Search results: Found 14

Listing 1 - 10 of 14 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Recent Advances of Epigenetics in Crop Biotechnology

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198542 Year: Pages: 189 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-854-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Epigenetics is a new field that explains gene expression at the chromatin structure and organization level. Three principal epigenetic mechanisms are known and hundreds of combinations among them can develop different phenotypic characteristics. DNA methylation, histone modifications and small RNAs have been identified, and their functions are being studied in order to understand the mechanisms of interaction and regulation among the different biological processes in plants. Although, fundamental epigenetic mechanisms in crop plants are beginning to be elucidated, the comprehension of the different epigenetic mechanisms, by which plant gene regulation and phenotype are modified, is a major topic to develop in the near future in order to increase crop productivity. Thus, the importance of epigenetics in improving crop productivity is undoubtedly growing. Current research on epigenetics suggest that DNA methylation, histone modifications and small RNAs are involved in almost every aspect of plant life including agronomically important traits such as flowering time, fruit development, responses to environmental factors, defense response and plant growth. The aim of this Research Topic is to explore the recent advances concerning the role of epigenetics in crop biotechnology, as well as to enhance and promote interactions among high quality researchers from different disciplines such as genetics, cell biology, pathology, microbiology, and evolutionary biology in order to join forces and decipher the epigenetic mechanisms in crop productivity.

Epigenetics as a Deep Intimate Dialogue between Host and Symbionts

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198757 Year: Pages: 98 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-875-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Symbiosis is an intimate relationship between different living entities and is widespread in virtually all organisms. It was critical for the origin and diversification of Eukaryotes and represents a major driving force in evolution. Indeed, symbiosis may support a wide range of biological processes, including those underlying the physiology, development, reproduction, health, behavior, ecology and evolution of the organisms involved in the relationship. Although often confused with mutualism, when both organisms benefit from the association, symbiosis actually encompasses several and variable relationships. Among them is parasitism, when one organism benefits but the other is harmed, and commensalism, when one organism benefits and the other remains unaffected. Even if many symbiotic lifestyles do exist in nature, in many cases the intimacy between the partners is so deep that the “symbiont” (sensu strictu) resides into the tissues and/or cells of the other partner. Since the partners frequently belong to different kingdoms, e.g. bacteria, fungi, protists and viruses living in association with animal and plant hosts, their shared “language” should be a basic and ancient form of communication able to effectively blur the boundaries between extremely different living entities. In recent years studies on the role of epigenetics in shaping host-symbiont interactions have been flourishing. Epigenetic changes include, but are not limited to, DNA methylation, remodelling of chromatin structure through histone chemical modifications and RNA interference. In this E-book we present a series of papers exploring the fascinating developmental and evolutionary relationship between symbionts and hosts, by focusing on the mediating epigenetic processes that enable the communication to be effective and robust at both the individual, the ecological and the evolutionary time scales. In particular, the papers consider the role of epigenetic factors and mechanisms in the interactions among different species, comprising the holobiont and host-parasite relationships. On the whole, since epigenetics is fast-acting and reversible, enabling dynamic developmental communication between hosts and symbionts at several different time scale, we argue that it could account for the enormous plasticity that characterizes the interactions between all the organisms living symbiotically on our planet.

