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Structure, Chemical Analysis, Biosynthesis, Metabolism, Molecular Engineering and Biological Functions of Phytoalexins

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ISBN: 9783038427551 9783038427568 Year: Pages: 206 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-16 13:34:06
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Ever since the concept of phytoalexins was proposed by Müller and Borger in 1940, these compounds have attracted considerable attention due to the central role they play in the defense mechanisms of various plants. Besides displaying antifungal activity in numerous plant–pathogen interactions, phytoalexins have been implicated in human health and disease as antioxidant, anticancer and cardioprotective agents as well as being supposed to act positively in neurodegenerative illnesses. More than 25 years after the work of Siemann and Creasy which established a relationship between the concentration of the phytoalexin resveratrol in wine and the beneficial effects of wine consumption on health, the relevant literature on phytoalexins and their role in health and disease has increased tremendously. Knowledge on phytoalexins relies on fields as diverse as organic synthesis, analytical chemistry, plant molecular pathology, biocontrol, biochemistry and various aspects of biomedicine and biotechnology. It is almost impossible to review all of these aspects and, therefore, an attempt is made in the present book to illustrate some of them with a particular emphasis on the induction mechanisms of phytoalexin biosynthesis, methods for their analysis in complex matrices, fungal metabolism and phytoalexin bioactivity. This book will serve as a resource for teachers, researchers and students concerned with the study of phytoalexins.

Antioxidants in Health and Disease Volume 1

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ISBN: 9783038428855 9783038428862 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: X, 436 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-18 14:34:25
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Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress is associated with a number of health disorders, including cardiovascular malfunction, certain types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, many other auto-immune diseases, and even ageing. The body possesses multiple mechanisms to counteract oxidative stress, which employ antioxidant compounds that are either naturally generated in situ (endogenous antioxidants) or externally supplied through food (exogenous antioxidants). These antioxidants are able to counteract oxidative stress, thanks to their ability to neutralize excess free radicals and protect the cellular lipids, proteins, and DNA from molecular damage. Exogenous antioxidants from the diet are of increasing interest because of their beneficial role in maintaining good health and in preventing chronic diseases. Indeed, a diet rich in dietary antioxidants, especially from fruits and vegetables, has been correlated with a successful prevention and lower incidence of several degenerative pathologies, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer.This Special Issue of Nutrients welcomes the submission of manuscripts, either describing original research or reviewing scientific literature, examining the role of diets rich in antioxidant compounds in the prevention of chronic diseases and the characteristics of the antioxidants included in such diets.

Antioxidants in Health and Disease Volume 2

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ISBN: 9783038429395 9783038429401 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: VIII, 264 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-18 15:15:28
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Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress is associated with a number of health disorders, including cardiovascular malfunction, certain types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, many other auto-immune diseases, and even ageing. The body possesses multiple mechanisms to counteract oxidative stress, which employ antioxidant compounds that are either naturally generated in situ (endogenous antioxidants) or externally supplied through food (exogenous antioxidants). These antioxidants are able to counteract oxidative stress, thanks to their ability to neutralize excess free radicals and protect the cellular lipids, proteins, and DNA from molecular damage. Exogenous antioxidants from the diet are of increasing interest because of their beneficial role in maintaining good health and in preventing chronic diseases. Indeed, a diet rich in dietary antioxidants, especially from fruits and vegetables, has been correlated with a successful prevention and lower incidence of several degenerative pathologies, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer.This Special Issue of Nutrients welcomes the submission of manuscripts, either describing original research or reviewing scientific literature, examining the role of diets rich in antioxidant compounds in the prevention of chronic diseases and the characteristics of the antioxidants included in such diets.

Dietary Antioxidants and Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases

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ISBN: 9783038972266 9783038972273 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-227-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-11 09:46:24
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Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated the association between oxidative stress and non-communicable disease, including cardiovascular disorders, mental disease, and several types of cancer. Oxidative stress is commonly known as an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the biological antioxidant defense system. Exogenous antioxidants have gained great attention because of their beneficial role in preventing chronic disease. A balanced diet contains hundreds of naturally occurring antioxidant compounds, including polyphenols and vitamins. Antioxidants are commonly found in vegetables, fruits, cocoa, grain cereals, olive oil, nuts and beverages, such as coffee and tea.This book presents original research and reviews of literature concerning dietary antioxidants and human health.

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and Public Health: Progress and Current Challenges

ISBN: 9783038421559 9783038421566 Year: Pages: 316
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-20 15:26:51
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Over the past decade, coastal and freshwater systems in the U.S. and worldwide have experienced an apparent increase in the frequency and geographic distribution of harmful algal blooms (HABs). These blooms can adversely affect both public health and ecosystem health. Toxin-producing HABs can accumulate in drinking and recreational waters and in foods of aquatic origin such as fish and seafood. Human and animal health risks include exposure to the toxins through eating contaminated food or drinking or swimming in contaminated water. Because of these potential public health risks, several countries and U.S. states have developed monitoring programs and guidelines for drinking and recreational water quality to protect public health. This special issue will present research papers and reviews on various aspects of public health and environmental responses to harmful algal blooms. [...]

