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Humidity Sensors. Advances in Reliability, Calibration and Application

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ISBN: 9783039211227 / 9783039211234 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-123-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Humidity detection has deep significance for the scientific research surrounding medical care and human performance, and the industrial development of agriculture, geography and automated instruments. This special issue aims to showcase some of the advancements in humidity sensor design and calibration, and its applications. The selected papers cover a variety of humidity sensor-related topics including material science, chemistry and industrial engineering. Through dedicated contributions from peer reviewers and the editorial team, this book aims to offers reader some insight into the field of humidity sensor development and use.

Stimuli-Responsive Polymer Systems—Recent Manufacturing Techniques and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039214839 / 9783039214846 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-484-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Stimuli-responsive polymer systems can be defined as functional materials that show physical or chemical property changes in response to external stimuli such as temperature, radiation, chemical agents, pH, mechanical stress, and electric and magnetic fields. Recent developments in manufacturing techniques have facilitated the production of a wide range of stimuli-responsive polymer systems, such as micro- and nanoscale structures, with potential applications in soft sensors and actuators, smart textiles, soft robots, and artificial muscles. This book brings together the recent progress in manufacturing techniques, with particular emphasis on 3D and 4D printing and applications of stimuli-responsive polymer systems in biomedicine and soft robotics.

Silicon-Based Nanomaterials: Technology and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039210428 / 9783039210435 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-043-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Silicon has been proven to be remarkably resilient as a commercial electronic material. The microelectronics industry has harnessed nanotechnology to continually push the performance limits of silicon devices and integrated circuits. Rather than shrinking its market share, silicon is displacing “competitor” semiconductors in domains such as high-frequency electronics and integrated photonics. There are strong business drivers underlying these trends; however, an important contribution is also being made by research groups worldwide, who are developing new configurations, designs, and applications of silicon-based nanoscale and nanostructured materials. This Special Issue features a selection of papers which illustrate recent advances in the preparation of chemically or physically engineered silicon-based nanostructures and their application in electronic, photonic, and mechanical systems.

Abiotic Stress Effects on Performance of Horticultural Crops

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ISBN: 9783039217502 / 9783039217519 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-751-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-05 10:43:33
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Horticultural crop yield and quality depend on genotype, environmental conditions, and production management. In particular, adverse environmental conditions may greatly affect crop performance, reducing crop yield by 50%–70%. Abiotic stresses such as cold, heat, drought, flooding, salinity, nutrient deficiency, and ultraviolet radiation affect multiple physiological and biochemical mechanisms in plants as they attempt to cope with the stress conditions. However, different crop species can have different sensitivities or tolerances to specific abiotic stresses. Tolerant plants may activate different strategies to adapt to or avoid the negative effect of abiotic stresses. At the physiological level, photosynthetic activity and light-use efficiency of plants may be modulated to enhance tolerance against the stress. At the biochemical level, several antioxidant systems may be activated, and many enzymes may produce stress-related metabolites to help avoid cellular damage, including compounds such as proline, glycine betaine, and amino acids. Within each crop species there is a wide variability of tolerance to abiotic stresses, and some wild relatives may carry useful traits for enhancing the tolerance to abiotic stresses in their progeny through either traditional or biotechnological breeding. The research papers and reviews presented in this book provide an update of the scientific knowledge of crop interactions with abiotic stresses.

Plasma Catalysis

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ISBN: 9783038977506 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-751-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Plasma catalysis is gaining increasing interest for various gas conversion applications, such as CO2 conversion into value-added chemicals and fuels, N2 fixation for the synthesis of NH3 or NOx, methane conversion into higher hydrocarbons or oxygenates. It is also widely used for air pollution control (e.g., VOC