Reversible Ubiquitylation in Plant Biology

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194414 Year: Pages: 115 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-441-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Reversible ubiquitylation plays an important regulatory role in almost all aspects of cellular and organismal processes in plants. Its pervasive regulatory role in plant biology is primarily due to the involvement of a large set of ubiquitin system constituents (encoded by approximately 6% Arabidopsis genome), the huge number of important cellular proteins targeted as substrates, and various drastic effects on the modified proteins. The major components of the ubiquitin system include a large set of enzymes and proteins involved in ubiquitin conjugation (E1s, E2s, and E3s) and deconjugation (deubiquitinases of different classes) and post ubiquitin conjugation components such as ubiquitin receptors, endocytic machineries, and 26S proteasome. The established substrates include transcriptional activators and repressors, signaling components, key metabolic enzymes, and critical mechanistic components of major cellular processes and regulatory mechanisms. Post-translational modification of proteins by reversible ubiquitylation could drastically affects the modified proteins by proteolytic processing and turnover, altering catalytic activity, subcellular targeting, and protein-protein interaction. Continued efforts are being carried out to identify novel substrates critical for various cellular and organismal processes, to determine effects of reversible ubiquitylation on the modified substrates, to determine signaling determinants triggering reversible ubiquitylation of specific substrates, to illustrate individual components of the ubiquitin system for their in vivo functions and involved mechanistic roles, and to determine mechanistic roles of modification acting on critical components of major cellular processes and regulatory mechanisms. The aim of this special topic is to serve as a platform to report most recent advances on those above listed current research endeavors. We welcome article types including original research, review, mini review, method, and perspective/opinion/hypothesis.

Genetics and epigenetics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195732 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-573-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Women drinking during pregnancy can result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), which may feature variable neurodevelopmental deficits, facial dysmorphology, growth retardation, and learning disabilities. Research suggests the human brain is precisely formed through an intrinsic, genetic-cellular expression that is carefully orchestrated by an epigenetic program. This program can be influenced by environmental inputs such as alcohol. Current research suggests the genetic and epigenetic elements of FASD are heavily intertwined and highly dependent on one another. As such, now is the time for investigators to combine genetic, genomic and epigenetic components of alcohol research into a centralized, accessible platform for discussion. Genetic analyses inform gene sets which may be vulnerable to alcohol exposure during early neurulation. Prenatal alcohol exposure indeed alters expression of gene subsets, including genes involved in neural specification, hematopoiesis, methylation, chromatin remodeling, histone variants, eye and heart development. Recently, quantitative genomic mapping has revealed loci (QTLs) that mediate alcohol-induced phenotypes identified between two alcohol-drinking mouse strains. One question to consider is (besides the role of dose and stage of alcohol exposure) why only 5% of drinking women deliver newborns diagnosed with FAS (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)? Studies are ongoing to answer this question by characterizing genome-wide expression, allele-specific expression (ASE), gene polymorphisms (SNPs) and maternal genetic factors that influence alcohol vulnerability. Alcohol exposure during pregnancy, which can lead to FASD, has been used as a model to resolve the epigenetic pathway between environment and phenotype. Epigenetic mechanisms modify genetic outputs through alteration of 3D chromatin structure and accessibility of transcriptional machinery. Several laboratories have reported altered epigenetics, including DNA methylation and histone modification, in multiple models of FASD. During development DNA methylation is dynamic yet orchestrated in a precise spatiotemporal manner during neurulation and coincidental with neural differentiation. Alcohol can directly influence epigenetics through alterations of the methionine pathway and subsequent DNA or histone methylation/acetylation. Alcohol also alters noncoding RNA including miRNA and transposable elements (TEs). Evidence suggests that miRNA expression may mediate ethanol teratology, and TEs may be affected by alcohol through the alteration of DNA methylation at its regulatory region. In this manner, the epigenetic and genetic components of FASD are revealing themselves to be mechanistically intertwined. Can alcohol-induced epigenomic alterations be passed across generations? Early epidemiological studies have revealed infants with FASD-like features in the absence of maternal alcohol, where the fathers were alcoholics. Novel mechanisms for alcohol-induced phenotypes include altered sperm DNA methylation, hypomethylated paternal allele and heritable epimutations. These studies predict the heritability of alcohol-induced epigenetic abnormalities and gene functionality across generations. We opened a forum to researchers and investigators the field of FASD to discuss their insights, hypotheses, fresh data, past research, and future research themes embedded in this rising field of the genetics and epigenetics of FASD. This eBook is a product of the collective sharing and debate among researchers who have contributed or reviewed each subject.

