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CaMKII in Cardiac Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192991 Year: Pages: 165 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-299-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:07
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The calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) are a broadly expressed family of calcium-sensitive intracellular kinases, which are responsible for transducing cytosolic calcium signals into phosphorylation-based regulation of proteins and physiological functions. As the multifunctional member of the family, CaMKII has become the most prominent for its roles in the central nervous system and heart, where it controls a diverse range of calcium-dependent processes; from learning and memory at the neuronal synapse, to cellular growth and death in the myocardium. In the heart, CaMKII directly regulates many of the most important ion channels and calcium handling proteins, and controls the expression of an ever-increasing number of transcripts and their downstream products. Functionally, these actions are thought to orchestrate many of the electrophysiologic and contractile adaptations to common cardiac stressors, such as rapid pacing, chronic adrenergic stimulation, and oxidative challenge. In the context of disease, CaMKII has been shown to contribute to a remarkably wide variety of cardiac pathologies, of which heart failure (HF) is the most conspicuous. Hyperactivity of CaMKII is an established contributor to pathological cardiac remodeling, and is widely thought to directly promote arrhythmia and contractile dysfunction during HF. Moreover, several non-failing arrhythmia-susceptible phenotypes, which result from specific genetic channelopathies, functionally mimic constitutive channel phosphorylation by CaMKII. Because CaMKII contributes to both the acute and chronic manifestations of major cardiac diseases, but may be only minimally required for homeostasis in the absence of chronic stress, it has come to be one of the most promising therapeutic drug targets in cardiac biology. Thus, development of more specific and deliverable small molecule antagonists remains a key priority for the field. Here we provide a selection of articles to summarize the state of our knowledge regarding CaMKII in cardiac health and disease, with a particular view to highlighting recent developments in CaMKII activation, and new targets in CaMKII-mediated control of myocyte physiology.

Mitochondria in Skeletal Muscle Health, Aging and Diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450732 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-073-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Skeletal muscle is the most abudant tissue of the human body, making up to 40 to 50% of the human body mass. While the importance of optimal muscle function is well recognized in the athletic field, its significance for general health is often underappreciated. In fact, the evidence that muscle mass, strength and metabolism are essential for our overall health is overwhelming. As the largest protein reservoir in the human body, muscles are essential in the acute response to critical illness such as sepsis, advanced cancer, and traumatic injury. Loss of skeletal muscle mass has also been associated with weakness, fatigue, insulin resistance, falls, fractures, frailty, disability, several chronic diseases and death. As a consequence, maintaining skeletal muscle mass, strength and metabolism throughout the lifespan is critical to the maintenance of whole body health. Mitochondria are fascinating organelles regulating many critical cellular processes for skeletal muscle physiology, including for instance energy supply, reactive oxygen species production, calcium homeostasis and the regulation of apoptosis. It is therefore not surprising that mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in a large number of adverse events/conditions and pathologies affecting skeletal muscle health. While the importance of normal mitochondrial function is well recognized for muscle physiology, there are important aspects of mitochondrial biology that are still poorly understood. These include mitochondrial dynamics (fusion and fission processes), morphology and processes involved in mitochondrial quality control (mitophagy). Defining the mechanisms regulating these different aspects of mitochondrial biology, their importance for muscle physiology, as well as the interrelations will be critical for expanding understanding of the role played by mitochondria in skeletal muscle physiology and health. The present research topic provides readers with novel experimental approaches, knowledge, hypotheses and findings related to all aspects of mitochondrial biology in healthy and diseased muscle cells.Skeletal muscle is the most abudant tissue of the human body, making up to 40 to 50% of the human body mass. While the importance of optimal muscle function is well recognized in the athletic field, its significance for general health is often underappreciated. In fact, the evidence that muscle mass, strength and metabolism are essential for our overall health is overwhelming. As the largest protein reservoir in the human body, muscles are essential in the acute response to critical illness such as sepsis, advanced cancer, and traumatic injury. Loss of skeletal muscle mass has also been associated with weakness, fatigue, insulin resistance, falls, fractures, frailty, disability, several chronic diseases and death. As a consequence, maintaining skeletal muscle mass, strength and metabolism throughout the lifespan is critical to the maintenance of whole body health. Mitochondria are fascinating organelles regulating many critical cellular processes for skeletal muscle physiology, including for instance energy supply, reactive oxygen species production, calcium homeostasis and the regulation of apoptosis. It is therefore not surprising that mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in a large number of adverse events/conditions and pathologies affecting skeletal muscle health. While the importance of normal mitochondrial function is well recognized for muscle physiology, there are important aspects of mitochondrial biology that are still poorly understood. These include mitochondrial dynamics (fusion and fission processes), morphology and processes involved in mitochondrial quality control (mitophagy). Defining the mechanisms regulating these different aspects of mitochondrial biology, their importance for muscle physiology, as well as the interrelations will be critical for expanding understanding of the role played by mitochondria in skeletal muscle physiology and health. The present research topic provides readers with novel experimental approaches, knowledge, hypotheses and findings related to all aspects of mitochondrial biology in healthy and diseased muscle cells.

Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases

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ISBN: 9783038975373 / 9783038975380 Year: Pages: 462 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-538-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physiology --- Biochemistry --- Internal medicine --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-21 10:12:01
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Intracellular Ca2+ signaling is witnessing an amazing resurgence of interest. In addition to traditional Ca2+ aficionados, an astonishing (and growing) number of colleagues from all around the world have started to devote a large part of their research to gain insights into the role of Ca2+ signaling in health and disease. This is why calcium ions interact with virtually every signal transduction pathway not only in mammalian cells, but also across the phylogenetic tree, thereby, driving or modulating most, if not all, cellular functions, ranging from fertilization to apoptosis, passing through learning and memory, cardiac contractility, and immune response. This book gathers a collection of original research articles and reviews by a number of renowned experts who aim to present the state of the art of many pathophysiological aspects of intracellular Ca2+ signaling, such as embryonic development, immune response, extracellular Ca2+ signaling, neoplastic transformation, muscle hypertrophy, pulmonary inflammation, and P2X receptor gating.

Tea in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783038979869 / 9783038979876 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-987-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Tea, made from the leaves of the Camellia senenisis plant, is the second most consumed beverage worldwide after water. Accumulating evidence from cellular, animal, epidemiological and clinical studies have linked tea consumption to various health benefits, such as chemoprevention of cancers, chronic inflammation, heart and liver diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, etc. Although such health benefits have not been consistently observed in some intervention trials, positive results from clinical trials have provided direct evidence supporting the cancer-protective effect of green tea. In addition, numerous mechanisms of action have been suggested to contribute to tea’s disease-preventive effects. Furthermore, effects of the processing and storage of tea, as well as additives on tea’s properties have been investigated.

Benefits of Resveratrol Supplementation

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ISBN: 9783039212750 / 9783039212767 Year: Pages: 260 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-276-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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In recent years, great attention has been paid to polyphenols due to their positive effects on health. One of the most widely-studied phenolic compounds is resveratrol. This molecule, which is naturally present in some foods, shows beneficial effects on various physiological and biochemical processes, thus representing a potential tool for the prevention or the treatment of diseases highly prevalent in our society. Several of these beneficial effects have been observed in human beings, but others only in pre-clinical studies so far, and therefore, it is mandatory to continue with the scientific research in this field. Indeed, new knowledge concerning these issues could enable the development of novel functional foods or nutraceuticals, incorporating resveratrol, suitable for preventing or treating diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, dislipemia, insulin resistance and diabetes, liver diseases, etc.

AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signalling

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ISBN: 9783038976622 Year: Pages: 452 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-663-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 14:08:22
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Starting from a kinase of interest, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has gone far beyond an average biomolecule. Being expressed in all mammalian cell types and probably having a counterpart in every eukaryotic cell, AMPK has attracted interest in virtually all areas of biological research. Structural and biophysical insights have greatly contributed to a molecular understanding of this kinase. From good old protein biochemistry to modern approaches, such as systems biology and advanced microscopy, all disciplines have provided important information. Thus, multiple links to cellular events and subcellular localizations have been established. Moreover, the crucial involvement of AMPK in human health and disease has been evidenced. AMPK accordingly has moved from an interesting enzyme to a pharmacological target. However, despite our extensive current knowledge about AMPK, the growing community is busier than ever. This book provides a snapshot of recent and current AMPK research with an emphasis on work providing molecular insight, including but not limited to novel physiological and pathological functions, or regulatory mechanisms. Up-to-date reviews and research articles are included.

