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Anatomy and Plasticity in Large-Scale Brain Models

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450657 Year: Pages: 173 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-065-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Supercomputing facilities are becoming increasingly available for simulating activity dynamics in large-scale neuronal networks. On today's most advanced supercomputers, networks with up to a billion of neurons can be readily simulated. However, building biologically realistic, full-scale brain models requires more than just a huge number of neurons. In addition to network size, the detailed local and global anatomy of neuronal connections is of crucial importance. Moreover, anatomical connectivity is not fixed, but can rewire throughout life (structural plasticity)—an aspect that is missing in most current network models, in which plasticity is confined to changes in synaptic strength (synaptic plasticity). The papers in this Ebook, which may broadly be divided into three themes, aim to bring together high-performance computing with recent experimental and computational research in neuroanatomy. In the first theme (fiber connectivity), new methods are described for measuring and data-basing microscopic and macroscopic connectivity. In the second theme (structural plasticity), novel models are introduced that incorporate morphological plasticity and rewiring of anatomical connections. In the third theme (large-scale simulations), simulations of large-scale neuronal networks are presented with an emphasis on anatomical detail and plasticity mechanisms. Together, the articles in this Ebook make the reader aware of the methods and models by which large-scale brain networks running on supercomputers can be extended to include anatomical detail and plasticity.Supercomputing facilities are becoming increasingly available for simulating activity dynamics in large-scale neuronal networks. On today's most advanced supercomputers, networks with up to a billion of neurons can be readily simulated. However, building biologically realistic, full-scale brain models requires more than just a huge number of neurons. In addition to network size, the detailed local and global anatomy of neuronal connections is of crucial importance. Moreover, anatomical connectivity is not fixed, but can rewire throughout life (structural plasticity)—an aspect that is missing in most current network models, in which plasticity is confined to changes in synaptic strength (synaptic plasticity). The papers in this Ebook, which may broadly be divided into three themes, aim to bring together high-performance computing with recent experimental and computational research in neuroanatomy. In the first theme (fiber connectivity), new methods are described for measuring and data-basing microscopic and macroscopic connectivity. In the second theme (structural plasticity), novel models are introduced that incorporate morphological plasticity and rewiring of anatomical connections. In the third theme (large-scale simulations), simulations of large-scale neuronal networks are presented with an emphasis on anatomical detail and plasticity mechanisms. Together, the articles in this Ebook make the reader aware of the methods and models by which large-scale brain networks running on supercomputers can be extended to include anatomical detail and plasticity.

Scientific Programming and Computer Architecture

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Book Series: Scientific and Engineering Computation ISBN: 9780262340472 9780262036290 Year: Pages: 624 Language: English
Publisher: The MIT Press
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:41:31
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A variety of programming models relevant to scientists explained, with an emphasis on how programming constructs map to parts of the computer.What makes computer programs fast or slow? To answer this question, we have to get behind the abstractions of programming languages and look at how a computer really works. This book examines and explains a variety of scientific programming models (programming models relevant to scientists) with an emphasis on how programming constructs map to different parts of the computer's architecture. Two themes emerge: program speed and program modularity. Throughout this book, the premise is to "get under the hood," and the discussion is tied to specific programs. The book digs into linkers, compilers, operating systems, and computer architecture to understand how the different parts of the computer interact with programs. It begins with a review of C/C++ and explanations of how libraries, linkers, and Makefiles work. Programming models covered include Pthreads, OpenMP, MPI, TCP/IP, and CUDA.The emphasis on how computers work leads the reader into computer architecture and occasionally into the operating system kernel. The operating system studied is Linux, the preferred platform for scientific computing. Linux is also open source, which allows users to peer into its inner workings. A brief appendix provides a useful table of machines used to time programs. The book's website (https://github.com/divakarvi/bk-spca) has all the programs described in the book as well as a link to the html text.

High Performance Propagation of Large Object Populations in Earth Orbits

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ISBN: 9783832541651 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.30819/4165
Publisher: Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-28 15:00:25
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The formation of patterns in subaqueous sediment

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Book Series: Dissertationsreihe am Institut für Hydromechanik, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Institut für Hydromechanik ISSN: 14394111 ISBN: 9783731505327 Year: Volume: 2016,1 Pages: XXIII, 142 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000054986 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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This book investigates the formation of subaqueous patterns by means of high-fidelity numerical simulations which resolve all the relevant scales of the flow and the sediment bed. This is required to provide a space- and time-resolved information on the flow field and the sediment bed. Secondly, detailed analysis of the generated data allows to address the different governing mechanisms involved in the formation of patterns as well as to access the validity of various existing models.

