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New Approaches to the Pathogenesis of Sudden Intrauterine Unexplained Death and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453016 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-301-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the leading cause of death among infants in the first year of age. The more known definition of SIDS is the sudden unexpected death of an infant less than 1 year of age, with onset of the fatal episode apparently occurring during sleep, that remains unexplained after a thorough investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy and review of the circumstances of death and the clinical history. Despite the success of the “Back to Sleep” campaigns to reduce the risks introduced worldwide, the frequency of SIDS (striking one infant every 750-1,000 live births) has not significantly declined in the last years. Sudden Intrauterine Unexplained Death Syndrome (SIUDS), referring to fetuses that die unexpectedly, particularly in the last weeks of gestation, without any cause even after a complete autopsy, including examination of the placental disk, umbilical cord and fetal membranes, has a six-eightfold greater incidence than that of SIDS. Even if the pathogenetic mechanism of these deaths has not yet been determined, the neuropathology seems to be a consistent substrate in both SIUDS and SIDS. Subtle common developmental abnormalities of brainstem nuclei checking the vital functions have been highlighted, frequently related to environmental risk factors, such as cigarette smoke, air and water pollution, pesticides, food contamination, etc. Exogenous toxic factors can in fact interact in complex ways with the genetic constitution of the infant leading to polymorphisms and/or mutations of specific genes (as polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter gene 5-HTT, the regulator of the synaptic serotonin concentration, and of the PHOX2B, the key gene in the Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome). These interactions can directly injure the development of the autonomic nervous system, frequently resulting in hypoplasia of the vital brainstem centers, and consequently in sudden death. It is very important to continue studying these syndromes and in particular identify all possible congenital alterations and their correlation with the exposure to environmental risk factors, in order to reduce their incidence and mitigate the surrounding social concern. The goal of this research topic is to propose new approaches to explain the pathogenesis of both SIUDS and SIDS and consequently new prevention strategies to decrease the incidence of these unexpected and very devastating events for families. Expert authors in the Topic field are encouraged to submit original research articles aimed to widen the current knowledge on the pathological substrates of these deaths, also considering the correlations with possible risk factors. Submissions of hypotheses, opinions and commentaries are also welcome. This Research Topic would lead to development of targeted risk-lowering strategies to reduce the incidence of both SIUDS and SIDS. Furthermore, the adoption of appropriate preventive measures could also lead to improve the quality of life in adults, promoting active and healthy aging.

Global Health Research in an Unequal World

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781786390042 9781786390059 Year: Pages: 275 Language: English
Publisher: CABI CAB International Grant: Wellcome Trust
Subject: Sociology --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:15
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This book is a collection of fictionalised case studies of everyday ethical dilemmas and challenges, encountered in the process of conducting global health research in places where the effects of global, political and economic inequality are particularly evident. It is a training tool to fill the gap between research ethics guidelines, and their implementation 'on the ground'. The case studies, therefore, focus on 'relational' ethics: ethical actions and ideas that emerge through relations with others, rather than in regulations.

Surgical Ophthalmic Oncology

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783030187576 9783030187569 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-18757-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Ophthalmology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-09 12:31:33
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Designed as an easy-to-use, practical guide to tumors of the eye, lids, and orbit, this open access book comprehensively addresses surgical treatment and management of diseases related to ophthalmic oncology. Surgical Ophthalmic Oncology: A Collaborative Open Access Reference is an ideal reference for general ophthalmologists, surgeons, fellows and trainees around the world who encounter these diseases in the care of their patients. Notably, this book includes considerations for those ophthalmologists offering subspecialty care in environments with limited access to advanced technology and instrumentation. Individual chapters address diagnostic indications, pre-operative and post-operative concerns, and provide detailed explanations of surgical techniques required to manage various eye cancer ailments with help of ample illustrations. High-quality videos included throughout the book provide readers with the opportunity to review surgical steps in real-time as a learning tool. Chapters thoroughly cover tumors of eyelid, cornea and conjunctiva, orbit as well as intraocular tumors, while later chapters discuss ophthalmic radiation therapy. The book concludes with a section on ophthalmic pathology which details essential guidelines on relevant aspects from specimen collection and transport, to interpretation of the pathology report.Surgical Ophthalmic Oncology: A Collaborative Open Access Reference is a unique and necessary valuable resource for ophthalmologists, trainees, and related medical professionals working in underserved areas in providing quality care for patients suffering from ocular cancers.

Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia

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ISBN: 9781786392107; 9781786394361 Year: Pages: 207 DOI: 10.1079/9781786392107.0000 Language: English
Publisher: CABI
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-16 15:29:48
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Despite the significant impacts of alien plant species (IAS), there has not been a concerted effort to tackle the problem across the region. This can mainly be ascribed to a lack of policy, little awareness and limited capacity at a national and regional level. The UN Environment-Global Environment Facility project, 'Removing Barriers to Invasive Species Management in Production and Protection Forests in SE Asia', which was active in Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam, identified these barriers and produced this Guide which will go a long way to creating awareness about invasive plants, their impacts and how best to manage them. This Guide will serve as an invaluable aid in the identification, mapping, monitoring, and management of IAS that are already present in ASEAN member states, or which may become problematic in the future, due to increased trade and travel, economic development and climate change. It is hoped that this Guide would trigger similar efforts in other countries in Southeast Asia as the region moves toward socio-economic integration.

The Science of Citizen Science

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783030582784 Year: Pages: 529 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-58278-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Information theory --- Computer Science --- Science (General) --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2021-01-15 00:49:39
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This open access book discusses how the involvement of citizens into scientific endeavors is expected to contribute to solve the big challenges of our time, such as climate change and the loss of biodiversity, growing inequalities within and between societies, and the sustainability turn. The field of citizen science has been growing in recent decades. Many different stakeholders from scientists to citizens and from policy makers to environmental organisations have been involved in its practice. In addition, many scientists also study citizen science as a research approach and as a way for science and society to interact and collaborate. This book provides a representation of the practices as well as scientific and societal outcomes in different disciplines. It reflects the contribution of citizen science to societal development, education, or innovation and provides and overview of the field of actors as well as on tools and guidelines. It serves as an introduction for anyone who wants to get involved in and learn more about the science of citizen science.

Recent Advances in Water Management: Saving, Treatment and Reuse

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038970316 9783038970323 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-032-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Recent Advances in Water Management: Saving, Treatment and Reuse that was published in Water

Keywords

guidelines --- contaminated sites --- risk assessment --- China --- ferrous iron --- ferrous sulfide --- hydrogen sulfide --- odor control --- pumping mains --- sewerage --- pharmaceuticals --- micropollutant removal --- tezontle --- filter media --- active sites --- trickling filter --- anaerobic digester --- swine wastewater --- organic matter --- COD --- decomposition analysis --- global patent data --- research and development strategy --- water treatment technology --- anammox bacteria --- wastewater treatment --- nitrification --- denitrification --- zeolite --- combined sewer --- wastewater treatment --- microbiological quality --- surface water --- river --- lignin --- delignification --- pulp-and-paper-mill c --- wastewater --- white rot fungi --- B. adusta --- P. crysosporium --- foreign countries --- agricultural occupations --- water --- environmental education --- surveys --- sustainability --- milk production --- water --- footprint --- water recycling --- conservation --- partitioning --- efficiency --- forest waste --- palm mulch --- constructed wetlands --- vertical flow --- water treatment --- passive treatment systems --- anaerobic processes --- constructed wetlands --- ornamental plants --- treated wastewater reuse --- advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) --- activated carbon adsorption --- carbamazepine toxicity --- conventional treatment processes --- membrane technology --- occurrence --- food industry --- anticorrosive agent --- benzotriazole --- emerging contaminant --- oxygen injection --- Pb(II) --- nano illite/smectite clay --- adsorption kinetics --- adsorption thermodynamic

