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Molecular Magnets

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ISBN: 9783038977100 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-711-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 14:08:22
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Abstract

Molecular magnets show many properties not met in conventional metallic magnetic materials, i.e. low density, transparency to electromagnetic radiation, sensitivity to external stimuli such as light, pressure, temperature, chemical modification or magnetic/electric fields, and others. They can serve as “functional” materials in sensors of different types or be applied in high-density magnetic storage or nanoscale devices. Research into molecule-based materials became more intense at the end of the 20th century and is now an important branch of modern science. The articles in this Special Issue, written by physicists and chemists, reflect the current work on molecular magnets being carried out in several research centers. Theoretical papers in the issue concern the influence of spin anisotropy in the low dimensional lattice of the resulting type of magnet, as well as thermodynamics and magnetic excitations in spin trimers. The impact of external pressure on structural and magnetic properties and its underlying mechanisms is described using the example of Prussian blue analogue data. The other functionality discussed is the magnetocaloric effect, investigated in coordination polymers and high spin clusters. In this issue, new molecular magnets are presented: (i) ferromagnetic high-spin [Mn6] single-molecule magnets, (ii) solvatomagnetic compounds changing their structure and magnetism dependent on water content, and (iii) a family of purely organic magnetic materials. Finally, an advanced calorimetric study of anisotropy in magnetic molecular superconductors is reviewed.

Possible Scenarios for Homochirality on Earth

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ISBN: 9783039217229 / 9783039217236 Year: Pages: 318 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-723-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Abstract

In 1978, Fred Hoyle proposed that interstellar comets carrying several viruses landed on Earth as part of the panspermia hypotheses. With respect to life, the origin of homochirality on Earth has been the greatest mystery because life cannot exist without molecular asymmetry. Many scientists have proposed several possible hypotheses to answer this long-standing L-D question. Previously, Martin Gardner raised the question about mirror symmetry and broken mirror symmetry in terms of the homochirality question in his monographs (1964 and 1990). Possible scenarios for the L-D issue can be categorized into (i) Earth and exoterrestrial origins, (ii) by-chance and necessity mechanisms, and (iii) mirror-symmetrical and non-mirror-symmetrical forces as physical and chemical origins. These scenarios should involve further great amplification mechanisms, enabling a pure L- or D-world.

Keywords

chirogenesis --- enantiomorphism --- nepheline --- magmatic flow --- etch figures --- origin of life --- biological homochirality --- deracemization --- super-high-velocity impact --- plasma reactor --- absolute asymmetric synthesis --- amino acids --- origin of life --- amino acid handedness --- nucleus–molecular coupling --- chirality --- circularly polarized luminescence --- circular dichroism --- symmetry breaking --- parity violation --- weak neutral current --- tunneling --- Z0 boson --- homochirality --- precision measurement --- homochirality --- circularly polarized light --- asymmetric reaction --- polymer --- ?-strand --- hidden chirality --- two-fold helix --- multi-point approximation --- tilt-chirality --- high dimensional chirality --- spin polarized electrons --- homochirality --- magnetism --- prebiotic --- environmental chirality --- C1- and C2-symmetric catalysts --- chiral field (memory) --- racemic field --- Viedma ripening effect --- Wallach’s rule --- heat capacity --- metal-organic framework --- triethylenediamine (DABCO) molecules --- racemate --- Salam hypothesis --- homochirality --- parity violation --- neutrinos --- gravitation --- enantiomer self-disproportionation --- SDE --- achiral stationary phase --- homochiral and heterochiral aggregates --- chiral separation --- chirality --- genesis of life chirality --- asymmetric autocatalysis --- homochirality --- chirality --- asymmetric synthesis --- Soai reaction --- biological homochirality --- enantioselective reaction --- autocatalysis --- origin of life --- replicators --- bioorganic homochirality --- circularly polarized photon --- spin-polarized lepton --- parity violation in the weak interaction --- symmetry breaking --- assemblies --- supramolecular chirality --- homochirality --- self-assembly --- vortex --- lipid --- supramolecular assembly --- symmetry breaking --- homochirality

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2019 (2)