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Antioxidants and Second Messengers of Free Radicals

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ISBN: 9783038975335 / 9783038975342 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-534-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Medicine (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 09:35:49
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The history of science can teach modern men that our understanding of life is to a great extent based on the accuracy of the analytical methods that we use and, on our readiness to oppose dogmatic opinions, which are based on outdated methods and black/white approaches to the major questions raised by mankind in the past. The recent decades have brought a lot of new insights into the fundamentals of the active principles of reactive oxygen species that are necessary for living cells, but which also cause dangerous pathophysiological processes. Accordingly, although they were previously considered to be the most undesired toxic compounds generated as the final products of the oxidative degradation of lipids, reactive aldehydes are now considered to play important roles both in health and in major diseases. Represented mostly by 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a substance discovered only fifty years ago, reactive aldehydes are the focus of research not only because of their toxicity but also because of their positive effects regulating the most important metabolic processes such as growth of living cells or the death of cells. Better understanding the interactions between reactive aldehydes and natural or synthetic antioxidant substances might eventually help us to better monitor, prevent and control modern diseases, thus building pillars for the development of the modern, multidisciplinary life sciences and integrative medicine of the 21st century.

Continuous Casting

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ISBN: 9783039213214 / 9783039213221 Year: Pages: 250 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-322-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Continuous casting is an industrial process whereby molten metal is solidified into a semi-finished billet, bloom, or slab for subsequent rolling in finishing mills; it is the most frequently used process to cast not only steel, but also aluminium and copper alloys. Since its widespread introduction for steel in the 1950s, it has evolved to achieve improved yield, quality, productivity and cost efficiency. It allows lower-cost production of metal sections with better quality, due to the inherently lower costs of continuous, standardized production of a product, as well as providing increased control over the process through automation. Nevertheless, challenges remain and new ones appear, as ways are sought to minimize casting defects and to cast alloys that could originally only be cast via other means. This Special Issue of the journal ""Metals"" consists of 14 research articles that cover many aspects of experimental work and theoretical modelling related to the ongoing development of continuous casting processes.

Keywords

slab continuous casting --- hybrid simulation model --- uneven secondary cooling --- numerical simulation --- molten steel flow --- solidification --- inclusion motion --- inclusion entrapment --- billet continuous casting --- swirling flow tundish --- multiphase flow --- heat transfer --- mold --- continuous casting --- numerical simulation --- round bloom --- continuous casting --- final electromagnetic stirring --- electromagnetic field --- polycrystalline model --- pores --- inclusions --- mechanism --- beam blank --- crystal --- propagation --- asymptotic analysis --- numerical simulation --- continuous casting --- air mist spray cooling --- continuous casting --- heat flux --- HTC --- secondary cooling --- thin-slab cast direct-rolling --- austenite grain coarsening --- grain growth control --- liquid core reduction --- secondary cooling --- two-phase pinning --- annular argon blowing --- upper nozzle --- flow behavior --- argon gas distribution --- tundish --- continuous casting --- bulge deformation --- thermomechanical coupling --- segmented roller --- finite element analysis --- steel tundish --- baffle --- flow field --- velocity --- PIV --- multi-source information fusion --- data stream --- continuous casting --- roll gap value --- prediction --- global optimization --- support vector regression --- variational mode decomposition --- empirical mode decomposition --- support vector regression --- mold level --- continuous casting --- magnetohydrodynamics --- fluid flow --- bubbles --- inclusions --- entrapment --- entrainment --- heat transfer --- solidification --- slab mold --- continuous casting --- n/a

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