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Introduction to Modern Instrumentation For Hydraulics and Environmental Sciences

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ISBN: 9783110401721 9783110427370 Year: Pages: 433 DOI: 10.2478/9783110401721 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Environmental Engineering --- Hydraulic Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2014-11-17 10:39:26
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Natural hazards and anthropic activities threaten the human environment. The gathering of field data is needed so as to quantify the impact of such activities. To gather the necessary data researchers nowadays use a great variety of new instruments based on electronics. Yet, the working principles of this new instrumentation might not be well understood by some potential users. All operators of these new tools must gain proper insight so as to be able to judge whether the instrument is selected appropriately and functions adequately. This book attempts to demonstrate some characteristics that are not easy to understand by the uninitiated in the use of electronic instruments. The material presented in this book was prepared with the purpose of reflecting the technological changes that have occurred in environmental modern instrumentation in the last few decades. The book is intended for students of hydrology, hydraulics, oceanography, meteorology and environmental sciences. Basic concepts of electronics, special physics principles and signal processing are introduced in the first chapters in order to enable the reader to follow the topics developed in the book, without any prior knowledge of these matters. The instruments are explained in detail and several examples are introduced to show their measuring limitations. Enough mathematical fundamentals are given to allow the reader to reach a good quantitative knowledge.

Novel, Integrated and Revolutionary Well Test Interpretation and Analysis

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ISBN: 9781789848502 9781789848519 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.81031 Language: English
Publisher: InTechOpen
Subject: Hydraulic Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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The TDS technique is a practical, easy, and powerful tool for well test interpretation. It uses characteristic features and points found on the pressure derivative versus time plot, so that reservoir parameters can be easily calculated by using several analytic expressions. Most calculations can be verified more than once and applied to systems where the conventional straight-line method has no applications. This book deals with well tests run in elongated systems, partially completed/penetrated wells, multirate tests, hydraulically fractured wells, interference tests, and naturally fractured reservoirs. This technique is used in all commercial well-testing software. Its use is the panacea for well test interpretation and can also be extended to rate-transient analysis, although not shown here.

Energieeffizienz von Konstantdrucksystemen mit sekundärgeregelten Antrieben beim Einsatz in mobilen Arbeitsmaschinen

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Book Series: Karlsruher Schriftenreihe Fahrzeugsystemtechnik / Institut für Fahrzeugsystemtechnik ISSN: 18696058 ISBN: 9783731503774 Year: Volume: 35 Pages: XXV, 163 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000047003 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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Within this work, it is investigated under which conditions constant pressure systems with secondary controlled drives may be an energetic efficient and cost effective alternative to established mobile hydraulic circuit configurations. For this purpose, a methodology is introduced to evaluate chances and risks at employment of this technology in mobile machines. A demonstrator with three secondary controlled variable displacement drives is developed to confirm the results of the methodology.

Sediment Transport in Coastal Waters

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ISBN: 9783038978442 9783038978459 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-845-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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The interface of 440,000 km long coastline in the world is subject to global change, with an increasing human pressure (land use, buildings, sand mining, dredging) and increasing population. Improving our knowledge on involved mechanisms and sediment transport processes, monitoring the evolution of sedimentary stocks and anticipating changes in littoral and coastal zones is essential for this purpose. The special issue of Water on “Sediment transport in coastal waters” gathers thirteen papers which introduce the current revolution in the scientific research related to coastal and littoral hydrosedimentary dynamics, and reflect the diversity of concerns on which research in coastal sediment transport is based, and current trends — topics and preferred methods — to address them.

Keywords

suspended sediment --- sediment transport --- coastal hydraulics --- Mekong --- river plume --- monsoon --- mathematical model --- geochemical map --- particle transfer process --- tidal current --- analysis of variance (ANOVA) --- Cluster analysis --- Mahalanobis’ generalized distances --- Seto Inland Sea --- East Coast Low --- nearshore processes --- coastal erosion --- coastal management --- climate change --- numerical modelling --- Southeast Australia --- soil erosion --- SWAT --- water scarcity --- sediment transport modelling --- Tafna catchment --- North Africa --- suspended sediment --- sediment transport --- lagoon --- geochemistry --- Ni mining --- sediment trap --- hydrodynamics --- New Caledonia --- dry season --- Senegal River delta --- Langue de Barbarie spit --- delta vulnerability --- river-mouth migration --- spit breaching --- ERA hindcast waves --- longshore sediment transport --- Vietnam --- South China Sea --- erosion --- recovery --- storminess --- winter monsoon --- typhoons --- shoreline --- waves forcing --- storms --- resilience --- post-storm recovery --- Bight of Benin --- seasonal cycle --- trend --- sand-mud mixture erosion --- numerical modelling --- non-cohesive to cohesive transition --- remote sensing reflectance --- turbidity --- seagrass beds --- bed shear stress --- fresh water runoff --- oceanic water intrusion --- suspended particulate matter --- aggregates --- flocculation --- biomass --- sediment --- turbidity --- remote-sensing --- MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) --- Support Vector Regression (SVR) --- oligotrophic lagoon --- bathymetry --- reflectance --- seabed colour --- coral reef --- New Caledonia --- sediment transport --- cohesive sediments --- non cohesive sediments --- sand --- mud --- coastal erosion --- sedimentation --- morphodynamics --- suspended particulate matter --- bedload

