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Heat and Mass Transfer in Building Energy Performance Assessment

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ISBN: 9783039219261 9783039219278 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-927-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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The building industry is influenced by many factors and trends reflecting the current situation and developments in social, economic, technical, and scientific fields. One of the most important trends seeks to minimize the energy demand. This can be achieved by promoting the construction of buildings with better thermal insulating capabilities of their envelopes and better efficiency in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. Any credible assessment of building energy performance includes the identification and simulation of heat and mass transfer phenomena in both the building envelope and the interior of the building. As the interaction between design elements, climate change, user behavior, heating effectiveness, ventilation, air conditioning systems, and lighting is not straightforward, the assessment procedure can present a complex and challenging task. The simulations should then involve all factors affecting the energy performance of the building in questions. However, the appropriate choice of physical model of heat and mass transfer for different building elements is not the only factor affecting the output of building energy simulations. The accuracy of the material parameters applied in the models as input data is another potential source of uncertainty. For instance, neglecting the dependence of hygric and thermal parameters on moisture content may affect the energy assessment in a significant way. Boundary conditions in the form of weather data sets represent yet another crucial factor determining the uncertainty of the outputs. In light of recent trends in climate change, this topic is vitally important. This Special Issue aims at providing recent developments in laboratory analyses, computational modeling, and in situ measurements related to the assessment of building energy performance based on the proper identification of heat and mass transfer processes in building structures.

Pd-based Membranes. Overview and Perspectives

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ISBN: 9783038977025 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-703-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Palladium (Pd)-based membranes have received a great deal of attention from both academia and industry thanks to their ability to selectively separate hydrogen from gas streams. The integration of such membranes with appropriate catalysts in membrane reactors allows for hydrogen production with CO2 capture that can be applied in smaller bioenergy or combined heat and power (CHP) plants, as well as in large-scale power plants. Pd-based membranes are therefore regarded as a Key Enabling Technology (KET) to facilitate the transition towards a knowledge-based, low-carbon, and resource-efficient economy. This Special Issue of the journal Membranes on “Pd-based Membranes: Overview and Perspectives” contains nine peer-reviewed articles. Topics include manufacturing techniques, understanding of material phenomena, module and reactor design, novel applications, and demonstration efforts and industrial exploitation.

Friction Stir Welding and Processing in Alloy Manufacturing

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ISBN: 9783039212071 9783039212088 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-208-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Analytical Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Friction stir welding (FSW) is considered to be the most significant development in metal joining in decades and, in addition, is a ""green"" technology due to its energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and versatility. This process offers a number of advantages over conventional joining processes. Furthermore, because welding occurs via the deformation of material at temperatures below the melting temperature, many problems commonly associated with joining of dissimilar alloys can be avoided, and thus, high-quality welds are produced. Due to this fact, FSW has been widely used in different industrial applications where metallurgical characteristics should be retained, such as in the aeronautic, naval, and automotive industries.

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Structural Metals and Alloys

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ISBN: 9783038975052 9783038975069 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-506-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The papers collected in this special issue clearly reflect the modern research trends in materials science. These fields of specific attention are high-Mn TWIP steels, high-Cr heat resistant steels, aluminum alloys, ultrafine grained materials including those developed by severe plastic deformation, and high-entropy alloys. The major portion of the collected papers is focused on the mechanisms of microstructure evolution and the mechanical properties of metallic materials subjected to various thermo-mechanical, deformation or heat treatments. Another large portion of the studies is aimed on the elaboration of alloying design of advanced steels and alloys. The changes in phase content, transformation and particle precipitation and their effect on the properties are also broadly presented in this collection, including the microstructure/property changes caused by irradiation.