Preservation of Cultural Heritage and Resources Threatened by Climate Change

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ISBN: 9783039211241 / 9783039211258 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-125-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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With its wide spectrum of data, case studies, monitoring, and experimental and numerical simulation techniques, the multidisciplinary approach of material, environmental, and computer science applied to the conservation of cultural heritage offers several opportunities for the heritage science and conservation community to map and monitor state-of-the-art knowledge on natural and human-induced climate change impacts on cultural heritage—mainly constituted by the built environment—in Europe and Latin America. Geosciences’ Special Issue titled “Preservation of Cultural Heritage and Resources Threatened by Climate Change” was launched to take stock of the existing but still fragmentary knowledge on this challenge, and to enable the community to respond to the implementation of the Paris agreement. These 10 papers exploit a broad range of data derived from preventive conservation monitoring conducted indoors in museums, churches, historical buildings, or outdoors in archeological sites and city centers. Case studies presented in the papers focus on a well-assorted sample of decay phenomena occurring on heritage materials (e.g., surface recession and biomass accumulation on limestone, depositions of pollutant on marble, salt weathering on inorganic building materials, and weathering processes on mortars in many local- to regional-scale study areas in the Scandinavian Peninsula, the United Kingdom, Belgium, France, Italy, Greece, and Panama). Besides monitoring, the methodological approaches showcased include, but are not limited to, original material characterization, decay product characterization, and climate and numerical modelling on material components for assessing environmental impact and climate change effects.

Biofuel and Bioenergy Technology

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038975960 Year: Pages: 425 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-597-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 14:08:22
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The subject of this book is ""Biofuel and Bioenergy Technology"". It aims to publish high-quality review and research papers, addressing recent advances in biofuel and bioenergy. State-of-the-art studies of advanced techniques of biorefinery for biofuel production are also included. Research involving experimental studies, recent developments, and novel and emerging technologies in this field are covered. This book contains twenty-seven technical papers which cover diversified biofuel and bioenergy technology-related research that have shown critical results and contributed significant findings to the fields of biomass processing, pyrolysis, bio-oil and its emulsification; transesterification and biodiesel, gasification and syngas, fermentation and biogas/methane, bioethanol and alcohol-based fuels, solid fuel and biochar, and microbial fuel cell and power generation development. The published contents relate to the most important techniques and analyses applied in the biofuel and bioenergy technology.

Keywords

air-steam gasification --- equilibrium model --- tar --- energy exchange --- exergy efficiency --- bio-electro-Fenton microbial fuel cells (Bio-E-Fenton MFCs) --- wastewater --- photo catalyst --- degradation --- calcination --- chemical oxygen demand (COD) --- MFC --- hydrodynamic boundary layer --- recirculation mode --- shear rate --- voltage --- charge transfer resistance --- biodiesel --- direct transesterification --- Rhodotorula glutinis --- single cell oil --- biogas --- tri-reforming process --- syngas --- methane and carbon dioxide conversion --- hydrogen/carbon monoxide ratio --- first-law/second-law efficiency --- biodiesel --- esterification --- liquid lipase --- superabsorbent polymer --- response surface methodology --- waste wood --- torrefaction --- energy yield --- mass yield --- CHO index --- gross calorific value --- Van Krevelen diagram --- anaerobic digestion --- biogas production --- wastewater treatment --- membrane bioreactors --- anaerobic digestion --- methane --- carbon dioxide --- small-scale biogas plants --- developing countries --- SOFC --- validation --- simulation --- exergy --- syngas --- Chlorella --- coal-fired flue-gas --- screening --- biodiesel property --- mixotrophic cultivation --- thermophilic anaerobic digestion --- corn stover --- prairie cord grass --- unbleached paper --- digester performance --- process stability --- synergistic effects --- microbial community --- Methanothermobacter --- biochemical methane potential --- redox potential reduction --- direct interspecies electron transfer --- electroactive biofilm --- Nejayote --- granular activated carbon --- Jerusalem artichoke --- lignocellulose --- acid pretreatment --- nitric acid --- alkali pretreatment --- enzymatic hydrolysis --- ethanol fermentation --- waste biomass --- Vietnam --- solid biofuel --- calorific value --- mechanical durability --- fatty acid methyl ester --- catalyst --- viscosity --- iodine value --- acidity index --- sewage sludge --- pyrolytic oil --- Taguchi method --- thermogravimetric analysis --- synergistic effect --- combined pretreatment --- ball mill --- ethanol organosolv --- herbaceous biomass --- lignin recovery --- Annona muricata --- biodiesel production --- seed oil --- soursop --- two-step process --- response surface methodology --- RSM --- second-generation biodiesel --- stone fruit --- optimisation --- biodiesel testing --- transesterification --- lignocellulosic biomass --- Miscanthus --- mechanical pretreatment --- organosolv pretreatment --- microbial biofuel --- metabolic engineering --- alkanes --- alcohols --- acetone --- electrochemical hydrogenation --- isopropanol --- membrane contamination --- polymer electrolyte membrane --- relative humidity --- diesel --- Carica papaya --- engine performance --- biodiesel --- characterisation --- porosity --- thermophoretic force --- biomass fuel --- non-premixed combustion --- counter-flow structure --- mathematical modeling --- emulsification --- liquefaction --- bio-oils --- co-surfactant --- surfactant --- diesel --- biogas --- Clostridiales --- hydrogen-producing bacteria --- bioreactors --- anaerobic fermentation --- anaerobic digestion --- microbial community composition