Epigenetic Modifications and Viral Infections

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195879 Year: Pages: 111 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-587-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Epigenetics is defined as the study of modifications of the genome, heritable during cell division that does not involve changes in DNA sequences. Up to date, epigenetic modifications involve at least three general mechanisms regulating gene expression: histone modifications, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). For the past two decades, an explosion in our interest and understanding of epigenetic mechanisms has been seen. This mainly based on the influence that epigenetic alterations have on an amazing number of biological processes, such as gene expression, imprinting, programmed DNA rearrangements, germ line silencing, developmentally cued stem cell division, and overall chromosomal stability and identity. It has become also evident that the constant exposure of living organisms to environment factors affects their genomes through epigenetic mechanisms. Viruses infecting animal cells are thought to play central roles in shaping the epigenetic scenario of infected cells. In this context it has become obvious that knowing the impact that viral infections have on the epigenetic control of their host cells will certainly lead to a better understanding of the interplay viruses have with animal cells. In fact, DNA viruses use host transcription factors as well as epigenetic regulators in such a way that they affect epigenetic control of gene expression that extends to host gene expression. At the same time, animal cells employ mechanisms controlling transcription factors and epigenetic processes, in order to eliminate viral infections. In summary, epigenetic mechanisms are involved in most virus-cell interactions. We now know that some viruses exhibit epigenetic immune evasion mechanisms to survive and propagate in their host; however, there is still much ambiguity over these epigenetic mechanisms of viral immune evasion, and most of the discovered mechanisms are still incomplete. Other animal viruses associated to cancer often deregulate cellular epigenetic mechanisms, silencing cellular tumor-suppressor genes and/or activating either viral or host cell oncogenes. In addition, in several cancers the down-regulation of tumor suppressor protein-coding genes and ncRNAs with growth inhibitory functions, such as miRNAs, have been closely linked to the presence of cell CpG island promoter hypermethylation. The goal of the aforementioned Research Topic is to bring together the key experimental and theoretical research, linking state-of-the-art knowledge about the epigenetic mechanisms involved in animal virus-cell interactions.

Genome Mining and Marine Microbial Natural Products

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039280902 9783039280919 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-091-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Microbiology --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Two review papers, eight research articles, and one brief report were published in this Special Issue. They showed the rich resources that are present within the genomes of marine microorganisms and discussed the use of recently developed tools and technologies to exploit this genetic richness. Examples include the rational supply of precursors according to the relevant biosynthetic pathway and stress driven discovery together with the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors to facilitate the discovery of new bioactive molecules with potential biopharmaceutical applications. We believe that the content of this Special Issue reflects the current state-of-the-art research in this area and highlights the interesting strategies that are being employed to uncover increasing numbers of exciting novel compounds for drug discovery from marine genetic resources.

Role of DNA Methyltransferases in the Epigenome

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039280209 9783039280216 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-021-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

DNA methylation, a modification found in most species, regulates chromatin functions in conjunction with other epigenome modifications, such as histone post-translational modifications and non-coding RNAs. In mammals, DNA methylation has an essential role in development by orchestrating the generation and maintenance of the phenotypic diversity of human cell types. Recent years have brought spectacular advances in our understanding of the mechanism, function and regulation of DNA methyltransferases through their interaction with other epigenome modifications, chromatin factors and post-translational modifications, which are described in this Special Issue of Genes. Manuscripts are specifically addressing describing the targeting and regulation of DNA methyltransferases by interacting factors and their roles in cellular differentiation and the development of diseases. Prof. Dr. Albert Jeltsch and Prof. Dr. Humaira Gowher, Guest Editors

Tea in Health and Disease

Author:
ISBN: 9783038979869 9783038979876 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-987-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Tea, made from the leaves of the Camellia senenisis plant, is the second most consumed beverage worldwide after water. Accumulating evidence from cellular, animal, epidemiological and clinical studies have linked tea consumption to various health benefits, such as chemoprevention of cancers, chronic inflammation, heart and liver diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, etc. Although such health benefits have not been consistently observed in some intervention trials, positive results from clinical trials have provided direct evidence supporting the cancer-protective effect of green tea. In addition, numerous mechanisms of action have been suggested to contribute to tea’s disease-preventive effects. Furthermore, effects of the processing and storage of tea, as well as additives on tea’s properties have been investigated.

