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Physiology, Psychoacoustics and Cognition in Normal and Impaired Hearing

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Book Series: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology ISSN: 0065-2598 ISBN: 9783319254722 9783319254746 Year: Pages: 484 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-25474-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-21 14:27:15
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​The International Symposium on Hearing is a prestigious, triennial gathering where world-class scientists present and discuss the most recent advances in the field of human and animal hearing research. The 2015 edition will particularly focus on integrative approaches linking physiological, psychophysical and cognitive aspects of normal and impaired hearing. Like previous editions, the proceedings will contain about 50 chapters ranging from basic to applied research, and of interest to neuroscientists, psychologists, audiologists, engineers, otolaryngologists, and artificial intelligence researchers.​

Cognitive Hearing Mechanisms of Language Understanding: Short- and Long-Term Perspectives

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453030 Year: Pages: 461 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-303-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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The effect of hearing loss on neural processing

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195404 Year: Pages: 375 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-540-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Efficient auditory processing requires the rapid integration of transient sensory inputs. This is exemplified in human speech perception, in which long stretches of a complex acoustic signal are typically processed accurately and essentially in real-time. Spoken language thus presents listeners’ auditory systems with a considerable challenge even when acoustic input is clear. However, auditory processing ability is frequently compromised due to congenital or acquired hearing loss, or altered through background noise or assistive devices such as cochlear implants. How does loss of sensory fidelity impact neural processing, efficiency, and health? How does this ultimately influence behavior? This Research Topic explores the neural consequences of hearing loss, including basic processing carried out in the auditory periphery, computations in subcortical nuclei and primary auditory cortex, and higher-level cognitive processes such as those involved in human speech perception. By pulling together data from a variety of disciplines and perspectives, we gain a more complete picture of the acute and chronic consequences of hearing loss for neural functioning.

The Role of Working Memory and Executive Function in Communication under Adverse Conditions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198610 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-861-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Communication is vital for social participation. However, communication often takes place under suboptimal conditions. This makes communication harder and less reliable, leading at worst to social isolation. In order to promote participation, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms underlying communication in different situations. Human communication is often speech based, either oral or written, but may also involve gesture, either accompanying speech or in the form of sign language. For communication to be achieved, a signal generated by one person has to be perceived by another person, attended to, comprehended and responded to. This process may be hindered by adverse conditions including factors that may be internal to the sender (e.g. incomplete or idiosyncratic language production), occur during transmission (e.g. background noise or signal processing) or be internal to the receiver (e.g. poor grasp of the language or sensory impairment). The extent to which these factors interact to generate adverse conditions may differ across the lifespan. Recent work has shown that successful speech communication under adverse conditions is associated with good cognitive capacity including efficient working memory and executive abilities such as updating and inhibition. Further, frontoparietal networks associated with working memory and executive function have been shown to be activated to a greater degree when it is harder to achieve speech comprehension. To date, less work has focused on sign language communication under adverse conditions or the role of gestures accompanying speech communication under adverse conditions. It has been proposed that the role of working memory in communication under such conditions is to keep fragments of an incomplete signal in mind, updating them as appropriate and inhibiting irrelevant information, until an adequate match can be achieved with lexical and semantic representations held in long term memory. Recent models of working memory highlight an episodic buffer whose role is the multimodal integration of information from the senses and long term memory. It is likely that the episodic buffer plays a key role in communication under adverse conditions. The aim of this research topic is to draw together multiple perspectives on communication under adverse conditions including empirical and theoretical approaches. This will facilitate a scientific exchange among individual scientists and groups studying different aspects of communication under adverse conditions and/or the role of cognition in communication. As such, this topic belongs firmly within the field of Cognitive Hearing Science. Exchange of ideas among scientists with different perspectives on these issues will allow researchers to identify and highlight the way in which different internal and external factors interact to make communication in different modalities more or less successful across the lifespan. Such exchange is the forerunner of broader dissemination of results which ultimately, may make it possible to take measures to reduce adverse conditions, thus facilitating communication. Such measures might be implemented in relation to the built environment, the design of hearing aids and public awareness.

Sensory Hair Cell Death and Regeneration

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450008 Year: Pages: 266 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-000-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Sensory hair cells are the specialized mechanosensory receptors found in vertebrate auditory, vestibular, and lateral line organs that transduce vibratory and acoustic stimuli into the sensations of hearing and balance. Hair cells can be damaged due to such factors as aging, ototoxic chemicals, acoustic trauma, infection, or genetic factors. Loss of these hair cells lead to deficits in hearing and balance, and in mammals, such deficits are permanent. In contrast, non-mammalian vertebrates exhibit the capability to regenerate missing hair cells. Researchers have been examining the process of hair cell death and regeneration in animal models in an attempt to find ways of either preventing hair cell loss or stimulating the production of new hair cells in mammals, with the ultimate goal of finding new therapeutics for human sensorineural hearing and balance deficits. This has led to a wide array of research on sensory hair cells- such as understanding the factors that cause hair cell loss and finding agents that protect them from damage, elucidating the cell signaling pathways activated during hair cell death, examining the genes and cellular pathways that are regulated during the process of hair cell death and regeneration, and characterizing the functional sensory loss and recovery following acoustic or ototoxic insults to the inner ear. This research has involved cell and developmental biologists, physiologists, geneticists, bioinformaticians, and otolaryngologists. In this Research Topic, we have collated reviews of the past progress of hair cell death and regeneration studies and original research articles advancing sensory hair cell death and regeneration research into the future.

