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MAPPING MAnagement and Processing of images for Population ImagiNG

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452606 Year: Pages: 139 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-260-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Several recent papers underline methodological points that limit the validity of published results in imaging studies in the life sciences and especially the neurosciences (Carp, 2012; Ingre, 2012; Button et al., 2013; Ioannidis, 2014). At least three main points are identified that lead to biased conclusions in research findings: endemic low statistical power and, selective outcome and selective analysis reporting. Because of this, and in view of the lack of replication studies, false discoveries or solutions persist. To overcome the poor reliability of research findings, several actions should be promoted including conducting large cohort studies, data sharing and data reanalysis. The construction of large-scale online databases should be facilitated, as they may contribute to the definition of a “collective mind” (Fox et al., 2014) facilitating open collaborative work or “crowd science” (Franzoni and Sauermann, 2014). Although technology alone cannot change scientists’ practices (Wicherts et al., 2011; Wallis et al., 2013, Poldrack and Gorgolewski 2014; Roche et al. 2014), technical solutions should be identified which support a more “open science” approach. Also, the analysis of the data plays an important role. For the analysis of large datasets, image processing pipelines should be constructed based on the best algorithms available and their performance should be objectively compared to diffuse the more relevant solutions. Also, provenance of processed data should be ensured (MacKenzie-Graham et al., 2008). In population imaging this would mean providing effective tools for data sharing and analysis without increasing the burden on researchers. This subject is the main objective of this research topic (RT), cross-listed between the specialty section “Computer Image Analysis” of Frontiers in ICT and Frontiers in Neuroinformatics. Firstly, it gathers works on innovative solutions for the management of large imaging datasets possibly distributed in various centers. The paper of Danso et al. describes their experience with the integration of neuroimaging data coming from several stroke imaging research projects. They detail how the initial NeuroGrid core metadata schema was gradually extended for capturing all information required for future metaanalysis while ensuring semantic interoperability for future integration with other biomedical ontologies. With a similar preoccupation of interoperability, Shanoir relies on the OntoNeuroLog ontology (Temal et al., 2008; Gibaud et al., 2011; Batrancourt et al., 2015), a semantic model that formally described entities and relations in medical imaging, neuropsychological and behavioral assessment domains. The mechanism of “Study Card” allows to seamlessly populate metadata aligned with the ontology, avoiding fastidious manual entrance and the automatic control of the conformity of imported data with a predefined study protocol. The ambitious objective with the BIOMIST platform is to provide an environment managing the entire cycle of neuroimaging data from acquisition to analysis ensuring full provenance information of any derived data. Interestingly, it is conceived based on the product lifecycle management approach used in industry for managing products (here neuroimaging data) from inception to manufacturing. Shanoir and BIOMIST share in part the same OntoNeuroLog ontology facilitating their interoperability. ArchiMed is a data management system locally integrated for 5 years in a clinical environment. Not restricted to Neuroimaging, ArchiMed deals with multi-modal and multi-organs imaging data with specific considerations for data long-term conservation and confidentiality in accordance with the French legislation. Shanoir and ArchiMed are integrated into FLI-IAM1, the national French IT infrastructure for in vivo imaging.

Keywords

Database --- Infrastructure --- Data --- Workflow --- Neuroimaging --- Image Analysis --- Brain --- MRI

Phenomics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456079 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-607-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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"Phenomics" is an emerging area of research whose aspiration is the systematic measurement of the physical, physiological and biochemical traits (the phenome) belonging to a given individual or collection of individuals. Non-destructive or minimally invasive techniques allow repeated measurements across time to follow phenotypes as a function of developmental time. These longitudinal traits promise new insights into the ways in which crops respond to their environment including how they are managed.To maximize the benefit, these approaches should ideally be scalable so that large populations in multiple environments can be sampled repeatedly at reasonable cost. Thus, the development and validation of non-contact sensing technologies remains an area of intensive activity that ranges from Remote Sensing of crops within the landscape to high resolution at the subcellular level. Integration of this potentially highly dimensional data and linking it with variation at the genetic level is an ongoing challenge that promises to release the potential of both established and under-exploited crops.