XcalableMP PGAS Programming Language

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ISBN: 9789811576836 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-15-7683-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2020-12-16 00:02:49
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XcalableMP is a directive-based parallel programming language based on Fortran and C, supporting a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) model for distributed memory parallel systems. This open access book presents XcalableMP language from its programming model and basic concept to the experience and performance of applications described in XcalableMP.  XcalableMP was taken as a parallel programming language project in the FLAGSHIP 2020 project, which was to develop the Japanese flagship supercomputer, Fugaku, for improving the productivity of parallel programing. XcalableMP is now available on Fugaku and its performance is enhanced by the Fugaku interconnect, Tofu-D. The global-view programming model of XcalableMP, inherited from High-Performance Fortran (HPF), provides an easy and useful solution to parallelize data-parallel programs with directives for distributed global array and work distribution and shadow communication. The local-view programming adopts coarray notation from Coarray Fortran (CAF) to describe explicit communication in a PGAS model. The language specification was designed and proposed by the XcalableMP Specification Working Group organized in the PC Consortium, Japan. The Omni XcalableMP compiler is a production-level reference implementation of XcalableMP compiler for C and Fortran 2008, developed by RIKEN CCS and the University of Tsukuba. The performance of the XcalableMP program was used in the Fugaku as well as the K computer. A performance study showed that XcalableMP enables a scalable performance comparable to the message passing interface (MPI) version with a clean and easy-to-understand programming style requiring little effort.

Scalable Interactive Visualization

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ISBN: 9783038428039 9783038428046 Year: Pages: VIII, 236 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-08 11:38:50
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Data available in today’s information society is ever growing in size and complexity—i.e., unstructured, multidimensional, uncertain, etc.—making it impossible to survey and understand this data. Traditionally, most of these datasets are stored and depicted as huge tables, hindering efficient retrieval of salient information—similarities, outliers, structures, origin, etc. Interactive visualization provides an interface to this data that can help gleaning valuable information from it, thus supporting better data understanding by significantly reducing cognitive load on the analyst. Two fundamental concepts, visualization and interaction, form the basis of the underlying scientific methods. Combining these concepts connects two key research areas in computer science: visualization and human-computer interaction (HCI) and brings together practitioners from many disciplines. The result is highly multi-disciplinary work with significant impact and virtually unlimited application areas. However, truly interactive visualizations are hard to design and implement, so researchers have to solve multiple problems. This Special Issue provides an overciew over the current state-of-the-art of “Interactive Visualization.” It shows recent work in the field, as well as trends for future development.

Supercomputing Frontiers: 4th Asian Conference, SCFA 2018, Singapore, March 26-29, 2018, Proceedings

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Book Series: Theoretical Computer Science and General Issues ISBN: 9783319699523 9783319699530 Year: Volume: 10776 Pages: 293 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69953-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: National Supercomputing Centre (NSCC), Singapore
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-20 15:24:25
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It constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th Asian Supercomputing Conference, SCFA 2018, held in Singapore in March 2018. Supercomputing Frontiers will be rebranded as Supercomputing Frontiers Asia (SCFA), which serves as the technical programme for SCA18. The technical programme for SCA18 consists of four tracks: Application, Algorithms & LibrariesProgramming System SoftwareArchitecture, Network/Communications & ManagementData, Storage & VisualisationThe 20 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed nd selected from 60 submissions.

XoveTIC 2019: The 2nd XoveTIC Conference (XoveTIC 2019) A Coruña, Spain, 5–6 September 2019

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783039214433 9783039214440 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-444-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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This issue of Proceedings gathers papers presented at XOVETIC2019 (A Coruña, Spain, 5-6 September 2019), a conference with the main goal of bringing together young researchers working in big data, artificial intelligence, Internet of Things, HPC(High-performance computing), cybersecurity, bioinformatics, natural language processing, 5G and others areas from the field of ICT (Information Communications Technology), and offering a platform to present the results of their research to a national audience in Galicia and north of Portugal. This second edition aims to serve as the basis of this event, which will be consolidated over time and acquire international projection. The conference is co-funded by Xunta de Galicia and European Union. European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).

Software for Exascale Computing - SPPEXA 2016-2019

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering ISBN: 9783030479565 Year: Pages: 620 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-47956-5 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Computer Science --- Science (General) --- Agriculture (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-01 00:03:54
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This open access book summarizes the research done and results obtained in the second funding phase of the Priority Program 1648 "Software for Exascale Computing" (SPPEXA) of the German Research Foundation (DFG) presented at the SPPEXA Symposium in Dresden during October 21-23, 2019. In that respect, it both represents a continuation of Vol. 113 in Springer’s series Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering, the corresponding report of SPPEXA’s first funding phase, and provides an overview of SPPEXA’s contributions towards exascale computing in today's sumpercomputer technology. The individual chapters address one or more of the research directions (1) computational algorithms, (2) system software, (3) application software, (4) data management and exploration, (5) programming, and (6) software tools. The book has an interdisciplinary appeal: scholars from computational sub-fields in computer science, mathematics, physics, or engineering will find it of particular interest.

Quantum Foundations. 90 Years of Uncertainty

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038977544 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-755-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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The name of Joseph Fourier is also inseparable from the study of the mathematics of heat. Modern research on heat equations explores the extension of the classical diffusion equation on Riemannian, sub-Riemannian manifolds, and Lie groups. In parallel, in geometric mechanics, Jean-Marie Souriau interpreted the temperature vector of Planck as a space-time vector, obtaining, in this way, a phenomenological model of continuous media, which presents some interesting properties.

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