Keywords

exercise --- glucose uptake --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- TBC1D4 --- AS160 --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) --- hypertension --- kidney disease --- nutrient-sensing signals --- oxidative stress --- renin-angiotensin system --- AMPK --- autophagy --- co-expression --- microarrays --- 3T3-L1 --- adipocyte --- differentiation --- AMPK --- tight junctions --- epithelial cells --- ZO-1 --- par complex --- MDCK --- nectin-afadin --- adherent junctions --- TAK1 --- AMPK --- phosphorylation --- AMPK kinase --- endothelial nitric-oxide synthase --- vasodilation --- phenylephrine --- vasoconstriction --- endothelial cells --- ionomycin --- AMPK --- liver --- lipid metabolism --- fatty acid oxidation --- indirect calorimetry --- atrophy --- regrowth --- sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) --- peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-? (PGC1?) --- heat shock protein --- fiber-type --- AMPK --- monocytes --- macrophages --- differentiation --- autophagy --- AML --- MDS --- CML --- CMML --- pregnancy --- catechol-O-methyltransferase --- 2-methoxyestradiol --- preeclampsia --- gestational diabetes mellitus --- AMPK --- IL-1? --- NLRP3 --- nutrition --- dietary fatty acids --- metabolic-inflammation --- nutrigenomics --- AMPK --- LKB1 --- autophagy --- proteasome --- hypertrophy --- atrophy --- skeletal muscle --- AICAR --- mTOR --- protein synthesis --- AMPK --- epigenetics --- chromatin remodeling --- histone modification --- DNA methylation --- medulloblastoma --- sonic hedgehog --- AMPK --- AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) --- spermatozoa --- motility --- mitochondria --- membranes --- signaling --- stress --- assisted reproduction techniques --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- epigenetics --- protein acetylation --- KATs --- HDACs --- acetyl-CoA --- NAD+ --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- glycogen --- exercise --- metabolism --- cellular energy sensing --- energy utilization --- liver --- skeletal muscle --- metabolic disease --- glycogen storage disease --- resveratrol --- AMPK --- hepatocyte --- liver --- steatosis --- transporter --- carrier --- pump --- membrane --- energy deficiency --- AMPK --- infection --- mycobacteria --- host defense --- energy metabolism --- AMPK --- activation loop --- AID --- ?-linker --- ?-linker --- CBS --- LKB1 --- CaMKK2 --- ?RIM --- hypothalamus --- adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase --- adipose tissue --- food intake --- adaptive thermogenesis --- beiging --- AMPK --- HDAC4/5 --- p70S6K --- MyHC I(?), motor endplate remodeling --- soleus muscle --- mechanical unloading --- hindlimb suspension --- AMPK --- synaptic activation --- PKA --- CREB --- soluble Adenylyl cyclase --- Immediate early genes --- transcription --- AMPK --- autophagy --- metabolism --- mTOR --- ULK --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- protein kinase B --- Akt --- insulin signalling --- A769662 --- endothelial function --- n/a

Plant Natural Products for Human Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977124 Year: Pages: 514 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-713-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Plants have served mankind as an important source of foods and medicines. While we all consume plants and their products for nutritional support, a majority of the world population also rely on botanical remedies to meet their health needs, either as their own “traditional medicine” or as “complementary and alternative medicine”. From a pharmaceutical point of view, many compounds obtained from plant sources have long been known to possess bio/pharmacological activities, and historically, plants have yielded many important drugs for human use, from morphine discovered in the early nineteenth century to the more recent paclitaxel and artemisinin. Today, we are witnessing a global resurgence in interest and use of plant-based therapies and botanical products, and natural products remain an important and viable source of lead compounds in many drug discovery programs.This Special Issue on “Plant Natural Products for Human Health” compiles a series of scientific reports to demonstrate the medicinal potentials of plant natural products. It covers a range of disease targets, such as diabetes, inflammation, cancer, neurological disease, cardiovascular disease, liver damage, bacterial, and fungus infection and malarial. These papers provide important insights into the current state of research on drug discovery and new techniques. It is hoped that this Special Issue will serve as a timely reference for researchers and scholars who are interested in the discovery of potentially useful molecules from plant sources for health-related applications.