Efficient Algorithms for Large-Scale Image Analysis

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe Automatische Sichtprüfung und Bildverarbeitung ISSN: 18665934 ISBN: 9783866447868 Year: Volume: 4 Pages: XVIII, 201 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000025309 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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This work develops highly efficient algorithms for analyzing large images. Applications include object-based change detection and screening. The algorithms are 10-100 times as fast as existing software, sometimes even outperforming FGPA/GPU hardware, because they are designed to suit the computer architecture. This thesis describes the implementation details and the underlying algorithm engineering methodology, so that both may also be applied to other applications.

New Methods to Improve Large-Scale Microscopy Image Analysis with Prior Knowledge and Uncertainty

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ISBN: 9783731505907 Year: Pages: XII, 243 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000060221 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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Multidimensional imaging techniques provide powerful ways to examine various kinds of scientific questions. The routinely produced data sets in the terabyte-range, however, can hardly be analyzed manually and require an extensive use of automated image analysis. The present work introduces a new concept for the estimation and propagation of uncertainty involved in image analysis operators and new segmentation algorithms that are suitable for terabyte-scale analyses of 3D+t microscopy images.

Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging

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ISBN: 9783038972846 / 9783038972853 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-285-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-08 11:33:34
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The intent of this Special Issue is to provide a framework with which scientists in several different disciplines, related to phase-contrast and dark-field imaging, can illustrate their ideas and results. The articles are reviews or very recent scientific reports; they address newcomers in the field, as well as experts and professors in fields of X-ray physics, electron, and phase-contrast X-ray imaging.

Mineral Fibres

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ISBN: 9783039211449 / 9783039211456 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-145-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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In the last decades, there has been increasing interest in Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) and asbestos containing materials (ACMs) as a source of possible environmental risk. A crucial theme of interest related to environmental pollution is the enhanced mobilization of asbestos minerals affecting soils and rocks due to human activities (e.g., road construction, mining activity) in comparison with natural weathering processes. The volume has aimed to gather contributions and to compare results derived from various experiences of research groups regarding NOA minerals as a source of possible environmental risks for population. Case studies from various geological contexts are presented. Moreover, contributions presenting novel and classical approaches for ACM inertization and recycling, together with possible solutions for reducing asbestos exposure, has been also presented.

Cadmium Sources and Toxicity

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ISBN: 9783038979845 / 9783038979852 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-985-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant of continuing public health concern worldwide, because total diet studies have shown that Cd is present in virtually all foodstuffs. Consequently, foods that are frequently consumed in large quantities, such as rice, potatoes, wheat, leafy salad vegetables, and other cereal crops, are the most significant dietary Cd sources. Moreover, Cd has chemical propensities that confer the potential to interfere with the physiological functions of calcium and zinc. Evidence of a wide range of diverse, toxic effects of Cd is increasingly apparent. In this collection, environmental Cd exposure is linked to an increased risk of chronic kidney disease that is known to be a cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cd is also implicated in an early onset of menarche and deaths from cancer, especially in the uterus, kidney, and urinary tract. Moreover, Cd-induced kidney injury is replicated in Sprague Dawley rats, as is Cd-induced periodontal disease. Experimental studies suggest that the development of kidneys in fetuses and the function of insulin-producing cells may be adversely affected by Cd and that metformin, an anti-diabetic drug, is ineffective in Cd-intoxicated Wistar rats.

