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Grappling with the Bomb

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Book Series: Pacific Series ISBN: 9781760461379 9781760461386 Year: DOI: 10.22459/GB.09.2017 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Sociology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-14 11:01:50
License: ANU Press

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Grappling with the Bomb is a history of Britain’s 1950s program to test the hydrogen bomb, code name Operation Grapple. In 1957–58, nine atmospheric nuclear tests were held at Malden Island and Christmas Island—today, part of the Pacific nation of Kiribati. Nearly 14,000 troops travelled to the central Pacific for the UK nuclear testing program—many are still living with the health and environmental consequences. Based on archival research and interviews with nuclear survivors, Grappling with the Bomb presents i-Kiribati woman Sui Kiritome, British pacifist Harold Steele, businessman James Burns, Fijian sailor Paul Ah Poy, English volunteers Mary and Billie Burgess and many other witnesses to Britain’s nuclear folly.

Sulfur-tolerant natural gas reforming for fuel-cell applications

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ISBN: 9783866444591 Year: Pages: II, 144 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000014763 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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An attractive simplification of PEM-FC systems operated with natural gas would be the use of a sulfur tolerant reforming catalyst, but such a catalyst has not been available thus far. In this work it is demonstrated that a tailor made rhodium catalyst retains useful activity for typical sulfur levels in the feed. A brief economic comparison showed however that this alternative process is still less economical than the traditional process employing removal of sulfur components by adsorption.

Analysis of Hydrogen Bonds in Crystals

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ISBN: 9783038422457 9783038422464 Year: Pages: XIV, 308 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-246-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-29 12:35:45
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There is no doubt that the hydrogen bond is one of the most-often analyzed interactions, and there is also no doubt that experimental studies, especially those based on the determination of crystal structures are very important since they deliver valuable information on the nature of this interaction, on different types of the hydrogen bonds, and also on reactions where a hydrogen bond may be treated as the preliminary step.Since the role of the analysis of crystal structures for investigations concerning hydrogen-bonded systems is valuable, the Editorial Board of Crystals, thus, decided to devote a Special Issue of the journal to the analysis of hydrogen bonds in crystals.

Hydrides: Fundamentals and Applications

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ISBN: 9783038422099 9783038422082 Year: Pages: XVI, 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-209-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-20 08:56:46
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The reversible elimination of hydrogen from metal hydrides serves as the basis for unique methods of energy transformation. This technology has found widespread practical utilization in applications such as hydrogen compressors, storage, and sensors, as well as batteries. Moreover, it is plausible that metal hydride technology could be utilized to provide practically viable solutions to the challenges of energy storage. For nearly two decades, an extensive, worldwide research effort has been devoted to complex metal hydrides possessing high volumetric and/or gravimetric hydrogen densities with the goal of their practical utilization as onboard hydrogen storage materials. Additionally, a significant and growing number of efforts have been devoted to developing metal hydrides as advanced sensors and ionic conductors, and for electrochemical and stationary energy storage.

GASFLOW-MPI: A Scalable Computational Fluid Dynamics Code for Gases, Aerosols and Combustion. Band 1 (Theory and Computational Model (Revision 1.0) und Band 2 (Users' Manual). (KIT Scientific Reports ; 7710 und 7711)

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ISBN: 9783731504474 Year: Pages: 400 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000050392 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is developing the parallel computational fluid dynamics code GASFLOW-MPI as a best-estimate tool for predicting transport, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen and other gases in nuclear reactor containments and other facility buildings. GASFLOW-MPI is a finite-volume code based on proven computational fluid dynamics methodology that solves the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for three-dimensional volumes in Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates.