Planning, Development and Management of Sustainable Cities

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038979067 9783038979074 Year: Pages: 440 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-907-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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The concept of ‘sustainable urban development’ has been pushed to the forefront of policymaking and politics as the world wakes up to the impacts of climate change and the destructive effects of the Anthropocene. Climate change has emerged to be one of the biggest challenges faced by our planet today, threatening both built and natural systems with long-term consequences, which may be irreversible. While there is a vast body of literature on sustainability and sustainable urban development, there is currently limited focus on how to cohesively bring together the vital issues of the planning, development, and management of sustainable cities. Moreover, it has been widely stated that current practices and lifestyles cannot continue if we are to leave a healthy living planet to not only the next generation, but also to the generations beyond. The current global school strikes for climate action (known as Fridays for Future) evidences this. The book advocates the view that the focus needs to rest on ways in which our cities and industries can become green enough to avoid urban ecocide. This book fills a gap in the literature by bringing together issues related to the planning, development, and management of cities and focusing on a triple-bottom-line approach to sustainability.

Keywords

spatial decision support systems --- urban planning --- sustainability indicators --- urban metabolism --- sustainable regional development --- land use governance --- regional stakeholder involvement --- precision farming (PF) --- wood fuel --- technology roadmapping (TRM) --- open innovation (OI) --- Germany --- sustainability assessment --- sustainable urban development --- neighborhood sustainability --- neighborhood sustainability assessment index --- sustainable city --- Ipoh --- Malaysia --- scaling-up strategy --- sustainable development --- local new town --- neoliberal capitalism --- Wujin --- China --- low-energy transport --- carbon --- energy consumption --- sociotechnical transition --- innovation --- cities --- United Kingdom --- sustainability --- tree --- urban forest --- forest values --- urban transport --- sustainable transport --- developing cities --- medium-sized cities --- infrastructure --- transport projects --- sustainability --- knowledge management --- practitioner perceptions --- frames --- framing processes --- low carbon cities --- visioning --- urban resilience --- sustainability --- sustainability literacy --- urban development --- public participation --- urban planning --- civic engagement --- green economy --- built environment sector --- eco-cities --- sustainable urban development --- green innovation --- low carbon economy --- socio-technical transition --- urban fire --- spatio-temporal features --- SDM, humidity --- GDP --- the fire assimilation effect --- fire inertia effect --- fire caution effect --- urban land development --- natural environmental impact --- driving forces-pressure-state-impact-policy and pattern (DPSIP) --- water supply --- demand --- time-series forecasting --- ARIMA --- urban water sustainability --- Istanbul --- ecosystem approach --- urban ecology --- eco-cities --- process-function ecology --- heat island mitigation --- urban forestry --- green infrastructure --- ecological landscape management --- sustainability index --- mixed land-use --- neighbourhood --- travel behaviour --- perception --- indicator --- stakeholder --- megacity --- co-design --- co-production --- bottom-up --- anthropogenic impact --- environmental threshold --- road grades --- heavy-duty vehicles --- emissions --- sustainable transportation --- China --- water asset management --- Gap analysis --- LOS (level of service) --- PIs (performance indicators) --- customer value --- noise pollution --- low-frequency noise --- DEFRA --- human well-being --- sustainability --- power poles --- City Biodiversity Index --- Satoyama Index --- land use mixture --- land cover --- GIS --- sustainability --- sustainable development --- sustainable urban development --- sustainable city --- sustainable urban ecosystems --- sustainability assessment --- smart cities

