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T Cell Regulation by the Environment

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197330 Year: Pages: 115 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-733-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Abstract

Naïve T cells get activated upon encounter with their cognate antigen and differentiate into a specific subset of effector cells. These T cells are themselves plastic and are able to re-differentiate into another subset, changing both phenotype and function. Differentiation into a specific subset depends on the nature of the antigen and of the environmental milieu. Notably, certain nutrients, such as vitamins A and D, sodium chloride, have been shown to modulate T cell responses and influence T cell differentiation. Parasite infection can also skew Th differentiation. Similarly, the gut microbiota regulates the development of immune responses. Lastly, the key role of metabolism on T cells has also been demonstrated. This series of articles highlights some of the multiple links existing between environmental factors and T cell responses.

Parasite Infections: From Experimental Models to Natural Systems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454853 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-485-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Eukaryotic parasites (including parasitic protozoans, worms and arthropods) are more complex and heterogeneous organisms than pathogenic bacteria and viruses. This notion implies different evolutionary strategies of host exploitation. Typically, parasites establish long-term infections and induce relatively little mortality, as they often limit pathological changes by modulating host cells and downregulating adverse immune responses. Their pattern of distribution tends to be endemic rather than epidemic. Despite these seemingly benign traits, parasites usually cause substantial chronic morbidity, thus constituting an enormous socioeconomic burden in humans, particularly in resource poor countries, and in livestock worldwide. Parasite-induced fitness costs are an evolutionary force that can shape populations and contribute to species diversity. Therefore, a thorough understanding of parasites and parasitic diseases requires detailed knowledge of the respective biochemical, molecular and immunological aspects as well as of population genetics, epidemiology and ecology. This Research Topic (RT) bridges disciplines to connect molecular, immunological and wildlife aspects of parasitic infections. The RT puts emphases on four groups of parasites: Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Giardia and intestinal helminths. Co-infections are also covered by the RT as they represent the most common form of parasite infections in wildlife and domestic animal populations. Within the four types of parasites the following topics are addressed: (1) Experimental models: hypothesis testing, translation and limits. (2) Critical appraisal of experimental models. (3) Natural systems: Technological advances for investigations in natural parasite-host systems and studies in natural systems. (4) The urgent need for better models and methods in natural parasite systems. Hence, the RT covers and illustrate by the means of four main parasitic infections the parasite-host system at the molecular, cellular and organismic level.

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