Pd-based Membranes. Overview and Perspectives

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ISBN: 9783038977025 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-703-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Palladium (Pd)-based membranes have received a great deal of attention from both academia and industry thanks to their ability to selectively separate hydrogen from gas streams. The integration of such membranes with appropriate catalysts in membrane reactors allows for hydrogen production with CO2 capture that can be applied in smaller bioenergy or combined heat and power (CHP) plants, as well as in large-scale power plants. Pd-based membranes are therefore regarded as a Key Enabling Technology (KET) to facilitate the transition towards a knowledge-based, low-carbon, and resource-efficient economy. This Special Issue of the journal Membranes on “Pd-based Membranes: Overview and Perspectives” contains nine peer-reviewed articles. Topics include manufacturing techniques, understanding of material phenomena, module and reactor design, novel applications, and demonstration efforts and industrial exploitation.

Advances in Microalgae Biology and Sustainable Applications

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450145 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-014-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany --- General and Civil Engineering --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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It has become more evident that many microalgae respond very differently than land plants to diverse stimuli. Therefore, we cannot reduce microalgae biology to what we have learned from land plants biology. However, we are still at the beginning of a comprehensive understanding of microalgae biology. Microalgae have been posited several times as prime candidates for the development of sustainable energy platforms, making thus the in-depth understanding of their biological features an important objective. Thus, the knowledge related to the basics of microalgae biology must be acquired and shared rapidly, fostering the development of potential applications. Microalgae biology has been studied for more than forty years now and more intensely since the 1970’s, when genetics and molecular biology approaches were integrated into the research programs. Recently, studies on the molecular physiology of microalgae have provided evidences on the particularities of these organisms, mainly in model species, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Of note, cellular responses in microalgae produce very interesting phenotypes, such as high lipid content in nitrogen deprived cells, increased protein content in cells under high CO2 concentrations, the modification of flagella structure and motility in basal body mutant strains, the different ancient proteins that microalgae uses to dissipate the harmful excess of light energy, the hydrogen production in cells under sulfur deprivation, to mention just a few. Moreover, several research groups are using high-throughput and data-driven technologies, including “omics” approaches to investigate microalgae cellular responses at a system-wide level, revealing new features of microalgae biology, highlighting differences between microalgae and land plants. It has been amazing to observe the efforts towards the development and optimization of new technologies required for the proper study of microalgae, including methods that opened new paths to the investigation of important processes such as regulatory mechanisms, signaling crosstalk, chemotactic mechanisms, light responses, chloroplast controlled mechanisms, among others. This is an exciting moment in microalgae research when novel data are been produced and applied by research groups from different areas, such as bioprocesses and biotechnology. Moreover, there has been an increased amount of research groups focused in the study of microalgae as a sustainable source for bioremediation, synthesis of bioproducts and development of bioenergy. Innovative strategies are combining the knowledge of basic sciences on microalgae into their applied processes, resulting in the progression of many applications that hopefully, will achieve the necessary degree of optimization for economically feasible large-scale applications. Advances on the areas of basic microalgae biology and novelties on the essential cellular processes were revealed. Progress in the applied science showed the use of the basic science knowledge into fostering translational research, proposing novel strategies for a sustainable world scenario. In this present e-book, articles presented by research groups from different scientific areas showed, successfully, the increased development of the microalgae research. Herewith, you will find articles ranging from bioprospecting regional microalgae species, through advances in microalgae molecular physiology to the development of techniques for characterization of biomass and the use of biomass into agriculture and bioenergy production. This e-book is an excellent source of knowledge for those working with microalgae basic and applied sciences, and a great opportunity for researchers from both areas to have an overview of the amazing possibilities we have for building an environmentally sustainable future once the knowledge is translated into novel applications.