Keywords

heat-process --- onion --- calorie restriction --- Amadori rearrangement compounds --- hyperglycemia --- A549 cells --- hinokitiol --- MMPs --- p53/Bax --- antioxidant enzymes --- caspases --- migration --- cannabinoid type 1 receptor --- endoplasmic reticulum stress --- gluconeogenesis --- gomisin N --- lipogenesis --- insulin resistance --- garlic --- ischemia --- heme oxygenase --- reperfusion --- heart --- Keap1 --- Nrf2 --- Neuroprotective --- PC12 cells --- PhGs --- anti-malaria activity --- plants --- natural products --- ethnopharmacology --- Plasmodium parasites --- copaiba --- oleoresin --- essential oil --- sesquiterpenoids --- diterpenoids --- biological activity --- molecular targets --- Astragali Radix --- astragaloside IV --- genistein --- mitochondrial bioenergetics --- oxygen consumption rate --- natural products --- drug design and development --- innovation --- automation --- computational softwares --- bioinformatics --- precision medicine --- omics --- global health --- sweet orange --- bitter orange --- neroli --- orange petitgrain --- mandarin --- lemon --- lime --- grapefruit --- bergamot --- yuzu --- kumquat --- cannabigerol --- Cannabis sativa --- neuroinflammation --- oxidative stress --- phytocannabinoid --- iridoids --- nuclear factor-kappaB --- mitogen-activated protein kinase --- anti-inflammation --- Ziziphus jujuba --- triterpenic acids --- pharmacokinetic study --- acute liver injury --- A? --- AD --- lychee seed --- neuroinflammation --- catechin --- procyanidin A2 --- apoptosis --- cinnamamides --- antistaphylococcal activity --- time-kill assay --- biofilm --- antitubercular activity --- MTT assay --- antifungal activity --- PET inhibition --- toxicity --- structure–activity relationship --- bleeding time --- flavonoid --- morin hydrate --- OH· free radical --- platelet activation --- protein kinase --- thromboembolism --- Glycyrrhiza uralensis --- prenylated flavonoids --- antiproliferation --- differentiation --- melanoma cell --- adjuvant-induced arthritis --- arthritis --- celastrol --- curcumin --- dietary supplements --- EGCG --- green tea --- inflammation --- liposomes --- microbiome --- nanoparticles --- natural products --- resveratrol --- rheumatoid arthritis --- targeted delivery --- traditional medicine --- Tripterygium wilfordii --- triptolide --- Penthorum chinense Pursh --- NAFLD --- hepatic steatosis --- flavonoids --- SIRT1 --- AMPK --- dihydromyricetin --- myocardial hypertrophy --- oxidative stress --- sirtuin 3 --- ginseng --- human-hair-follicle dermal papilla cells --- WNT/?-catenin --- Shh/Gli --- TGF-? --- BMP/Smad --- mouse-hair growth --- Panax notoginseng saponins --- aspirin --- HepaRG cells --- herb–drug interactions --- P. eryngii --- glucans --- inflammation --- inflammatory bowel disease --- medicinal plants --- phytochemicals --- scoulerine --- bergapten --- immunomodulator --- adjuvant --- cytoxicity --- dendritic cells --- immune modulation --- APAP --- acetaminophen --- hepatotoxicity --- hpatoprotection --- paracetamol --- animals --- preclinical studies --- natural products --- small molecules --- phytochemicals --- plants --- fucoidan --- acetaminophen --- Nrf2 --- oxidative stress --- hepatotoxicity --- plant natural product --- drug discovery --- human health

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