Advances in Quantitative Remote Sensing in China – In Memory of Prof. Xiaowen Li

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038972709 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 404 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-271-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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Quantitative land remote sensing has recently advanced dramatically, particularly in China. It has been largely driven by vast governmental investment, the availability of a huge amount of Chinese satellite data, geospatial information requirements for addressing pressing environmental issues and other societal benefits. Many individuals have also fostered and made great contributions to its development, and Prof. Xiaowen Li was one of these leading figures. This book is published in memory of Prof. Li. The papers collected in this book cover topics from surface reflectance simulation, inversion algorithm and estimation of variables, to applications in optical, thermal, Lidar and microwave remote sensing. The wide range of variables include directional reflectance, chlorophyll fluorescence, aerosol optical depth, incident solar radiation, albedo, surface temperature, upward longwave radiation, leaf area index, fractional vegetation cover, forest biomass, precipitation, evapotranspiration, freeze/thaw snow cover, vegetation productivity, phenology and biodiversity indicators. They clearly reflect the current level of research in this area. This book constitutes an excellent reference suitable for upper-level undergraduate students, graduate students and professionals in remote sensing.

Keywords

evapotranspiration --- Northeast China --- MS–PT algorithm --- spatial-temporal variations --- controlling factors --- potential evapotranspiration --- vegetation remote sensing --- reflectance model --- spectra --- leaf --- copper --- PROSPECT --- leaf area density --- terrestrial LiDAR --- tree canopy --- vertical structure --- voxel --- spatial representativeness --- heterogeneity --- validation --- land-surface temperature products (LSTs) --- observations --- HiWATER --- remote sensing --- spatiotemporal representative --- cost-efficient, sampling design --- heterogeneity --- validation --- FY-3C/MERSI --- GLASS --- Land surface temperature --- Land surface emissivity --- GPP --- SIF --- MuSyQ-GPP algorithm --- BEPS --- vegetation phenology --- Tibetan Plateau --- MODIS --- NDVI --- start of growing season (SOS) --- end of growing season (EOS) --- GLASS LAI time series --- forest disturbance --- disturbance index --- latent heat --- machine learning algorithms --- plant functional type --- high-resolution freeze/thaw --- AMSR2 --- MODIS --- LAI --- ZY-3 MUX --- GF-1 WFV --- HJ-1 CCD --- maize --- PROSPECT-5B+SAILH (PROSAIL) model --- spatial heterogeneity --- variability --- evapotranspiration --- land surface variables --- probability density function --- HiWATER --- spectral --- albedometer --- interference filter --- photoelectric detector --- validation --- land surface albedo --- multi-scale validation --- rugged terrain --- MRT-based model --- MCD43A3 C6 --- precipitation --- statistics methods --- China --- Tibetan Plateau --- South China’s --- drought --- SPI --- TMI data --- crop-growing regions --- downward shortwave radiation --- machine learning --- gradient boosting regression tree --- AVHRR --- CMA --- BRDF --- aerosol --- MODIS --- sunphotometer --- arid/semiarid --- solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence --- fluorescence quantum efficiency in dark-adapted conditions (FQE) --- SCOPE --- Fraunhofer Line Discrimination (FLD) --- gross primary productivity (GPP) --- longwave upwelling radiation (LWUP) --- Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) --- surface radiation budget --- hybrid method --- remote sensing --- leaf age --- leaf spectral properties --- leaf area