Optics and Spectroscopy for Fluid Characterization

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ISBN: 9783038970217 9783038970224 Year: Pages: VIII, 120 Language: Englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-21 15:51:54
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All over the world, there is a huge and ever-increasing interest in the development and application of optical and spectroscopic techniques to characterize fluids in engineering and science. The large number of review articles that are frequently published in these areas is evidence of this. Recent examples have focused on applications of optical diagnostics to gas phase environments, liquids, and multiphase systems. A key feature of such light-based methods is that they are usually non-intrusive, and hence they do not notably affect the system under investigation. As a consequence, optical techniques have been developed for many decades and represent the gold standard in many fields. The list of individual techniques utilizing absorption, refraction, diffraction and scattering effects is long and so is the list of the parameters that can be determined. The latter includes macroscopic properties such as temperature, chemical composition, thermophysical quantities, and flow velocity, but molecular information, e.g., about isomerism and intermolecular interactions, can also be obtained. This Special Issue entitled “Optics and Spectroscopy for Fluid Characterization” aims to demonstrate the breadth of the field in terms of methodology, as well as applications.

Deep Subsurface Microbiology

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195367 Year: Pages: 303 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-536-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Deep subsurface microbiology is a highly active and rapidly advancing research field at the interface of microbiology and the geosciences; it focuses on the detection, identification, quantification, cultivation and activity measurements of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes that permeate the subsurface biosphere of deep marine sediments and the basaltic ocean and continental crust. The deep subsurface biosphere abounds with uncultured, only recently discovered and – at best - incompletely understood microbial populations. In spatial extent and volume, Earth’s subsurface biosphere is only rivaled by the deep sea water column. So far, no deep subsurface sediment has been found that is entirely devoid of microbial life; microbial cells and DNA remain detectable at sediment depths of more than 1 km; microbial life permeates deeply buried hydrocarbon reservoirs, and is also found several kilometers down in continental crust aquifers. Severe energy limitation, either as electron acceptor or donor shortage, and scarcity of microbially degradable organic carbon sources are among the evolutionary pressures that have shaped the genomic and physiological repertoire of the deep subsurface biosphere. Its biogeochemical role as long-term organic carbon repository, inorganic electron and energy source, and subduction recycling engine continues to be explored by current research at the interface of microbiology, geochemistry and biosphere/geosphere evolution. This Research Topic addresses some of the central research questions about deep subsurface microbiology and biogeochemistry: phylogenetic and physiological microbial diversity in the deep subsurface; microbial activity and survival strategies in severely energy-limited subsurface habitats; microbial activity as reflected in process rates and gene expression patterns; biogeographic isolation and connectivity in deep subsurface microbial communities; the ecological standing of subsurface biospheres in comparison to the surface biosphere – an independently flourishing biosphere, or mere survivors that tolerate burial (along with organic carbon compounds), or a combination of both? Advancing these questions on Earth’s deep subsurface biosphere redefines the habitat range, environmental tolerance, activity and diversity of microbial life.

Functional Materials Based on Metal Hydrides

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038972822 9783038972839 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-283-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-18 10:44:38
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Our extreme and growing energy consumption, based on fossil fuels, has significantly increased the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which may lead to global and irreversible climate changes. We have plenty of renewable energy, e.g., sun and wind, but the fluctuations over time and geography call for a range of new ideas and, possibly, novel technologies. The most difficult challenge appears to be the development of the efficient and reliable storage of renewable energy. Hydrogen has long been considered as a potential means of energy storage; however, storage of hydrogen is also challenging. Therefore, a wide range of hydrogen-containing materials, with energy-related functions, has been discovered over the past few decades. The chemistry of hydrogen is very diverse, and so also are the new hydrides that have been discovered, not only in terms of structure and composition but also in terms of their properties. This has led to a wide range of new possible applications of metal hydrides that permeate beyond solid-state hydrogen storage. A variety of new hydrides, proposed as battery materials, has been discovered. These can exploit properties as fast ion conductors or as conversion-type electrodes with much higher potential energy capacities, compared to materials currently used in commercial batteries. Solar heat storage is also an area of great potential for metal hydrides, in principle offering orders of magnitude better storage performance than phase change materials. Recently, hydrides with optical and superconducting properties have also been investigated. This Special Issue of Inorganics, entitled “Functional Materials Based on Metal Hydrides”, is dedicated to the full range of emerging electronic, photonic, and energy-related, inorganic, hydrogen-containing materials.

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