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Dysregulation of Autonomic Cardiac Control by Traumatic Stress and Anxiety

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199150 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-915-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Current understanding of the interplay between sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on cardiac response to environmental stimuli and subsequent response selection (e.g. maintenance of resting homeostasis, mobilization of defensive response, task performance, tonic immobilization, and/or affiliation) will be explored. Reference will be made to how these processes conjoin with proposed polyvagal theory. Cardiac adjustments to environmental stimuli affect the internal physiological state of the organism as well as the quality of information processing that the individual can perform during the stimulus appraisal stage of the orienting response. Bradyrdia is adaptive in early stages of orientation to novel or potential threat, while greater HRV power serves to facilitate self-regulation, stimulus information processing and appraisal, and appropriate response selection. This issue is devoted to current research findings on how normal patterns of cardiac autonomic regulation of HRV are disrupted in PTSD, impairing sustained attention to the environment and increasing the rate of inappropriate responding to stimuli. Origins of our current state of understanding in the ‘intake-rejection’ hypothesis will be considered, and how the intake-rejection hypothesis has morphed into present-day Optimal Performance practice. Additionally, empirical data where available will be presented on how dysregulation of the normal pattern of cardiac autonomic regulation by PTSD impairs sustained attention to the environment, and increases the rate of inappropriate responding to stimuli through disinhibition, poor impulse control, emotional withdrawal, over-arousal, and attentional bias. Current research findings are sought that address in controlled, experimental and clinical trials the restorative effects of HRV biofeedback on HRV power, and how increases in HRV power relate to improved attention / immediate memory and self-regulation of affect using outcome measures of cognition, symptoms of PTSD and depression, stress perception, and level of adaptive function.

Can't Get You Out of My Head: Brain-Body Interactions in Perseverative Cognition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454143 Year: Pages: 111 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-414-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Perseverative cognition is defined as the repetitive or sustained activation of cognitive representations of past stressful events or feared events in the future and even at non-clinical levels it causes a “fight-or-flight” action tendency, followed by a cascade of biological events, starting in the brain and ending as peripheral stress responses. In the past decade, such persistent physiological activation has proven to impact individuals’ health, potentially leading to somatic disease. As such, perseverative cognition has recently been proposed as the missing piece in the relationships between stress, psychopathology, and risk for health. Perseverative cognition is indeed a hallmark of conditions such as anxiety and mood disorders that are at increased -though still unexplained- cardiovascular risk. Although the pivotal role of ruminative and worrisome thoughts in determining the onset and maintenance of psychopathological disorders has been acknowledged for a long time, its effects on the body via reciprocal influences between mental processes and the body's physiology have been neglected. Moreover, perseverative cognition is definitely not restricted to psychopathology, it is extremely common and likely even omnipresent, pervading daily life. The objective of the Research Topic is to provide an interdisciplinary examination of cutting-edge neuroscientific research on brain-body signatures of perseverative cognition in both healthy and psychopathological individuals. Despite the evident role of the brain in repetitive thinking and the assumption that our mind is embodied, bran-body pathways from perseverative cognition to health risk have remained largely unexplored.

Heart Rate Variability: Clinical Applications and Interaction between HRV and Heart Rate

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196524 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-652-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Over the last decades, assessment of heart rate variability (HRV) has increased in various fields of research. HRV describes changes in heartbeat intervals, which are caused by autonomic neural regulation, i.e. by the interplay of the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems. The most frequent application of HRV is connected to cardiological issues, most importantly to the monitoring of post-myocardial infarction patients and the prediction of sudden cardiac death. Analysis of HRV is also frequently applied in relation to diabetes, renal failure, neurological and psychiatric conditions, sleep disorders, psychological phenomena such as stress, as well as drug and addiction research including alcohol and smoking. The widespread application of HRV measurements is based on the fact that they are noninvasive, easy to perform, and in general reproducible – if carried out under standardized conditions. However, the amount of parameters to be analysed is still rising. Well-established time domain and frequency domain parameters are discussed controversially when it comes to their physiological interpretation and their psychometric properties like reliability and validity, and the sensitivity to cardiovascular properties of the variety of parameters seems to be a topic for further research. Recently introduced parameters like pNNxx and new dynamic methods such as approximate entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis offer new potentials and warrant standardization. However, HRV is significantly associated with average heart rate (HR) and one can conclude that HRV actually provides information on two quantities, i.e. on HR and its variability. It is hard to determine which of these two plays a principal role in the clinical value of HRV. The association between HRV and HR is not only a physiological phenomenon but also a mathematical one which is due to non-linear (mathematical) relationship between RR interval and HR. If one normalizes HRV to its average RR interval, one may get ‘pure’ variability free from the mathematical bias. Recently, a new modification method of the association between HRV and HR has been developed which enables us to completely remove the HRV dependence on HR (even the physiological one), or conversely enhance this dependence. Such an approach allows us to explore the HR contribution to the clinical significance of HRV, i.e. whether HR or its variability plays a main role in the HRV clinical value. This Research Topic covers recent advances in the application of HRV, methodological issues, basic underlying mechanisms as well as all aspects of the interaction between HRV and HR.

Mercury and Methylmercury Toxicology and Risk Assessment

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ISBN: 9783038979708 / 9783038979715 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-971-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Mercury is a global pollutant that affects the health of both humans and ecosystems. This Special Issue collects three review papers and six research articles that report on the latest findings on the mechanisms of mercury toxicology and its impacts on environmental health. This collection of papers provides useful, new information on the mechanisms of mercury toxicity and methods of improving the risk assessment of mercury exposure.

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