Prospects for Schistosomiasis Elimination

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039213573 9783039213580 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-358-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Current efforts to limit the ravages of schistosomiasis are pushing the world closer to eliminating a chronic infection that has been associated with human life in the tropics since time immemorial. This notwithstanding, the disease remains a scourge for large populations in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and Southeast Asia, and the main part of this book is made up by papers dealing with its current distribution, discussing ways and means to establish and implement improved control approaches. While chemotherapy limits the symptoms caused by schistosomiasis, the number of infected people will not decrease until the parasite's life cycle is interrupted. To that end, some papers focus on the intermediate snail host, which is notoriously difficult to control, while others discuss human hygiene and sanitation. The latter approach not only prevents infection through avoiding people being infected from the snail, but more importantly, also stops people infecting the snail by leaving contagious feces and urine in nature. With morbidity reduced by chemotherapy, the immediate target now is the interruption of transmission to be achieved by new tools, such as the novel chemotherapies, improved diagnostics (for humans, animals, and snails), and vaccines discussed in several of the papers. As made clear in this book, a complex infection requires new tools as well as work on many fronts, above all; however, a clear idea is needed as to how to skillfully combine the tools available and sustain implemented control activities.

Keywords

schistosomiasis --- Schistosoma --- vaccine --- zoonosis --- Asia --- Africa --- domestic animals --- buffalo --- cattle --- sheep --- goats --- Côte d’Ivoire --- coverage rate --- praziquantel --- preventive chemotherapy --- Schistosoma haematobium --- Schistosoma mansoni --- schistosomiasis --- diagnosis --- control and elimination --- DNA --- polymerase chain reaction --- schistosomiasis --- control --- elimination --- Africa --- operational research --- goals --- guidelines --- schistosomiasis --- vector control --- snail resistance --- gene drive --- transgenic snail --- schistosomiasis --- Kato-Katz --- POC-CCA --- young adults --- soil-transmitted helminths --- n/a --- Mayuge --- MDA coverage --- praziquantel --- S. mansoni --- systematic non-compliance --- treatment-opportunities --- Uganda --- climate change --- schistosomiasis --- distribution --- intermediate snail host --- transmission --- modelling --- schistosomiasis --- soil-transmitted-helminthiasis --- mapping --- preventive chemotherapy --- transmission control --- Gabon --- Central Africa --- schistosomiasis --- vaccine --- Sm14 --- FABP --- Schistosoma japonicum --- Oncomelania hupensis --- snail --- 28S ribosomal DNA --- PCR --- loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) --- pooled samples --- China --- schistosomiasis --- elimination --- praziquantel --- artemether --- combination therapy --- phylogeography --- Bulinus truncatus --- planorbidae --- Africa --- schistosomiasis --- neglected tropical diseases --- WIPO Re:Search --- BIO Ventures for Global Health --- cross-sector collaboration --- capacity-building --- drug discovery --- public-private partnerships --- GIS --- remote-sensing --- satellite --- international space station --- ECOSTRESS --- worldview --- spatio-temporal epidemiology --- climate change --- parasite --- schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis --- n/a --- schistosomiasis --- systems epidemiology --- systems thinking --- complexity --- neglected tropical diseases --- interdisciplinarity --- Schistosomiasis mansoni --- Caribbean --- elimination --- snail control --- Biomphalaria glabrata --- Schistosoma mekongi --- Neotricula aperta --- snail --- Cambodia --- Lao PDR --- elimination --- Asia --- control --- elimination --- epidemiology --- Schistosoma japonicum --- Schistosoma malayensis --- Schistosoma mekongi --- schistosomiasis --- Schistosomiasis --- Philippines --- schistosomiasis elimination --- S. japonicum zoonosis --- bovines --- schistosomiasis elimination --- snail control --- high-sensitivity diagnostics --- chemotherapy --- vaccine development --- health education --- sanitation

The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039218349 9783039218356 Year: Pages: 322 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-835-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:21:22
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The purpose of this Special Issue is to provide a thorough and up-to-date presentation of research investigating the impact of coffee and/or caffeine intake on various health outcomes. Areas of interest include, but are not limited to, the following topics: Human clinical trials of coffee or caffeine use in relation to disease or intermediate phenotypes. Epidemiological studies of habitual coffee or caffeine intake in relation to human health, among the general public, as well as, among special populations (i.e., children, pregnant women, diabetics, cancer patients, hypertensives, etc.). Mechanisms of action of nutrients and other bioactive components of coffee/caffeine. Studies integrating genetic or physiological markers of coffee/caffeine intake to investigations of coffee and health.

