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Ein Diener seiner Herren

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ISBN: 9783205994534 Year: Pages: 315 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/oapen_437163 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 3273
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:49:01
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The biography of Gustavus G. Zertfi (1820-1892) is the first analytical introduction to the Habsburg secret service in the 1850s and 1860s through the case study of a secret agent. By strange coincidence, it is also a major contribution to the. beginnings. of modem Japanese historiography as Zerffi's The Science of History provided the first basic text for Japanese scholars on modem European history and historians after the Meiji revolution of 1868. Though. probably the most formidable. secret agent in the ."neo-absolutistic" Habsburg Empire of the mid-19th century, G. G. Zerffi was an obscure and relatively little known figure in his own time. Over a period. of close to 16. years, Zerffi sent some 2,000 numbered intelligent reports to the Habsburg government in Vienna from Serbia, the Ottoman Empire, Paris, and, mainly, from London (1849-1865). The. biography serves as an introduction to all the available secret reports by Zerffi collected from Austrian and, to a smaller extent, Russian archives, publishing them in the Get-man original as an appendix of his work. Through the life and activities. of one particular figure the book opens up. several chapters of 19th century Europe, Britain, and Japan and contributes significantly to the understanding of the revolutions of 1848-1849 and. their dreadful suppression in the whole continent of Europe. It provides particularly new insight in the working and methods of authoritarian, "pre-dictatorial" Central and East. European secret police systems, censorship, and thought control. All over Europe the police preferred to use highly qualified agents. with, the knowledge of several languages, as well as the history and culture of many regions in order to collect reliable and. varied information. This. in turn was used by the governments to maintain their control over practically the whole of the European continent in much of the 1850s and 1860s.. Several of these well paid police. agents were. prominent professionals such as G. G. Zerffi who came to be one of the founders and first chairmen of the Royal Historical Society in London. It was in this capacity that he contributed to the humanities in Britain as well as to the rise of modem Japanese historiography. This is the first book to provide a thorough introduction to G. G. Zerffi's basically unknown British scholarship from the late 1860s through the early 1890s. A relevant and topical contribution to the understanding of the nature and making of Central and East European autocracies in the mid-19th century, the book will also help the reader to assess the prehistory and early development of modem dictatorial systems in the region. Most of the book is based on primary sources scattered all over Europe in dozens of archives in Vienna, Budapest, London, Moscow, Amsterdam, and Bonn.

Geschichte der italienischen Literatur in Österreich

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ISBN: 9783205787303 Year: Pages: 778 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/oapen_437199 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4268
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:49:35
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Towards the end of the 20th century the Italian literature created outside Italy finally started to receive proper attention, because research began to focus on the socio-cultural analysis of the different forms of internal and external postcolonialism. As a result, both imperialism and nationalism are seen as responsible for phenomena of cultural alienation in many territories outside as well as inside the national borders of the country and are exposed as ideological constructs. Nevertheless research still neglects the one undoubtedly outstanding region in the production of Italian literature outside Italy, i.e. Austria, more precisely the territories of the Habsburg Monarchy, where for nearly 500 years - from early Humanism to the First World War - the tradition was the richest in quantity as well as in quality. This first part of a comprehensive history of the Italian literature created in Austria for an Austrian public has been written with the intention of filling this gap. The unique position the Italian language held at Vienna's imperial court at least from the middle of the 17th to the middle of the 18th century is well known: Italian was not only an official language for the purpose of representation, it also served as a vehicle of cultural communication in the inner circle of the imperial family. The numerous political connections between the House of Habsburg and the ruling Italian dynasties are a major reason for the manifold cultural transfers between the Austrian territories and the Italian States. The great number of strategic marriages led to intense cultural as well as economical relations, which obviously did result in occasional implications in territorial conflicts and in military alliances not always favorable to the mutual understanding. As a consequence of the above mentioned economical and dynastical connections the Habsburgs often intervened politically in Italy, first in the Early Modern Period, especially during the reigns of Charles V and Ferdinand I. Two centuries later, the Habsburg administration of the Kingdom of Naples (1707-1734) as well as of Lombardy during most of the 18th century (1714-1797) was decisive for the continuation of those interchanges, which ended however, when the Italian movement of unification began to create a totally new situation. Humanism, baroque and enlightenment, three currents which are amply discussed in the present volume, could more easily expand from Italy to Austria because of the before described dynastical connections and they established themselves still deeper because of the immigration or the long stays of Italian authors in the cultural centers of the Austrian monarchy, first of all of course in Vienna. Not surprisingly however, we possess so far only an inadequate and unsystematic documentation of the activities and literary productions of the great majority of those authors: As is well known, the 19th century created a nationalistic base for literary studies, a view which still for a long time influenced the 20th century for a long time. The Italian authors working and publishing in Austria did so in their own language, but in a foreign country and for a foreign sovereign. For this reason they obtained practically no attention in Austrian literary studies, because there works were not composed in the national language, and their appearance in Italian studies is all but nonexistent because they made no direct contribution to the national literary tradition.

