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Hemispheric Bases for Emotion and Memory

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194599 Year: Pages: 97 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-459-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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It has become clear that the two halves of the cortex differ in their contributions to both affective and memory processes. Still, the exact nature of the interrelationships among hemispheric function, emotion, and memory remains elusive. For example, controversy remains regarding differential hemispheric involvement in emotion, motivation, and affective style. Regarding memory, although evidence suggests differences in the manner in which the hemispheres interact may be related to memory retrieval, it is still not certain which factors involved in retrieval encourage or inhibit hemispheric communication. The goal of this Research Topic was to bring together diverse scientific perspectives on lateralized brain mechanisms underlying emotion, motivation, and memory. A range of international experts with diverse backgrounds, theoretical perspectives, and experimental methods contributed to the Topic. These contributions inform our understanding of lateralized affective and cognitive processes by providing thorough reviews of our current state of knowledge based on previous literature, by sharing intriguing new empirical findings, and by proposing theoretical models with testable frameworks to stimulate future research.

Keywords

lateralization --- hemisphere --- memory --- emotion --- affect --- handedness --- caffeine

The Metaphorical Brain

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197729 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-772-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Metaphor has been an issue of intense research and debate for decades (see, for example [1]). Researchers in various disciplines, including linguistics, psychology, computer science, education, and philosophy have developed a variety of theories, and much progress has been made [2]. For one, metaphor is no longer considered a rhetorical flourish that is found mainly in literary texts. Rather, linguists have shown that metaphor is a pervasive phenomenon in everyday language, a major force in the development of new word meanings, and the source of at least some grammatical function words [3]. Indeed, one of the most influential theories of metaphor involves the suggestion that the frequency of metaphoric language results because cross-domain mappings are a major determinant in the organization of semantic memory, as cognitive and neural resources for dealing with concrete domains are recruited for the conceptualization of more abstract ones [4]. Researchers in cognitive neuroscience have explored whether particular kinds of brain damage are associated with metaphor production and comprehension deficits, and whether similar brain regions are recruited when healthy adults understand the literal and metaphorical meanings of the same words (see [5] for a review). Whereas early research on this topic focused on the issue of the role of hemispheric asymmetry in the comprehension and production of metaphors [6], in recent years cognitive neuroscientists have argued that metaphor is not a monolithic category, and that metaphor processing varies as a function of numerous factors, including the novelty or conventionality of a particular metaphoric expression, its part of speech, and the extent of contextual support for the metaphoric meaning (see, e.g., [7], [8], [9]). Moreover, recent developments in cognitive neuroscience point to a sensorimotor basis for many concrete concepts, and raise the issue of whether these mechanisms are ever recruited to process more abstract concepts [10]. This Frontiers Research Topic brings together contributions from researchers in cognitive neuroscience whose work involves the study of metaphor in language and thought in order to promote the development of the neuroscientific investigation of metaphor. Adopting an interdisciplinary perspective, it synthesizes current findings on the cognitive neuroscience of metaphor, provides a forum for voicing novel perspectives, and promotes avenues for new research on the metaphorical brain.

Left Versus Right Asymmetries of Brain and Behaviour

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ISBN: 9783039216925 / 9783039216932 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-693-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This book is a collection of papers written by leaders in the field of lateralized brain function and behaviour in non-human animals. The papers cover the asymmetry of brain mechanisms and behaviour in a wide range of both vertebrate and invertebrate species. Each paper focuses on one of the following topics: the link between population-level lateralization and social behaviour; the processes in the avian brain that permit one brain hemisphere to take control of behaviour; lateralized attention to predators and the common pattern of lateralization in vertebrate species; visual and auditory lateralization; influences that alter the development of lateralization—specifically, the effect of temperature on the development of lateralization in sharks; and the importance of understanding lateralization when considering both the training and welfare of dogs. Collectively, these studies address questions of why different species have asymmetry of brain and behaviour, how it develops, and how this is dealt with by these different species. The papers report on the lateralization of different types of behaviour, each going beyond merely reporting the presence of asymmetry and shedding light on its function and on the mechanisms involved in its expression.

Condensed Matter Researches in Cryospheric Science

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ISBN: 9783039213238 / 9783039213245 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-324-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The cryosphere is very sensitive to climate change, and glaciers represent one of the most important archives of atmospheric composition and its variability. From the Himalaya to the European Alps, the longest mid-latitude mountain chain in the world, lie thousands of glaciers that have collected atmospheric compounds over the last millennia. China and Italy are located at the opposite terminals of this long mountain chain, comprising strategic positions for understanding climate evolution and providing important information for the modeling of future climates. The results presented are highlights of some of the most recent advances in cryospheric studies, especially on the topic of mineral dust and aerosols in the atmosphere. They evidence the complexity of the chemical–physical processes involving solid compounds occurring in glacier, snow, and permafrost environments, covering different aspects such as spatial and temporal trends, as well as the impact of mineral and nonmineral particles. Results also show that recent advances in measurement techniques and source apportionment may be powerful and sophisticated tools to provide novel, high-quality scientific information.

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