Evidence in Civil Law - Latvia

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Book Series: Law & Society ISBN: 9789616842532 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.4335/978-961-6842-53-2 Language: English
Publisher: Institute for Local Self-Government and Public Procurement Maribor
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-09 21:56:58
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The national report of civil procedure in Latvia is based on review of the Latvian Civil Procedure Law, court practice, feedback by the Ministry of Justice on cooperation with the EU states as well as with third countries in various matters of jurisdiction as well as on legal science. Civil procedure includes all legal principles like disposition, right to be present and to be heard, competition of parties in gaining all necessary evidence and similar concepts to be found in almost every modern civil procedure system. However, there are certain specific features due to which Latvian process stands out. For instance, there is still a system of legal presumptions which apparently is inherited from Roman law, yet still prescribed by the Latvian Civil law (Civil code). Also certain degree of formal attitude remains as a characteristic feature of the Latvian civil procedure.

How and Why Does Spatial-Hearing Ability Differ among Listeners? What Is the Role of Learning and Multisensory Interactions?

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198566 Year: Pages: 253 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-856-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Spatial-hearing ability has been found to vary widely across listeners. A survey of the existing auditory-space perception literature suggests that three main types of factors may account for this variability:- physical factors, e.g., acoustical characteristics related to sound-localization cues,- perceptual factors, e.g., sensory/cognitive processing, perceptual learning, multisensory interactions,- and methodological factors, e.g., differences in stimulus presentation methods across studies.However, the extent to which these–and perhaps other, still unidentified—factors actually contribute to the observed variability in spatial hearing across individuals with normal hearing or within special populations (e.g., hearing-impaired listeners) remains largely unknown. Likewise, the role of perceptual learning and multisensory interactions in the emergence of a multimodal but unified representation of “auditory space,” is still an active topic of research. A better characterization and understanding of the determinants of inter-individual variability in spatial hearing, and of its relationship with perceptual learning and multisensory interactions, would have numerous benefits. In particular, it would enhance the design of rehabilitative devices and of human-machine interfaces involving auditory, or multimodal space perception, such as virtual auditory/multimodal displays in aeronautics, or navigational aids for the visually impaired. For this Research Topic, we have considered manuscripts that:- present new methods, or review existing methods, for the study of inter-individual differences;- present new data (or review existing) data, concerning acoustical features relevant for explaining inter-individual differences in sound-localization performance;- present new (or review existing) psychophysical or neurophysiological findings concerning spatial hearing and/or auditory perceptual learning, and/or multisensory interactions in humans (normal or impaired, young or older listeners) or other species;- discuss the influence of inter-individual differences on the design and use of assistive listening devices (rehabilitation) or human-machine interfaces involving spatial hearing or multimodal perception of space (ergonomy).

New Advances in Electrocochleography for Clinical and Basic Investigation

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455041 Year: Pages: 315 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-504-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Electrocochleography (ECochG) is an approach for objective measurements of physiologic responses from the inner ear. Measurements have classically been made from electrodes placed in the outer ear canal, on the tympanic membrane, the round window niche, or inside the cochlea. Recent innovations have led to ECochG being used for exciting new purposes that drive clinical practice and contribute to the basic understanding of inner ear physiology. Cochlear implant recording electrodes can monitor the preservation of residual, low-frequency acoustic hearing, both in the operating room and post-operatively. ECochG measurements can quantify differential effects of inner ear surgery or other manipulations on vestibular and auditory physiology simultaneously. Various attributes of cognitive neuroscience can be addressed with ECochG measurements from the auditory periphery. These advances in ECochG provide a way to understand a variety of inner ear diseases and are likely to be of value to many groups in their own clinical and basic research.

Mental State Understanding: Individual Differences in Typical and Atypical Development

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452682 Year: Pages: 203 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-268-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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The current book addresses the development of mental state understanding in children with typical and atypical population, and reports new suggestions about the way to evaluate it and to support it through training. The presented frame is multifaceted. In respect to typical populations, the role of maternal reflective functioning, language, communication, and educational contexts has been deepened; and the association with internalizing/externalizing behaviors, performances in spatial tasks and pragmatics has been addressed as well. As to atypical populations, deficits in mental states understanding are reported for children with different developmental disorders or impairments, as the agenesis of the corpus callosum, Down Syndrome, preterm birth, Autism Spectrum Disorder, hearing impairment and personality difficulties such as anxiety. Overall, the papers collected in our book allow a better understanding of the mechanisms influencing mental state understanding and the effects of mental state comprehension on development.

Phänomen Hörbuch -- Interdisziplinäre Perspektiven und medialer Wandel

Authors: ---
Book Series: Edition Kulturwissenschaft ISBN: 9783839434383 9783837634389 Year: Pages: 228 DOI: 10.14361/9783839434383 Language: German
Publisher: transcript Verlag Grant: OGeSoMo
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-13 11:01:49
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In recent years in the German-speaking world, the audiobook has gained in popularity and significance. One can scarcely imagine libraries and bookstores without them – and academic research is also showing a growing interest. At the same time, it is a phenomenon which needs to be outlined in more detail. As the word audiobook already implies, it is a multifaceted object, which not only addresses various senses at the same time, but also changes form depending on our vantage point. The essays in this volume focus on this polymorphic quality, at the interface of various disciplines.

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