Die Landschaft Bukowina

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ISBN: 9783205784630 Year: Pages: 398 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/oapen_437181 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4085
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:49:20
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Bucovina was an integral part of Habsburg Empire since 1775. Starting from a pure political construction on the European map of power at the end of 18th century this small area developed into a well integrated Austrian crown land. A crown land, which succeeded to form a certain regional identity – conform to the Habsburg state ideology. Till the outbreak of First World War national rivalries played a certain role for regional politics in the county but were moderate in general. Especially this situation was grounded in a direct liaison of this small province situated on the Eastern slopes of Carpathians with Vienna as imperial centre. A development which aimed towards steadily improving inner consolidation and balance in comparison with the other crown lands of the Empire. Only the outcome of the First World War, as Bucovina became part of the Romanian kingdom, loosing its geo strategic position as a bridge between East and West, showed in its consequences the former importance of this organic exchange with Vienna, shaping the provinces society and cultural landscape. The genesis of Bucovina region at the periphery of a European Empire from the end of 18th up to the beginning of 20th century as well as the structural persistence of the cultural landscape’s characteristics is centrally focussed in this study. The analyses of spatial processes as well as their genesis, shaped by a changing geopolitical situation, were of main interest for the research. Since the midst of 19th century a serious and existential national tension within the Bucovina was growing which could only partially be influenced by the province politics itself. A tension in between a search for a distinguished political position, the new idea of nation state and a overall-covering ideology of Commonness, a tension between growing regional identity, of beeing Bucovina and increasing national claims. The study tries to draw a knew, integral and less known picture of this variously shaped cultural landscape – apart from common nationalistic and segmented analyses.

Der griechisch-orientalische Religionsfonds der Bukowina 1783-1949

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ISBN: 3783205209263 Year: Pages: 446 Seiten Language: English
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 622
Added to DOAB on : 2020-03-13 11:21:04
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A comprehensive secularisation process in the course of the Josephinian reforms led to a complete restructuring of church assets. As early as 1783 a Greek-Oriental Religious Fund attributed to the Bukovina was established. Its growing economic and political role made this institution a major factor in the development of the region. It kept this important position until its eventual dissolution in the course of socialist restructuring of Romania in 1949.

Kaiser Ferdinand III. (1608–1657)

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ISBN: 9783205777656 Year: Pages: 580 DOI: 10.26530/oapen_455750 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4270
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2013-10-11 21:10:21
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Ferdinand III. inherited the Thirty Years' war from its father, Ferdinand II.. In the centre of his reign, the war ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia and thereby the long time of the confessional arguments going along with denomination questions. The Peace of Westphalia was at the same time an important stage in the decay of the alliance of the Spanish and Austrian Habsburger which had emerged under Karl of the V. and which had polarised Europe about for one century. Now the Peace helped to create sovereign member states in Europe. For Ferdinand III. this multilayered epoch change presented itself as a number of dilemmas. These resulted from his search for peace and at the same time his attempts to fight for more favourable peace conditions; his separation from Spain against his consent and nevertheless his attempts to hold on to his Iberian relatives which were nevertheless slipping away; his timid protection of peace after 1648 and nevertheless his return against his consent to the European wars of the 1650er-Jahre. For a new comprehension of the time of Ferdinand III, it seemed important it to me to particularly stress some structural aspects, above all the close entwinement of the controversy over denominations and rule rights. In his elective monarchies, in the Empire, and in Hungary, Ferdinand III. pursued a pragmatically moderated confessional policy, in his hereditary countries, Austria and Bohemia, he was a rigid counter reformer. His counter reformation however was not only motivated religiously, but it was directed at the same time against the almost autonomous rule of the aristocracy over the rural subjects. Both confessional pragmatism and the counter reformation based on the regionally established church were a burden on the relationship Ferdinand III. to the papacy, who anyhow resisted to the dominance of the house of Habsbourg in Italy. The manuscript also provides new aspects regarding the cultural dimension of early-modern rule. The text essential stresses the pictures and terms, the symbols and rituals on which the Emperor's self understanding and his relation to the world was based and lived accordingly. Education, environment and ceremoniality take therefore much space. Rulers of the early modern times knew themselves observed and acted thereafter. If it is so difficult to determine precisely the share of Ferdinands III. of 'his' government, this is not only due to institutionalised discussions and the separation of functions within a complex government machinery. It is furthermore not only due to the fact that the Court was for the Emperor and courtiers a convincingly handled instrument of the self-manifestation with representative stage appearances on the one hand and useful concealments on the other hand. It is due above all to the fact that this Emperor did not understand governance in a modern, comprehensive sense as politics. Governance did not serve the realisation of an utopia formulated from an individual point of view or from the society. The cosmos for Ferdinand III.was still God-given, an allegedly natural order. The task of princes therein was limited, and the protection and the development of princes' rule considering the complexity of confessional and political goals and problems were in practice difficult enough. That this Emperor took up the idea of state sovereignty was a step of detachment from what he once learned to be correct. In alchemy, in magnetism and in music, Ferdinand III. continued to look for an expression of the natural order of the things. On the other hand (also here the Emperor stands at an epoch change) he was interested in a phenomenon, whose physical and artistic developments in the 17. Century destroyed the bases of his mental world: in seeing. The Emperor learned that not only the regarded object, but also the person seeing takes part in the construction of one's picture.

