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New Translational Insights on Metabolic Syndrome: Obesity, Hypertension, Diabetes and Beyond

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199242 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-924-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) can be considered as a clustering of several risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, which could lead to the development of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). There are several underlying causes for MetS including overweight, physical inactivity and genetic factors. However, the underlying mechanisms that leads to MetS are still poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this E-book is to provide a space where researchers holding different backgrounds could shed some light onto the pathophysiology of different risk factors involved in MetS, mostly from translational research worldwide.

The Natriuretic Hormones

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197095 Year: Pages: 76 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-709-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The title follows from the original demonstration by Dr. Hugh de Wardener in 1961 that a humoral agent is produced after extracellular volume expansion which results in a vigorous diuresis and natriuresis. Thus the name of "natriuretic hormone" was coined. In the years that followed several investigators pursued the search for the hormone. What resulted, however, was the discovery of several hormones with different characteristics, all of which were natriuretic. Initially it was found that the hormone was similar in action to ouabain or digoxin, hence the appelation of ouabain-like or digoxin-like. The hormone was found to be an inhibitor of Na-K-ATPase, which would fit with it being a cardiotonic steroid. On the other hand, neither ouabain or digoxin migrated on Sephadex gel filtration in the same locus as the hormone. Other investigators claim to have identified the hormone-initially as a vanadium-diascorbate, later as bufadienolides such as marinobufagenin, yet later as a macrocylic derivative of inorganic carbon suboxide with a molecular weight of 408 Da. Some support for the latter finding was derived from an earlier report that a semi-purified Sephadex-derived compound was found to have a molecular weight of about 12,000 Da but the active compound, when split from its carrier protein, had a molecular weight of exactly 408 Da. This compound had not been further identified. As further development was the demonstration by Bricker and colleagues that a natriuretic substance could be purified from uremic urine. This turned out to be a xathurenic acid derivative. Meanwhile the focus began to turn to natriuretic peptides derived from heart (ANF and BNP). These peptides have a shorter duration of action than the cardiotonic steroid-like hormone and ANF has proved to be most useful as a measure of heart failure. It should also be stressed that marinobufagenin, like ANF, is elevated in congestive heart failure, whereas the steroid-like hormone is depressed or absent in this state. This review will attempt to describe and contrast the properties of each of the proposed natriuretic hormones, including their locus on Sephadex separation, potency, duration of action, chemical structure (if known), behavior in hypertension, renal failure, heart failure, and brain disease. As most recent work has focussed on marinobufagenin, this hormone will be brought up to date by investigators in the field.

Perivascular Adipose Tissue (PVAT) in Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456031 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-603-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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In 1991, Soltis and Cassis (Clin Exp Hypertens A 1991 13:277-296) published the first paper that the fat tissue around an artery – perivascular adipose tissue or PVAT – changed how the artery contracted to norepinephrine. Followed later by important work showing that PVAT itself contained vasoactive molecules, the scientific community recognized that PVAT was not simply a store of fat but is a vasoactive tissue that contributes to the functioning and status of the vessel it surrounds. Our goal for this Frontiers Research Topic is to highlight the significant reach of PVAT in vascular function, from contractility to growth in health and in disease. In doing so, we explicitly place findings that can be taken advantage of in creating new therapies for cardiovascular diseases that continue to challenge our community. These include hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes to name a few.

Carotid Body: A New Target for Rescuing Neural Control of Cardiorespiratory Balance in Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199433 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-943-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The carotid body (CB) is in charge of adjusting ventilatory and cardiovascular function during changes in arterial blood gases. Regardless this essential function, the CB has been implicated in the sensing of other physiological signals such as changes in blood flow and glucose levels. More important, malfunction of the CB chemoreceptors has been associated with the progression and deterioration of several disease states such as hypertension, heart failure, renal failure, insulin resistance, diabetes and sleep apnea. Although the mechanisms involved in the alterations of the CB function in pathophysiology are currently under intense research, the development of therapeutic approaches to restore normal CB chemoreflex function remains unsolved. Recent studies showing the effect of CB denervation in pathophysiology have unveiled a key role of these arterial chemoreceptors in the development of autonomic imbalance and respiratory disturbances, and suggest that targeting the CB could represent a novel strategy to improve disease outcome. Unfortunately, classical pharmacotherapy intended to normalize CB function may be hard to establish since several cellular pathways are involved in the CB dysfunction. Augmented levels of angiotensin II, endothelin-1, cytokines and free radicals along with decreases in nitric oxide had all been related to the CB dysfunction. Moreover, changes in expression of angiotensin receptors, nitric oxide synthases and cytokines that take place within the CB tissue in pathological states also contribute to the enhanced CB chemoreflex drive. It has been shown in heart failure, hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea that the CB becomes tonically hyper-reactive. During the progression of the disease this CB chemosensory facilitation process induces central nervous system plasticity. The altered autonomic-respiratory control leads to increased cardiorespiratory distress and the deterioration of the condition. The focus of this e-book will be to cover the role of the CB in pathophysiology and to provide new evidence of the pathways involved in the maladaptive potentiation of the CB chemoreflex function. In memory of Professor Mashiko Shirahata and Professor Constancio Gonzalez.

Function of Renal Sympathetic Nerves

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452958 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-295-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Sympathetic overactivity is associated with the development of hypertension. Renal denervation (RDN) prevents or delays hypertension in a variety of animal models, which laid the groundwork for the introduction of RDN as a clinical therapy in humans. In 2007, a novel, minimally invasive RDN ablation catheter was first trialled in hypertensive patients, with a 93% success rate of lowering blood pressure for at least three years post-RDN. However, a large scale, sham-controlled clinical trial (Symplicity HTN -3) failed to show reductions in BP greater than sham. The aim of this research topic was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of RDN, to explore the contribution of both afferent and efferent renal nerve activity to hypertension and non-hypertension disorders, and to stimulate future research to better understand the function of the renal nerves and the effects of RDN by highlighting gaps in knowledge.