Vitamin K and Vitamin K-Dependent Proteins in Relation to Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038428312 9783038428329 Year: Pages: X, 192 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-17 12:23:54
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Vitamin K comprises a group of highly lipophilic molecules that possess a common 2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone nucleus and a variable polyisoprenoid side chain at the 3-position that can vary in both length and degree of saturation. In nature, these forms are found as a single plant form (phylloquinone or vitamin K1) and a series of bacterial forms (menaquinones or vitamin K2). Vitamin K acts as a cofactor for a microsomal enzyme, γ-carboxyglutamyl carboxylase (GGCX), that serves to transform specific peptide-bound glutamate residues found in certain specialized proteins to γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla). This posttranslational protein modification is the only firmly established biochemical function of vitamin K. The resultant vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins, or Gla proteins, are diverse in both structure and function and are found in many cell and tissue types. The best-known example of the health role of vitamin K-mediated protein γ-carboxylation is in the synthesis of several VKD blood coagulation proteins, which are essential for the maintenance of extracellular haemostasis. An overt deficiency of vitamin K results in bleeding and although rare in most populations, vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in early infancy has potentially devastating and fatal consequences because bleeding commonly occurs within the brain. For this reason it is recommended that all newborn infants should receive vitamin K prophylaxis. On the other hand, the deliberate lowering of circulating VKD-coagulation factors by the therapeutic administration of vitamin K antagonists (VKA) such as warfarin is used to treat and prevent thrombotic disorders. The functions of most non-coagulation Gla proteins remain uncertain, but are suspected to play roles in processes as diverse as bone and cardiovascular mineralization, vascular integrity, energy metabolism, immune response, brain metabolism, and in cellular growth, survival, and signalling. For the most part, extrapolations of the cellular properties of extrahepatic Gla proteins to tangible health benefits are unclear or fuzzy, as are the health consequences of their undercarboxylation. However, there is evidence that higher nutritional intakes of vitamin K are required to enable maximal γ-carboxylation of certain extrahepatic Gla proteins, such as osteocalcin and matrix Gla protein (MGP). Osteocalcin and MGP currently represent the best-studied extrahepatic Gla proteins with respect to their putative roles in bone and cardiovascular health, respectively. In addition, osteocalcin may play a role in regulating energy metabolism. Much current interest focuses on the role of MGP as an inhibitor of vascular mineralization, particularly in renal disease and in patients taking VKA. Interestingly, although VKA have been in clinical use for decades, recent evidence suggests that they may cause unintended health consequences by disrupting the function of MGP resulting in calcification and loss of the functional integrity of the vessel wall. Apart from the role of vitamin K in γ-carboxylation there is evidence that some forms, particularly menaquinone-4 (MK-4), have a direct influence on cellular functions.This Special Issue of Nutrients focuses on advances that extend our knowledge of the biochemical functions and health roles played by both the micronutrient vitamin K and its target Gla proteins. The scope of potential topics is wide and may include studies in population and patient groups, animal models and at the cellular level. Examples include the presentation, diagnosis, incidence, causes, and prevention of deficiency syndromes, of which the most obvious is bleeding in infancy, but also extends to other putative roles of vitamin K such as in bone and cardiovascular health. In trying to define extrahepatic functions of vitamin K it is important to obtain evidence of pathophysiological signatures that may derive from chronic suboptimal vitamin K intakes or as a consequence of vitamin K antagonists. An important related question is whether the pathophysiology can be ameliorated or prevented by judicious vitamin K supplementation. Equally important to our understanding of the human physiology of vitamin K are studies that define the relative functional importance of individual vitamers and how differences in their availability and metabolism affect their biological activity. Recent highlights in metabolism include the delineation of the importance of vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) in maintaining vitamin K status and the intriguing hypothesis that its paralog VKOR-like 1 enzyme (VKORL1) may serve an antioxidant function. Another highlight illustrating the importance of metabolism to vitamin K function is the discovery that the enzyme UbiA prenyltransferase-containing domain 1 (UBIAD1) participates in the cellular conversion of phylloquinone to MK-4 with menadione as a metabolic intermediate. We invite authors to submit reviews or original research on any of the above topics.