Geschichte der italienischen Literatur in Österreich

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ISBN: 9783205787297 Year: Pages: 338 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/oapen_437165 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4295
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:49:03
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The present monograph focuses on the history of Italian literature and language in Austria's Habsburg past, covering the period from the Peace of Campoformido between Napoleon and Francis II in 1797 to the end of the Habsburg monarchy in 1918. The study reveals that Italian court poetry was amazingly alive in the 19th century as it gradually had been adapted to the changes in the fields of politics, society, and the press. After analyzing the end of the golden era of Italian poetry in Austria, the author presents Archduchess Maria Beatrice d'Este and her literary circle. She was the last patroness of Italian artists and poets and kept up the old-style tradition of court poetry until her death in 1829. During the 19th century, however, this tradition faced an ever increasing popularization, with Italian language books and instruction getting more and more common. The Italian language was never discriminated against in the Habsburg monarchy. On the contrary, it was even extensively taught at universities because officials with a good command of Italian were needed both in the federal government and in the Italian regions of the monarchy. Moreover, the Habsburgs' language policy favored the publication of quality papers and literary magazines in Italian. The study also deals with Italian school books and anthologies for schools in the Italian parts of the monarchy, which were usually written and published in Vienna. In the last part of this chapter, records of the future Emperor Franz Joseph's Italian instruction are presented and analyzed on the basis of archive materials. Anachronistically, court poetry survived the 1848/1849 revolution and continued until World War I. The Emperor was popularized in jubilee editions, newspapers, and ceremonies, but also in the Italian poetry which was no longer of high quality, but still instrumental in presenting Franz Joseph as the "father of the nation".

Die ältesten Quellen zur Kodifikationsgeschichte des österreichischen ABGB

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ISBN: 9783205788645 Year: Pages: 338 DOI: 10.26530/oapen_437229 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4332
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:50:03
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"... habent sua fata libelli": Nowadays this saying is usually used to state, that a text is only able to impart as much message, as the reader is willing to understand. However, we can make use of this saying in another sense too - for instance just as James Joyce used to say: to give a "book in print a life of its own"; meaning that the fate of a book is above all built on the fact, that it was put into the world. Of course there are papers, which never caught sight of the world, or which later got lost - for example due to a fire-disaster. On the 15th of July 1927, the most important files about the history of the making of Austria's General Civil Code sustained such a fate, due to the fire-disaster in the Viennese Palace of Justice, where these documents have been treasured at the Archive of the Ministry of Justice. This destruction, however, did not lead to the total loss of legal sources relevant to the legal history of Austria's General Civil Code. The most important documents regarding the beginning of the composition of the Austrian General Civil Code have been preserved by Harrasowksy in his edition of the Codex Theresianus in 1883/86. Nevertheless some of the eldest materials, that have been marking the very beginning of the composition of the Codex Theresianus in 1753, composed by the first law-making commission, the so called Compilating-Commission, remained disregarded and untouched in the archives: to begin with, this is a "plan", drawn up by Josef Azzoni in May 1753, containing not only a disposition of the content of the Codex Theresianus, but also a first description of it. Therefore this "plan" can be seen just as a preliminary draft of the project of the Codex Theresianus. Moreover this is a series of descriptions about civil laws, valid for different hereditary provinces of the Habsburg Monarchy, which should then serve as basic sources in regard of the project of an unified Civil Code, which was provided as a common law for the entire monarchy instead of particular laws in different provinces. In his edition of the Codex Theresianus Harrasowsky specified only the headlines of Azzonis "plan"; he also presented several descriptions of the Civil Law, valid for the particular hereditary provinces, namely in annotations to the content of the Codex; however only regarding details, and sporadically distributed within the three parts of the Codex. Since the times of Harrasowsky, legal historical research has not been interested in these eldest materials about the history of the Austrian General Civil Code. Only since World Word II literature in legal history is showing a few references to these materials, of course not in a comprehensive matter or in regard of specific questions dealing with certain contents of specific text modules. Among all these materials only the description of Holger remained entirely in the archive of the Ministry of Justice. About 75 % of these documents treasured in this archive, were completely destroyed due to the fire-disaster in 1927 - as just mentioned at the begin of this lecture. A considerable part of records and files of course was salvaged, but partly seriously damaged by fire and water. Among the eldest preparatory works on the Codex Theresianus - except of Holgers illustration of the contemporary Austrian law - furthermore only Azzonis preliminary draft was kept in existence. Not to mention that both documents are showing remarkable marks of the disaster of 1927, nevertheless these damages are not extensive, and this was leading to the allowance of Austrian Archive of Administration, where these documents are actually preserved, to use them for the purpose of an edition.

