevelopment), among other health effects. Although drinking water quality is regulated and monitored in many countries, increasing knowledge leads to the need for reviewing standards and guidelines on a nearly permanent basis, both for regulated and newly identified contaminants. Drinking water standards are mostly based on animal toxicity data, and more robust epidemiologic studies with accurate exposure assessment are needed. The current risk assessment paradigm dealing mostly with one-by-one chemicals dismisses the potential synergisms or interactions from exposures to mixtures of contaminants, particularly at the low-exposure range. Thus, evidence is needed on exposure and health effects of mixtures of contaminants in drinking water. Finally, water stress and water quality problems are expected to increase in the coming years due to climate change and increasing water demand by population growth, and new evidence is needed to design appropriate adaptation policies.This Special Issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) focuses on the current state of knowledge on the links between drinking water quality and human health.

Keywords

Vibrio pathogens --- rural water resources --- public health --- sub-Saharan Africa --- diarrhoeal disease --- HWTS implementation --- water and sanitation --- drinking water guidance --- infant exposure --- chemical risk assessment --- duration extrapolation --- acute gastroenteritis --- risk --- tap water --- time series study --- turbidity --- urban area --- water operation data --- THMs --- cancer --- effect measure modification --- drinking water --- drinking water --- exposure assessment --- sodium --- potassium --- magnesium --- calcium --- spatial variations --- Denmark --- water safety plans --- drinking water quality --- risk management --- impact assessment --- Asia-Pacific region --- diarrhea --- fever --- cough --- Nigeria --- infant health --- drinking water --- inorganic manganese --- health-based guideline --- infants --- pharmaceuticals --- human health --- environment --- drug labels --- screening method --- LTD --- uncertainty factors --- risk assessment --- risk context --- biomonitoring --- dental health --- drinking water --- fluoride --- pharmacokinetic modeling --- waterborne disease outbreak --- simulation study --- health insurance data --- space–time detection --- drinking water --- nitrate --- cancer --- adverse reproductive outcomes --- methemoglobinemia --- thyroid disease --- endogenous nitrosation --- N-nitroso compounds --- E. coli --- monitoring --- drinking water --- water safety plan --- sanitary inspection --- gravity-fed piped water scheme --- risk management --- chlorination by-product --- France --- environmental exposure --- organic matter --- tap water --- trihalomethanes --- private wells --- groundwater --- drinking water --- animal feeding operation --- fecal coliforms --- enterococci --- E. coli --- Maryland --- nitrite --- disinfection by-product --- drinking water distribution systems --- seasonality --- atrazine --- community water system --- low birth weight --- preterm birth --- small for gestational age --- water contamination --- endocrine disruptor --- drinking water --- radioactivity --- annual effective dose --- carcinogenic --- chronic kidney disease --- end-stage renal disease --- water contaminants --- zinc --- ammonia --- chemical oxygen demand --- dissolved oxygen --- arsenic

Soil Water Conservation. Dynamics and Impact

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038978527 9783038978534 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-853-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Human needs like food and clean water are directly related to good maintenance of healthy and productive soils. A good understanding of human impact on the natural environment is therefore necessary to preserve and manage soil and water resources. This knowledge is particularly important in semi-arid and arid regions, where the increasing demands on limited water supplies require urgent efforts to improve water quality and water use efficiency. It is important to keep in mind that both soil and water are limited resources. Thus, wise use of these natural resources is a fundamental prerequisite for the sustainability of human societies. This book collects 15 original scientific contributions addressing the state of the art of soil and water conservation research. Contributions cover a wide range of topics, including (1) recovery of soil hydraulic properties; (2) erosion risk; (3) novel modeling, monitoring and experimental approaches for soil hydraulic characterization; (4) improvement of crop yields; (5) water availability; and (6) soil salinity. This collection provides more insights into conservation strategies for effective and sustainable soil and water management.

Keywords

soil moisture storage --- van Genuchten model --- distributed model --- Xin’anjiang model --- TOPMODEL --- bimsoils --- critical hydraulic gradient (CHG) --- response surface methodology --- multi-parameter evaluation --- laboratory experiment --- soil block --- subsurface flow --- macropore network --- spatial scale --- polyurethane foam --- hillslope --- soil water content --- field observation --- three-dimensional model --- numerical model --- delta plain --- shallow groundwater --- unsaturated soil --- Richards equation --- the Trefftz method --- transient --- the meshless method --- vineyards --- infiltration rate --- age of planting --- saturated hydraulic conductivity --- Malawi --- conservation agriculture --- peer effects --- decision tree modeling --- olive grove --- sap flow --- relative transpiration --- FDR sensor --- EM38 --- fraction transpiration soil water --- transdisciplinary research --- Follow-the-Innovation --- innovation development --- electromagnetic induction meter (EM) --- The Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) software --- AquaCrop --- cereals --- DSSAT --- field scattering --- food security --- microdose fertilization --- rainfall variability --- tied ridges --- upgrading strategies --- soil properties --- saturated soil hydraulic conductivity --- soil infiltration --- Beerkan method --- post-fire soil hydraulic characterization --- infiltration --- bottomless bucket method --- single-ring infiltrometer --- field-saturated soil hydraulic conductivity --- data analysis procedures --- environmental change --- local perception --- food security --- adaptation --- soil tillage --- tillage erosion --- seedbed preparation --- water infiltration --- nitrogen use efficiency --- specific leaf water content --- vegetable production --- soil --- yield --- water and soil conservation --- sustainable land management --- soil erosion --- soil water storage --- water infiltration --- water availability --- crop yields

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