Dual Specificity Phosphatases: From Molecular Mechanisms to Biological Function

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039216888 9783039216895 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-689-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Dual specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) constitute a heterogeneous group of protein tyrosine phosphatases with the ability to dephosphorylate Ser/Thr and Tyr residues from proteins, as well as from other non-proteinaceous substrates including signaling lipids. DUSPs include, among others, MAP kinase (MAPK) phosphatases (MKPs) and small-size atypical DUSPs. MKPs are enzymes specialized in regulating the activity and subcellular location of MAPKs, whereas the function of small-size atypical DUSPs seems to be more diverse. DUSPs have emerged as key players in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, stress response, and apoptosis. DUSPs regulate essential physiological processes, including immunity, neurobiology and metabolic homeostasis, and have been implicated in tumorigenesis, pathological inflammation and metabolic disorders. Accordingly, alterations in the expression or function of MKPs and small-size atypical DUSPs have consequences essential to human disease, making these enzymes potential biological markers and therapeutic targets. This Special Issue covers recent advances in the molecular mechanisms and biological functions of MKPs and small-size atypical DUSPs, and their relevance in human disease.

Biomedical Insights that Inform the Diagnosis of ME/CFS

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039283903 9783039283910 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-391-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a severe chronic health condition that is often misunderstood or ignored by health establishments. The lack of definitive diagnostic markers to separate ME/CFS patients from the healthy population as well as from other chronic disorders is problematic for both health professionals and researchers. A consortium of Australian researchers gathered to systematically understand ME/CFS, ranging from a deep analysis of clinical and pathology data to metabolomic profiles and the investigation of mitochondrial function. From this broad collaboration, a number of compelling insights have arisen that may form the basis of specific serum, blood, and/or urinary biomarkers of ME/CFS. This Special Edition reports on a conference centred on these biomedical discoveries, with other contributions, with a translation focus for predictive markers for ME/CFS diagnosis. By supporting health professionals with developments in diagnostics for this condition, the patients and their families will hopefully benefit from an improved recognition of the biomedical underpinnings of the condition and will be better able to access the care that is urgently required. This Special Edition contains a mix of speaker submissions and other accepted manuscripts that contributed to our objective of advancing biomedical insights to enable the accurate diagnosis of ME/CFS.

Keywords

myalgic encephalomyelitis --- chronic fatigue syndrome --- diagnosis --- symptoms --- muscles --- neurology --- myalgic encephalomyelitis --- chronic fatigue syndrome --- post-exertional malaise --- assessment --- patient-driven questionnaire --- participatory research --- myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) --- energy metabolism --- potential biomarkers --- fatigue syndrome --- chronic --- exercise --- hypoacetylation --- methylhistidine --- histone deacetylation --- myalgic encephalomyelitis --- chronic fatigue syndrome --- diagnostic biomarker --- inflammation and immunity --- metabolism --- mitochondria --- circadian rhythm --- neuro-inflammation --- myalgic encephalomyelitis --- chronic fatigue syndrome --- activin --- pathology --- biomarker --- cytokine --- machine learning --- reference intervals --- myalgic encephalomyelitis --- chronic fatigue syndrome --- ME/CFS --- diagnosis --- metabolism --- mitochondria --- inflammation --- immune system --- signaling --- gut microbiota --- tryptophan metabolism --- indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase --- bistability --- kynurenine pathway --- substrate inhibition --- myalgic encephalomyelitis --- chronic fatigue syndrome --- mathematical model --- critical point --- immunological --- chronic fatigue syndrome --- myalgic encephalomyelitis --- biomarker --- neuroimmune --- Epstein Barr virus --- hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis --- CFS (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome) --- ME (Myalgic Encephalomyelitis) --- medical retirement --- prognosis --- work rehabilitation --- n/a

Listing 1 - 10 of 14 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Narrow your search