Keywords

accidental death --- caffeine --- caffeine intoxication --- intoxication --- Suicide --- HIV-HCV co-infection --- liver fibrosis --- coffee --- alcohol consumption --- coffee --- tea --- European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition --- 24-h dietary recall --- whole-blood --- mRNA --- transcriptomics --- gene expression --- coffee --- the Norwegian Women and Cancer Cohort (NOWAC) --- caffeine --- myocardial perfusion --- coronary artery disease --- adenosine --- regadenoson --- dipyridamole --- caffeine intake --- assisted reproduction techniques --- risk factors --- implantation --- clinical pregnancy --- live birth --- epidemiology --- bias --- causation --- coffee --- pregnancy --- coffee --- depression --- cohort study --- Mendelian Randomization --- coffee --- caffeine --- behavior --- causality --- genetic epidemiology --- epidemiological methods --- cardiovascular disease --- coffee consumption --- gene-diet interaction --- longevity --- NADH dehydrogenase --- polymorphism --- serum chloride levels --- CYP1A2 --- ADORA2A --- time trial performance --- caffeine metabolism --- pharmacological ergogenic aid --- polymorphism --- anxiety --- ergogenic --- adenosine receptor --- cytochrome P450 --- caffeine --- pharmacogenomics --- coffee --- caffeine --- chlorogenic acids --- phenolic --- cognition --- cognitive --- mood --- age --- sex --- caffeine --- wine --- chocolate --- aging --- cognition --- adult --- coffee --- hearing --- protection --- tinnitus --- Caffeine --- placebo --- sport --- exercise --- health --- expectancy --- cognitions --- caffeine --- coffee --- systematic review --- pregnancy --- safety --- individual responses --- ergogenic aid --- supplement --- did not respond --- responders --- n/a --- caffeine --- coffee --- tea --- soda --- energy drinks --- mate --- guidelines --- country --- consumption --- population --- public policy --- coffee --- caffeine --- lipids --- biomarkers --- trial --- lysophosphatidylcholine --- lipidomics --- n/a

Nutrition and Eye Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039219902 9783039219919 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-991-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Blindness and visual impairment impact significantly on an individual’s physical and mental well-being. Loss of vision is a global health problem, with approximately 250 million of the world’s population currently living with vision loss, of which 36 million are classified as blind. Visual impairment is more frequent in the elderly, with cataract and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) accounting for over 50% of cases globally. Oxidative stress has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of both conditions, and consequently the role of nutritional factors, in particular carotenoids and micronutrient antioxidants, have been investigated as possible preventative or therapeutic strategies. Dry eye syndrome (DES) is one of the most common ophthalmic conditions in the world. DES occurs where the eye does not produce enough tears and/or the tears evaporate too quicklyleading to discomfort and varying degrees of visual disturbance. There has recently been a great deal of interest in the potential for oral or topical supplementation with essential fatty acids (EFAs), specifically omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, as an adjunct to conventional treatments for DES. The objective of this Special Issue on ‘Nutrition and Eye Health’ is to publish papers describing the role of nutrition in maintaining eye health and the use of nutritional interventions to prevent or treat ocular disease. A particular (but not exclusive) emphasis will be on papers (reviews and/or clinical or experimental studies) relating to cataract, AMD and DES.