Keywords

Mg–Sm–Zn–Zr --- dynamic precipitation --- microstructure --- mechanical property --- bimodal ferrite steel --- ultrafine-grained microstructure --- mechanical properties --- corrosion resistance --- abnormal grain growth --- grain boundary engineering --- electron backscattered diffraction --- growth rate --- Al metal matrix composites --- microstructure --- mechanical properties --- strengthening mechanism --- hot compression --- dynamic recovery --- dynamic recrystallization --- texture --- aluminum alloys --- Al-Fe-Si-Zr system --- microstructure --- hardness --- electrical conductivity --- metal–matrix composite --- high-pressure torsion --- microstructure evolution --- microhardness --- shape memory alloy --- columnar grain --- Cu-Al-Mn --- elastocaloric effect --- strain rate --- measuring temperature --- creep --- lead-free solder --- Sb solder --- Sn-8.0Sb-3.0Ag --- solder microstructure --- martensitic steels --- creep --- precipitation --- electron microscopy --- high-Mn TWIP steel --- cold rolling --- annealing --- recovery --- recrystallization --- strengthening --- austenitic 304 stainless steels --- sub-merged arc welding --- post-weld heat treatment --- aluminum alloys --- aging --- precipitation --- electrical resistivity --- mechanical properties --- ferritic steel --- irradiation --- nanoindentation --- hardness --- transmission electron microscopy (TEM) --- microstructure --- high-entropy alloys --- high-pressure torsion --- microstructure evolution --- twinning --- mechanical properties --- welded rotor --- weld metal --- impact toughness --- PWHT --- microstructure evolution --- Cu-Cr-Zr --- precipitation --- orientation relationship --- recrystallization --- annealing twins --- structural steel plate --- nonmetallic inclusions --- rare earth control --- M23C6 --- ion irradiation --- M6C --- amorphization --- RAFM steels --- hot stamping --- press hardening --- martensitic expansion --- force peak --- cycle time --- high-Mn steel --- deformation twinning --- dynamic recrystallization --- grain refinement --- work hardening --- in situ tensile testing --- super duplex stainless steel --- SDSS --- low-temperature --- ?-phase --- SEM --- EBSD --- microstructure analysis --- n/a

Structure and Mechanical Properties of Transition Group Metals, Alloys, and Intermetallic Compounds

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ISBN: 9783039211463 9783039211470 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-147-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The aim of this Special Issue is to present the latest theoretical and experimental achievements concerning the mechanisms of microstructural change in metallic materials subject to different processing methods, and their effect on mechanical properties. It is my pleasure to present a series of compelling scientific papers written by scientists from the community of transition group metals, alloys, and intermetallic compounds.

Keywords

metal matrix composites --- laser metal deposition --- Inconel 625 --- additive manufacturing --- laser processing --- metal matrix composites --- Z-pin reinforcement --- delamination --- carbon fiber --- strengthening mechanisms --- severe plastic deformation (SPD) --- cross-channel extrusion (CCE) --- back pressure (BP) --- numerical simulation (FEM) --- physical modeling technique (PMT) --- metal–matrix composites (MMCs) --- carbon fiber --- mechanical properties --- z-pin reinforcement --- laminate --- titanium alloys --- high pressure torsion --- microhardness --- Cu–Ag alloy --- high-pressure torsion --- ultrafine microstructure --- phase dissolution --- microhardness --- friction stir welding --- heat treatment --- AA2519 --- microstructure --- fatigue --- fractography --- AZ91 --- magnesium alloys --- creep --- high pressure die casting --- additive manufacturing --- Ti-6Al-4V --- LENS --- mechanical characterization --- twin roll casting --- magnesium alloy --- calcium --- Mg-Zn-Al-Ca alloy --- texture --- flow curve --- processing map --- honeycomb structure --- additive manufacturing --- laser engineered net shaping --- LENS --- Ti6Al4V alloy --- energy absorption --- dynamic tests --- solidification thermal parameters --- Cu-Al-Ni-Fe bronze alloys --- hardness --- microhardness --- specific intermetallics --- MAX phase --- Ti3SiC2 --- composite --- high energy ball milling --- spark plasma sintering --- structure --- mechanical properties --- deformation behavior --- tribaloy-type alloy --- CoCrMoSi alloy coatings --- T-800 alloy --- Laves phase --- Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENSTM) --- electron microscopy (in situ SEM) --- delamination --- metal matrix composites (MMCs) --- z-pinning

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2019 (5)