Entropy Applications in Environmental and Water Engineering

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ISBN: 9783038972228 Year: Pages: 512 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-223-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 15:50:41
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Entropy theory has wide applications to a range of problems in the fields of environmental and water engineering, including river hydraulic geometry, fluvial hydraulics, water monitoring network design, river flow forecasting, floods and droughts, river network analysis, infiltration, soil moisture, sediment transport, surface water and groundwater quality modeling, ecosystems modeling, water distribution networks, environmental and water resources management, and parameter estimation. Such applications have used several different entropy formulations, such as Shannon, Tsallis, Reacutenyi Burg, Kolmogorov, Kapur, configurational, and relative entropies, which can be derived in time, space, or frequency domains. More recently, entropy-based concepts have been coupled with other theories, including copula and wavelets, to study various issues associated with environmental and water resources systems. Recent studies indicate the enormous scope and potential of entropy theory in advancing research in the fields of environmental and water engineering, including establishing and explaining physical connections between theory and reality. The objective of this Special Issue is to provide a platform for compiling important recent and current research on the applications of entropy theory in environmental and water engineering. The contributions to this Special Issue have addressed many aspects associated with entropy theory applications and have shown the enormous scope and potential of entropy theory in advancing research in the fields of environmental and water engineering.

Keywords

complexity --- streamflow --- water level --- composite multiscale sample entropy --- trend --- Poyang Lake basin --- four-parameter exponential gamma distribution --- principle of maximum entropy --- precipitation frequency analysis --- methods of moments --- maximum likelihood estimation --- flood frequency analysis --- generalized gamma (GG) distribution --- principle of maximum entropy (POME) --- entropy theory --- principle of maximum entropy (POME) --- GB2 distribution --- flood frequency analysis --- non-point source pollution --- ANN --- entropy weighting method --- data-scarce --- multi-events --- spatio-temporal variability --- soil water content --- entropy --- arid region --- joint entropy --- NDVI --- temperature --- precipitation --- groundwater depth --- Hei River basin --- turbulent flow --- canopy flow --- randomness --- coherent structures --- Shannon entropy --- Kolmogorov complexity --- entropy --- information transfer --- optimization --- radar --- rainfall network --- water resource carrying capacity --- forewarning model --- entropy of information --- fuzzy analytic hierarchy process --- projection pursuit --- accelerating genetic algorithm --- entropy production --- conditional entropy production --- stochastic processes --- scaling --- climacogram --- turbulence --- water resources vulnerability --- connection entropy --- changing environment --- set pair analysis --- Anhui Province --- cross-entropy minimization --- land suitability evaluation --- spatial optimization --- monthly streamflow forecasting --- Burg entropy --- configurational entropy --- entropy spectral analysis time series analysis --- entropy --- water monitoring --- network design --- hydrometric network --- information theory --- entropy applications --- hydrological risk analysis --- maximum entropy-copula method --- uncertainty --- Loess Plateau --- entropy --- water engineering --- Tsallis entropy --- principle of maximum entropy --- Lagrangian function --- probability distribution function --- flux concentration relation --- uncertainty --- information --- informational entropy --- variation of information --- continuous probability distribution functions --- confidence intervals --- precipitation --- variability --- marginal entropy --- crop yield --- Hexi corridor --- flow duration curve --- Shannon entropy --- entropy parameter --- modeling --- spatial and dynamics characteristic --- hydrology --- tropical rainfall --- statistical scaling --- Tsallis entropy --- multiplicative cascades --- Beta-Lognormal model --- rainfall forecast --- cross entropy --- ant colony fuzzy clustering --- combined forecast --- information entropy --- mutual information --- kernel density estimation --- ENSO --- nonlinear relation --- scaling laws --- power laws --- water distribution networks --- robustness --- flow entropy --- entropy theory --- frequency analysis --- hydrometeorological extremes --- Bayesian technique --- rainfall --- entropy ensemble filter --- ensemble model simulation criterion --- EEF method --- bootstrap aggregating --- bagging --- bootstrap neural networks --- El Niño --- ENSO --- neural network forecast --- sea surface temperature --- tropical Pacific --- entropy --- cross elasticity --- mean annual runoff --- water resources --- resilience --- quaternary catchment --- complement --- substitute --- entropy theory --- complex systems --- hydraulics --- hydrology --- water engineering --- environmental engineering

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