index --- Cunninghamia --- Chinese fir --- canopy reflectance --- NIR --- EVI2 --- geometric optical radiative transfer (GORT) model --- land surface albedo --- snow-free albedo --- rugged terrain --- topographic effects --- black-sky albedo (BSA) --- GPP --- NPP --- MODIS --- validation --- phenology --- RADARSAT-2 --- rice --- Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) --- decision tree --- forest canopy height --- aboveground biomass --- ICESat GLAS --- Landsat --- random forest model --- anisotropic reflectance --- BRDF --- rugged terrain --- solo slope --- composite slope --- surface solar irradiance --- geostationary satellite --- polar orbiting satellite --- LUT method --- SURFRAD --- downward shortwave radiation --- daily average value --- Antarctica --- sinusoidal method --- cloud fraction --- interpolation --- boreal forest --- GPP --- spatiotemporal distribution and variation --- meteorological factors --- phenological parameters --- multisource data fusion --- aerosol retrieval --- urban scale --- vegetation dust-retention --- multiple ecological factors --- geographical detector model --- snow cover --- passive microwave --- FY-3C/MWRI --- algorithmic assessment --- China --- land surface temperature --- satellite observations --- flux measurements --- latitudinal pattern --- land cover change --- fractional vegetation cover (FVC) --- multi-data set --- northern China --- spatio-temporal --- inter-annual variation --- uncertainty --- standard error of the mean --- downscaling --- GPP --- spatial heterogeneity --- remote sensing --- subpixel information --- LiDAR --- point cloud --- leaf --- gap fraction --- 3D reconstruction --- biodiversity --- remote sensing --- species richness --- metric comparison --- metric integration --- leaf area index --- MODIS products --- Landsat --- high resolution --- homogeneous and pure pixel filter --- pixel unmixing --- vertical vegetation stratification --- gross primary production (GPP) --- light use efficiency --- dense forest --- MODIS --- VPM --- temperature profiles --- humidity profiles --- n/a --- geometric-optical model --- thermal radiation directionality --- quantitative remote sensing inversion --- scale effects --- comprehensive field experiment

Advances in Quantitative Remote Sensing in China – In Memory of Prof. Xiaowen Li

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038972761 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 404 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-277-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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Abstract

Quantitative land remote sensing has recently advanced dramatically, particularly in China. It has been largely driven by vast governmental investment, the availability of a huge amount of Chinese satellite data, geospatial information requirements for addressing pressing environmental issues and other societal benefits. Many individuals have also fostered and made great contributions to its development, and Prof. Xiaowen Li was one of these leading figures. This book is published in memory of Prof. Li. The papers collected in this book cover topics from surface reflectance simulation, inversion algorithm and estimation of variables, to applications in optical, thermal, Lidar and microwave remote sensing. The wide range of variables include directional reflectance, chlorophyll fluorescence, aerosol optical depth, incident solar radiation, albedo, surface temperature, upward longwave radiation, leaf area index, fractional vegetation cover, forest biomass, precipitation, evapotranspiration, freeze/thaw snow cover, vegetation productivity, phenology and biodiversity indicators. They clearly reflect the current level of research in this area. This book constitutes an excellent reference suitable for upper-level undergraduate students, graduate students and professionals in remote sensing.