Die vielsprachige Seele Kakaniens

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ISBN: 9783205788294 Year: Pages: 442 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/oapen_437186 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4326
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2013-04-19 19:35:34
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In the last few decades, the discipline of Translation Studies has been characterized by a considerable increase of interdisciplinary approaches which both helped to sharpen its profiling and to promote its multilayered epistemological discussions. The contribution of this book to these developments is located on various levels. I claim that in view of its multifaceted forms, translation as practiced in the late Habsburg Empire to a high degree contributed to the construction of cultures in the pluri-cultural space of the Habsburg Monarchy: on the one hand, I have revealed the various layers of translation’s constructive character and then – on the basis of Pierre Bourdieu’s sociological framework – shed light on the various construction processes on behalf of detailed analyses which focus on the agents involved in these processes. These considerations are then reflected in the delineation of a model which I call the “pluri-cultural communication space of the Habsburg Monarchy”. In terms of methodology, I have drawn on post-colonial theoretical frameworks. On such a basis, I have sketched a concept of culture which aims to correspond to the hybrid constellations characteristic to vast parts of the Monarchy and which claims to detect the symbolic forms of ethnically articulated dominance. The metaphorically inspired translation concept developed in the wake of these reflections (“cultural translation”) results in conceptualizing a typology of various translation forms which claim to do justice to the complexity of the Monarchy’s translatorial practices in the continuum between “communication” and “translation”. Primarily on the basis of archival sources, the analysis covers the translatorial practice in the various ministries (“Commission of Terminology “,“Bureau of Redaction of the Imperial Law Gazette”, “Section of Ciphering and Translatorial Work”), in court (sworn interpreters), and in the diplomatic service, among others. On the other hand, I have worked on extensive corpora analyzing the translation flows both between various languages of the crown lands and with countries outside the Monarchy by adopting numerous parameters (focus: translations into German). Finally, the focus is laid on the translations from Italian, with a particular emphasis on laying bare the construction processes operating in the selection, production, distribution and reception of these translations. The features which make up the construction of culture in the Habsburg context can be particularly detected in two instances: first, in the tensions related to national conflicts which are inscribed in all translation types dealt with in the period under investigation. Secondly, in the phenomenon of bi- and multilingualism which – according to the territory and the legal situation respectively – represented a basic prerequisite for the translation and interpreting activity and as such in many cases made a professional and qualitatively differentiated formation in translation at least at first sight avoidable. Nevertheless, it has been able to reconstruct a gradual institutionalization of the translatorial activity. English version of the book: http://e-book.fwf.ac.at/o:786

Im Dienste einer Staatsidee

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ISBN: 9783205789277 Year: Pages: 250 DOI: 10.26530/oapen_446019 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUP 45
Subject: Arts in general
Added to DOAB on : 2013-05-18 08:11:25
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Until today, the death of Charles VI and Maria Theresia’s ascending the throne 1740 is seen as a major turning point in Austrian history. But now is the question of whether in different “layers” and “rooms” without doubt fundamental change between 1720 and 1780 not differentiated must be seen against the background of the concept of interface (“Sattelzeit”/Reinhart Koselleck). On the basis of the space “Viennese court”, where the change of rulers in its effects most likely can be documented, attempts from the perspective of different disciplines (the so called “Hofkünste” – literature/poetry, arts, theatre/dance, music) point out continuities and discontinuities.

The First World War and the End of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1914-1918

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ISBN: 9783205795889 Year: Pages: 1188 DOI: 10.26530/oapen_482374 Language: English
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 168
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2014-12-04 09:02:28
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The origins of World War I were different and varied. But it was Austria-Hungary which unleashed the war. After more than four years the Habsburg Monarchy was defeated and ended as a failed state.

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