Health of People, Health of Planet and Our Responsibility

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ISBN: 9783030311254 Year: Pages: 419 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-31125-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Environmental Sciences --- Public Health --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-19 04:54:34
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"This open access book not only describes the challenges of climate disruption, but also presents solutions. The challenges described include air pollution, climate change, extreme weather, and related health impacts that range from heat stress, vector-borne diseases, food and water insecurity and chronic diseases to malnutrition and mental well-being. The influence of humans on climate change has been established through extensive published evidence and reports. However, the connections between climate change, the health of the planet and the impact on human health have not received the same level of attention. Therefore, the global focus on the public health impacts of climate change is a relatively recent area of interest. This focus is timely since scientists have concluded that changes in climate have led to new weather extremes such as floods, storms, heat waves, droughts and fires, in turn leading to more than 600,000 deaths and the displacement of nearly 4 billion people in the last 20 years. Previous work on the health impacts of climate change was limited mostly to epidemiologic approaches and outcomes and focused less on multidisciplinary, multi-faceted collaborations between physical scientists, public health researchers and policy makers. Further, there was little attention paid to faith-based and ethical approaches to the problem. The solutions and actions we explore in this book engage diverse sectors of civil society, faith leadership, and political leadership, all oriented by ethics, advocacy, and policy with a special focus on poor and vulnerable populations. The book highlights areas we think will resonate broadly with the public, faith leaders, researchers and students across disciplines including the humanities, and policy makers."

Impact of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038976202 9783038976219 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-621-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Technology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-19 09:06:48
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Food-derived bioactive peptides or dietary peptides are increasingly becoming recognized as major food compounds for human health promotion, which prevent the occurrence of chronic diseases through their impacts on the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, immune, and nervous systems. Further bioactive peptide discoveries are essential for maintaining human health and commercial development in the area of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This Special Issue covers a wide range of research topics specifically on food-derived bioactive proteins and peptides including the in-vitro and in-vivo evaluation of biological activities, bio-accessibility, intestinal absorption, bioavailability, the effect on chronic diseases, and the modulation of human nutrition.

Growth and Ecosystem Services of Urban Trees

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ISBN: 9783039215928 9783039215935 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-593-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Numerous studies indicate an accelerated growth of forest trees, induced by ongoing climate change. Similar trends were recently found for urban trees in major cities worldwide. Studies frequently report about substantial effects of climate change and the urban heat island effect (UHI) on plant growth. The combined effects of increasing temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, and extended growing season lengths, in addition to increasing nitrogen deposition and higher CO2 concentrations, can increase but also reduce plant growth. Closely related to this, the multiple functions and services provided by urban trees may be modified. Urban trees generate numerous ecosystem services, including carbon storage, mitigation of the heat island effect, reduction of rainwater runoff, pollutant filtering, recreation effects, shading, and cooling. The quantity of the ecosystem services is often closely associated with the species, structure, age, and size of the tree as well as with a tree’s vitality. Therefore, greening cities, and particularly planting trees, seems to be an effective option to mitigate climate change and the UHI. The focus of this Special Issue is to underline the importance of trees as part of the urban green areas for major cities in all climate zones. Empirical as well as modeling studies of urban tree growth and their services and disservices in cities worldwide are included. Articles about the dynamics, structures, and functions of urban trees as well as the influence of climate and climate change on urban tree growth, urban species composition, carbon storage, and biodiversity are also discussed.

Human and Animal Sensitivity: How Stock-People and Consumer Perception Can Affect Animal Welfare

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ISBN: 9783039212613 9783039212620 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-262-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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This book presents cross-discipline studies covering aspects ranging from animal science to social/consumer sciences and psychology, with the aim to collect and disseminate information promoting the continuous enhancement of animal welfare by improving stakeholders’ perception of animal welfare. Although animal welfare is about how the animals perceive the surrounding environment, the actual welfare of the animals is dependent on how the stakeholders perceive and weigh animal welfare. The stakeholders can, either directly (i.e., through stock-people interaction with the animals) or indirectly (e.g., when retailers and consumers are willing to pay more for high welfare animal-based products), affect the way animals are kept and handled.

Keywords

veterinary student --- animal ethics --- pain perception --- animal --- animal welfare --- Animal welfare --- husbandry practices --- lambs --- pain --- sheep farmers --- perception --- agreement --- aggression --- animal welfare --- desensitization --- perception --- pigs --- animal welfare --- young adult --- animal attitudes --- children --- farm animals --- animal welfare --- education --- technology --- animal welfare --- Asia --- knowledge --- slaughter --- transport --- training --- animal welfare --- benefit --- profit --- human health --- Asia --- livestock --- farmer perception --- citizen perception --- qualitative research --- free elicitation narrative interviews --- animal welfare --- consumer --- willingness to pay --- pig --- castration --- immunocastration --- information --- survey --- human-animal relationship --- fear --- laying hen --- stockpeople attitudes --- stockperson behaviour --- egg farm --- albumen corticosterone --- welfare --- animal welfare --- stakeholder perception --- text mining --- horse --- donkey --- goat --- sheep --- turkey --- farm animal welfare (FAW) --- willingness to pay --- food safety concerns --- ethical concerns --- perceived consumer effectiveness --- broiler --- dairy buffalo --- human-animal relationship --- animal behavior --- test-retest reliability --- avoidance distance --- milk production --- animal welfare --- animal welfare --- stunning --- religious slaughter --- veterinary students --- Halal meat --- racehorse welfare --- staff shortages --- horse–human relationship --- standards of care --- employee relations --- consumer demand --- economics --- farm animal welfare --- producer perspective

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