Keywords

evapotranspiration --- Northeast China --- MS–PT algorithm --- spatial-temporal variations --- controlling factors --- potential evapotranspiration --- vegetation remote sensing --- reflectance model --- spectra --- leaf --- copper --- PROSPECT --- leaf area density --- terrestrial LiDAR --- tree canopy --- vertical structure --- voxel --- spatial representativeness --- heterogeneity --- validation --- land-surface temperature products (LSTs) --- observations --- HiWATER --- remote sensing --- spatiotemporal representative --- cost-efficient, sampling design --- heterogeneity --- validation --- FY-3C/MERSI --- GLASS --- Land surface temperature --- Land surface emissivity --- GPP --- SIF --- MuSyQ-GPP algorithm --- BEPS --- vegetation phenology --- Tibetan Plateau --- MODIS --- NDVI --- start of growing season (SOS) --- end of growing season (EOS) --- GLASS LAI time series --- forest disturbance --- disturbance index --- latent heat --- machine learning algorithms --- plant functional type --- high-resolution freeze/thaw --- AMSR2 --- MODIS --- LAI --- ZY-3 MUX --- GF-1 WFV --- HJ-1 CCD --- maize --- PROSPECT-5B+SAILH (PROSAIL) model --- spatial heterogeneity --- variability --- evapotranspiration --- land surface variables --- probability density function --- HiWATER --- spectral --- albedometer --- interference filter --- photoelectric detector --- validation --- land surface albedo --- multi-scale validation --- rugged terrain --- MRT-based model --- MCD43A3 C6 --- precipitation --- statistics methods --- China --- Tibetan Plateau --- South China’s --- drought --- SPI --- TMI data --- crop-growing regions --- downward shortwave radiation --- machine learning --- gradient boosting regression tree --- AVHRR --- CMA --- BRDF --- aerosol --- MODIS --- sunphotometer --- arid/semiarid --- solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence --- fluorescence quantum efficiency in dark-adapted conditions (FQE) --- SCOPE --- Fraunhofer Line Discrimination (FLD) --- gross primary productivity (GPP) --- longwave upwelling radiation (LWUP) --- Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) --- surface radiation budget --- hybrid method --- remote sensing --- leaf age --- leaf spectral properties --- leaf area index --- Cunninghamia --- Chinese fir --- canopy reflectance --- NIR --- EVI2 --- geometric optical radiative transfer (GORT) model --- land surface albedo --- snow-free albedo --- rugged terrain --- topographic effects --- black-sky albedo (BSA) --- GPP --- NPP --- MODIS --- validation --- phenology --- RADARSAT-2 --- rice --- Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) --- decision tree --- forest canopy height --- aboveground biomass --- ICESat GLAS --- Landsat --- random forest model --- anisotropic reflectance --- BRDF --- rugged terrain --- solo slope --- composite slope --- surface solar irradiance --- geostationary satellite --- polar orbiting satellite --- LUT method --- SURFRAD --- downward shortwave radiation --- daily average value --- Antarctica --- sinusoidal method --- cloud fraction --- interpolation --- boreal forest --- GPP --- spatiotemporal distribution and variation --- meteorological factors --- phenological parameters --- multisource data fusion --- aerosol retrieval --- urban scale --- vegetation dust-retention --- multiple ecological factors --- geographical detector model --- snow cover --- passive microwave --- FY-3C/MWRI --- algorithmic assessment --- China --- land surface temperature --- satellite observations --- flux measurements --- latitudinal pattern --- land cover change --- fractional vegetation cover (FVC) --- multi-data set --- northern China --- spatio-temporal --- inter-annual variation --- uncertainty --- standard error of the mean --- downscaling --- GPP --- spatial heterogeneity --- remote sensing --- subpixel information --- LiDAR --- point cloud --- leaf --- gap fraction --- 3D reconstruction --- biodiversity --- remote sensing --- species richness --- metric comparison --- metric integration --- leaf area index --- MODIS products --- Landsat --- high resolution --- homogeneous and pure pixel filter --- pixel unmixing --- vertical vegetation stratification --- gross primary production (GPP) --- light use efficiency --- dense forest --- MODIS --- VPM --- temperature profiles --- humidity profiles --- n/a --- geometric-optical model --- thermal radiation directionality --- quantitative remote sensing inversion --- scale effects --- comprehensive field experiment

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eng (10)


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2019 (10)