Central control of autonomic functions in health and disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194759 Year: Pages: 93 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-475-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:33
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The field of autonomic neuroscience research concentrates on those neural pathways and processes that ultimately modulate parasympathetic and sympathetic output to alter peripheral organ function. In the following ebook, laboratories from across the field have contributed reviews and original research to summarize current views on the role of the brain in tuning peripheral organ performance to regulate body temperature, glucose homeostasis and blood pressure.

Hypoxia in Kidney Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456178 Year: Pages: 143 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-617-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Kidney disease is a complex health problem, often coinciding with cardiovascular pathology (e.g. hypertension) and metabolic disturbances (e.g. obesity and diabetes). It is also a disturbingly fast growing global public health problem, e.g. chronic kidney disease affects an estimated ~9-16% of the population. Besides the public health issues this results in a large economic burden as kidney diseases contributes disproportionally to about a quarter of total health care costs. Experimental and clinical data solidly support the view that kidney tissue hypoxia plays a critical and intricate role during the genesis and progression of both chronic and acute kidney diseases. This research field is currently at the very beginning of integrating pre-clinical with clinical research in which hypoxia related mechanism are quantified by non-invasive imaging. In combination with the fact that some key questions remain unanswered, this offers exciting new research perspectives that are waiting to be explored. With this Research Topic we aim to discuss and find answers to the following research question: 1) What are the temporal relationships between hypoxia and kidney disease? 2) Can we demonstration causation between hypoxia and kidney disease? 3) Can renal hypoxia be considered as a treatment target in kidney disease? 4) Can hypoxia (e.g. in the urine) be considered a biomarker of kidney disease? 5) Does hypoxia ramp-up sympathetic activity? 6) Does hypoxia trigger inflammation? 7) Is hypoxia caused by changes in sodium reabsorption and/or mitochondrial function? 8) Which molecular mechanisms are involved in hypoxia in kidney disease? 9) Which gene expressions change due to hypoxia in kidney disease? 10) Can we generate new and translational insights using non-invasive imaging technologies? Our overall aim is identify the mediators/controllers of hypoxia in kidney disease. If we understand more about the sequence of events leading to hypoxia, its regulation and consequences in renal disease, we might be able to have a major impact in clinical practice. I.e. more accurate and earlier diagnosis, novel treatment targets, and novel therapies.

Second hand smoke and COPD: lessons from animal studies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193165 Year: Pages: 91 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-316-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Cigarette smoke exposure is the key initiator of chronic inflammation, alveolar destruction, and the loss of alveolar blood vessels that lead to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) which is comprised of emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is the major risk factor for non-smokers to develop emphysema. While the first-hand smoke is directly inhaled by smokers, passive smoking occurs when non-smokers are involuntary exposed to environmental tobacco smoke also known as second hand smoke (SHS). SHS is a mixture of 2 forms of smoke that come from burning tobacco: side stream smoke (smoke that comes from the end of a lit cigarette, pipe, or cigar) and mainstream smoke (smoke that is exhaled by a smoker). These two types of smoke have basically the same composition, however in SHS many toxic components are more concentrated than in first-hand smoke, therefore more hazardous for people’s health. Several pathological events have been implicated in the development of SHS-induced COPD, but many aspects of this pathology remain poorly understood halting the development of new advanced treatments for this detrimental disease. In this respect we have welcomed leading investigators in the field to share their research findings and provide their thoughts regarding the mechanisms of the SHS exposure-induced immune responses and inflammatory mechanisms of lung destruction in SHS-induced COPD and related comorbidities.

Berry Antioxidants in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783038423485 9783038423492 Year: Pages: VIII, 156 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-349-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Genetics --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-21 07:38:04
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During the last decade, a high volume of work has been published on the health-promoting effects of berries (e.g., blueberries, cranberries, blackberries, etc.) that are rich in antioxidant phytochemicals, polyphenols. Consuming a diet rich in polyphenols has been documented to attenuate the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, diabetes mellitus, and neurodegenerative disorders. Recent evidence also reveals that the biological effects of polyphenols extend beyond their traditional antioxidant role.This Special Issue includes 10 peer-reviewed papers, including original research papers and reviews. They present the most recent advances in the role of berry antioxidants, not only in maintaining health but also in preventing and/or reversing disease both in cell culture, animal models and in humans. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways modulated by berry antioxidants are presented. Chapters include the role of berry antioxidants in whole fruit and leaves on the metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes and glucose intolerance, cancer, inflammation, oxidative stress and neuroprotection as well as cardiovascular disease. As a guest editor, I would like to acknowledge the authors of all chapters for their valuable contributions and reviewers for their thoughtful and constructive suggestions and time. Special thanks to the publishing team of the Antioxidants Journal for their professionalism, attention to detail and timely completion of this volume.

Wine and Vine Components and Health

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ISBN: 9783039211388 / 9783039211395 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-139-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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While there is a tremendous literature on the topic of wine and health ranging back to the days of Hippocrates, it is considered that there is an unlimited variety of wine, allowing for the association of senses, nutrition, and hedonism. The history of vine and wine has lasted for at least 7000 years. Vitis represent adaptable plants, and thanks to the large variety of strains, wine is an alchemical mix with unique properties, a rich and original composition in terms of polyphenols, and well known antioxidants. This explains why wine and health are closely linked to nutrition.

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