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Hydrides: Fundamentals and Applications

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ISBN: 9783038422099 9783038422082 Year: Pages: XVI, 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-209-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-20 08:56:46
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The reversible elimination of hydrogen from metal hydrides serves as the basis for unique methods of energy transformation. This technology has found widespread practical utilization in applications such as hydrogen compressors, storage, and sensors, as well as batteries. Moreover, it is plausible that metal hydride technology could be utilized to provide practically viable solutions to the challenges of energy storage. For nearly two decades, an extensive, worldwide research effort has been devoted to complex metal hydrides possessing high volumetric and/or gravimetric hydrogen densities with the goal of their practical utilization as onboard hydrogen storage materials. Additionally, a significant and growing number of efforts have been devoted to developing metal hydrides as advanced sensors and ionic conductors, and for electrochemical and stationary energy storage.

Functional Materials Based on Metal Hydrides

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ISBN: 9783038972822 9783038972839 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-283-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-18 10:44:38
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Our extreme and growing energy consumption, based on fossil fuels, has significantly increased the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which may lead to global and irreversible climate changes. We have plenty of renewable energy, e.g., sun and wind, but the fluctuations over time and geography call for a range of new ideas and, possibly, novel technologies. The most difficult challenge appears to be the development of the efficient and reliable storage of renewable energy. Hydrogen has long been considered as a potential means of energy storage; however, storage of hydrogen is also challenging. Therefore, a wide range of hydrogen-containing materials, with energy-related functions, has been discovered over the past few decades. The chemistry of hydrogen is very diverse, and so also are the new hydrides that have been discovered, not only in terms of structure and composition but also in terms of their properties. This has led to a wide range of new possible applications of metal hydrides that permeate beyond solid-state hydrogen storage. A variety of new hydrides, proposed as battery materials, has been discovered. These can exploit properties as fast ion conductors or as conversion-type electrodes with much higher potential energy capacities, compared to materials currently used in commercial batteries. Solar heat storage is also an area of great potential for metal hydrides, in principle offering orders of magnitude better storage performance than phase change materials. Recently, hydrides with optical and superconducting properties have also been investigated. This Special Issue of Inorganics, entitled “Functional Materials Based on Metal Hydrides”, is dedicated to the full range of emerging electronic, photonic, and energy-related, inorganic, hydrogen-containing materials.

Metals Challenged by Neutron and Synchrotron Radiation

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ISBN: 9783038426790 9783038426806 Year: Pages: 288 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-08 13:10:36
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Neutron and Synchrotron radiation methods have matured to become powerful techniques for the study of a vast range of materials, including metals. The characterization methods comprise the categories of diffraction, spectroscopy and imaging, which themselves can alter greatly in detail, to include hundreds of variants, problems and sample environments. In a similar way, their applications to metals and hard condensed matter materials cover disciplines spanning engineering, physics, chemistry, materials science and their derivatives such as geology, energy storage, etc. … The present book, “Metals Challenged by Neutron and Synchrotron Radiation” is a first compilation in Metals of 20 original and review works on research utilizing or designing those state-of-the-art techniques at modern facilities. The Editorial reviews the context of and identifies thematic links between these papers, grouping them into five interwoven themes, namely Sintering Techniques and Microstructure Evolution, Titanium Aluminides and Titanium Alloys Under Extreme Conditions, Metallic Glass and Disordered Crystals, In Situ and Time-Resolved Response to Mechanical Load and Shock, and Thin Films and Layers. This book represents a good cross-section of the status quo of neutron and synchrotron radiation with respect to questions in the metallurgical field, which by far is not exhaustive. Nor are the methods and other materials, which motivated me to the creation of a new sister-journal, entitled Quantum Beam Science. With this, I would like to thank all authors, reviewers and contributors behind the scene for the creation of this work, presenting to you a piece of interesting reading and reference literature.

Clean Energy and Fuel (Hydrogen) Storage

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ISBN: 9783039216307 / 9783039216314 Year: Pages: 278 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-631-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Clean energy and fuel storage are often required for both stationary and automotive applications. Some of these clean energy and fuel storage technologies currently under extensive research and development include hydrogen storage, direct electric storage, mechanical energy storage, solar–thermal energy storage, electrochemical (batteries and supercapacitors), and thermochemical storage. The gravimetric and volumetric storage capacity, energy storage density, power output, operating temperature and pressure, cycle life, recyclability, and cost of clean energy or fuel storage are some of the factors that govern efficient energy and fuel storage technologies for potential deployment in energy harvesting (solar and wind farms) stations and onboard vehicular transportation. This Special Issue thus serves the need for promoting exploratory research and development on clean energy and fuel storage technologies while addressing their challenges to practical and sustainable infrastructures.

Keywords

dye-sensitized solar cells --- carbon materials --- Ag nanoparticles --- freestanding TiO2 nanotube arrays --- gas turbine engine --- lean direct injection --- four-point --- low emissions combustion --- carbonate gas reservoirs --- water invasion --- recovery factor --- aquifer size --- production rate --- hydrogen storage --- complex hydrides --- nanocatalyst --- LiNH2 --- MgH2 --- ball milling --- Li-ion batteries --- nanocomposite materials --- cathode --- anode --- binder --- separator --- ionic liquid --- vertically oriented graphene --- electrical double layers --- charge density --- capacitance --- gas storage --- material science --- rock permeability --- synthetic rock salt testing --- Klinkenberg method --- hydrogen storage systems --- hydrogen absorption --- thermochemical energy storage --- metal hydride --- magnetism --- heat transfer enhancement --- Power to Liquid --- Fischer–Tropsch --- dynamic modeling --- lab-scale --- lithium-ion batteries --- simplified electrochemical model --- state of charge estimator --- extended kalman filter --- hot summer and cold winter area --- PCM roof --- comprehensive incremental benefit --- conjugate phase change heat transfer --- lattice Boltzmann method --- large-scale wind farm --- auxiliary services compensation --- battery energy storage system --- optimal capacity --- equivalent loss of cycle life --- hydrogen storage --- porous media --- bacterial sulfate reduction --- methanogenesis --- gas loss --- diffusion --- reactive transport modeling --- PHREEQC --- energy discharge --- bubbles burst --- bubbles transportation --- crystal growth rates --- undercooling --- salt cavern --- leaching tubing --- flutter instability --- flow-induced vibration --- internal and reverse external axial flows --- thermal energy storage (TES) --- slag --- regenerator --- concentrated solar power (CSP) --- quality function deployment (QFD) --- failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) --- thermal energy storage --- electrochemical energy storage --- hydrogen energy storage --- salt cavern energy storage

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