Keywords

lutein --- RR-zeaxanthin --- mesozeaxanthin (RS zeaxanthin) --- light damage --- photoreceptor degeneration --- oxidative stress --- endoplasmic reticulum stress --- electroretinography --- advanced glycation end products --- chyrsin --- diabetic retinopathy --- endoplasmic reticulum --- retinal pigment epithelium --- visual cycle --- cataract --- phytoconstituents --- lens --- preclinical models --- drug discovery --- age-related macular degeneration --- gut-retina axis --- gut microbiota --- dietary habits --- micronutrients --- fish oil --- omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids --- personalised medicine --- Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110 --- retina --- light --- macrophage --- saffron --- Crocus Sativus L. --- crocin --- crocetin --- supplements --- anti-oxidant --- anti-inflammatory --- AMD --- diabetes --- glaucoma --- retina --- oxidative stress --- inflammation --- microvascular lesions --- neoangiogenesis --- polyphenols --- flavonoids --- carotenoids --- saponins --- rosmarinic acid --- sinapic acid --- lenses --- estrogen-deficient rats --- oxidative stress --- reduced glutathione --- omega-3 --- fatty acid --- diet --- dietary assessment --- clinical survey --- eye disease --- dry eye --- age-related macular degeneration --- food frequency questionnaire --- CODS --- clinical practice guidelines --- systematic reviews --- age-related macular degeneration --- nutritional supplements --- diet --- nutrition --- AGREE II --- Cucurbita argyrosperma --- corneal chemical burn --- angiogenesis --- corneal neovascularization (CNV) --- vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) --- interleukin-1? (IL-1?) --- cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) --- nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) --- dietary antioxidants --- antioxidant supplements --- lens --- cataract --- n/a

Diet and Immune Function

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039216123 / 9783039216130 Year: Pages: 314 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-613-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Supporting initiation, development and resolution of appropriate immune responses is key to survival. Many nutrients and dietary components have been purported to have a role in supporting optimal immune function. This is vital throughout the life course, from the development and programming of the immune system in early life, to supporting immunity and reducing chronic inflammation in older people. In this special issue of Nutrients, we examine the evidence for the role of diet and dietary components in promoting protective immunity.

Keywords

inflammation --- toll-like receptor 4 --- obesity --- fatty acids --- protein hydrolysate --- bioactive peptide --- immunomodulation --- Toll-like receptor --- functional foods --- zinc --- sepsis --- biomarker --- supplementation --- homeostasis --- human milk oligosaccharides --- intestinal immune system --- microbiota --- fermented milk --- Th1/Th17 response --- inflammatory process --- growth factors --- breast milk --- immunonutrition --- cytokines --- lymphocytes --- selenocysteine --- macrophage --- T cell --- antibody --- inflammation --- cancer --- adults --- age-related immunity --- deficiency --- elderly --- immunosenescence --- infants --- infection --- micronutrients --- older people --- nutrition --- amino acids --- leukocytes --- skeletal muscle --- gut --- liver --- anorexia nervosa --- inflammatory markers --- inflammation --- cytokines --- chemokines --- adhesion molecules --- carbohydrates --- fiber --- food structure --- formulation --- plant --- microbiota --- inflammation --- metabolism --- nutrition guidelines --- vitamin E --- macrophages --- T cells --- dendritic cells --- immunomodulation --- infection --- polyphenols --- immune system --- inflammation --- molecular mechanisms --- nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) --- arachidonic acid --- mitogen-activated protein Kinase (MAPK) --- cytokines --- oxidative stress --- reactive oxygen species (ROS) --- cyclooxygenase (COX) --- nitric oxide synthase (NOS) --- lipoxygenase (LOX) --- superoxide dismutase (SOD) --- inhibitor of kappa kinase (IKK) --- extra-cellular signal regulated kinases (ERK) --- cancer --- anti-inflammation --- anti-tumorigenic --- chronic inflammatory conditions --- macrophages --- T helper 1 (Th1) --- Th17 --- Treg --- vitamin D --- immune system --- gut microbiota --- autoimmune diseases --- T cells --- weaning --- oligosaccharides --- non-digestible carbohydrates --- metabolites --- gut barrier --- tolerance --- nutrition --- immunity --- macronutrients --- micronutrients --- microbiome --- life course --- probiotic --- prebiotic --- inflammation

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