Image Processing Using FPGAs

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ISBN: 9783038979180 / 9783038979197 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-919-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This book presents a selection of papers representing current research on using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for realising image processing algorithms. These papers are reprints of papers selected for a Special Issue of the Journal of Imaging on image processing using FPGAs. A diverse range of topics is covered, including parallel soft processors, memory management, image filters, segmentation, clustering, image analysis, and image compression. Applications include traffic sign recognition for autonomous driving, cell detection for histopathology, and video compression. Collectively, they represent the current state-of-the-art on image processing using FPGAs.

Entropy in Image Analysis

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ISBN: 9783039210923 / 9783039210930 Year: Pages: 456 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-093-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Image analysis is a fundamental task for extracting information from images acquired across a range of different devices. Since reliable quantitative results are requested, image analysis requires highly sophisticated numerical and analytical methods—particularly for applications in medicine, security, and remote sensing, where the results of the processing may consist of vitally important data. The contributions to this book provide a good overview of the most important demands and solutions concerning this research area. In particular, the reader will find image analysis applied for feature extraction, encryption and decryption of data, color segmentation, and in the support new technologies. In all the contributions, entropy plays a pivotal role.

Keywords

image retrieval --- multi-feature fusion --- entropy --- relevance feedback --- chaotic system --- image encryption --- permutation-diffusion --- SHA-256 hash value --- dynamic index --- entropy --- keyframes --- Shannon’s entropy --- sign languages --- video summarization --- video skimming --- image encryption --- multiple-image encryption --- two-dimensional chaotic economic map --- security analysis --- image encryption --- chaotic cryptography --- cryptanalysis --- chosen-plaintext attack --- image information entropy --- blind image quality assessment (BIQA) --- information entropy, natural scene statistics (NSS) --- Weibull statistics --- discrete cosine transform (DCT) --- ultrasound --- hepatic steatosis --- Shannon entropy --- fatty liver --- metabolic syndrome --- multi-exposure image fusion --- texture information entropy --- adaptive selection --- patch structure decomposition --- image encryption --- time-delay --- random insertion --- information entropy --- chaotic map --- uncertainty assessment --- deep neural network --- random forest --- Shannon entropy --- positron emission tomography --- reconstruction --- field of experts --- additive manufacturing --- 3D prints --- 3D scanning --- image entropy --- depth maps --- surface quality assessment --- machine vision --- image analysis --- Arimoto entropy --- free-form deformations --- normalized divergence measure --- gradient distributions --- nonextensive entropy --- non-rigid registration --- pavement --- macrotexture --- 3-D digital imaging --- entropy --- decay trend --- discrete entropy --- infrared images --- low contrast --- multiscale top-hat transform --- image encryption --- DNA encoding --- chaotic cryptography --- cryptanalysis --- image privacy --- computer aided diagnostics --- colonoscopy --- Rényi entropies --- structural entropy --- spatial filling factor --- binary image --- Cantor set --- Hénon map --- Minkowski island --- prime-indexed primes --- Ramanujan primes --- Kapur’s entropy --- color image segmentation --- whale optimization algorithm --- differential evolution --- hybrid algorithm --- Otsu method --- image encryption --- dynamic filtering --- DNA computing --- 3D Latin cube --- permutation --- diffusion --- fuzzy entropy --- electromagnetic field optimization --- chaotic strategy --- color image segmentation --- multilevel thresholding --- contrast enhancement --- sigmoid --- Tsallis statistics --- q-exponential --- q-sigmoid --- q-Gaussian --- ultra-sound images --- person re-identification --- image analysis --- hash layer --- quantization loss --- Hamming distance --- cross-entropy loss --- image entropy --- Shannon entropy --- generalized entropies --- image processing --- image segmentation --- medical imaging --- remote sensing --- security

Marine Geomorphometry

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ISBN: 9783038979548 / 9783038979555 Year: Pages: 400 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-955-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:07
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Geomorphometry is the science of quantitative terrain characterization and analysis, and has traditionally focused on the investigation of terrestrial and planetary landscapes. However, applications of marine geomorphometry have now moved beyond the simple adoption of techniques developed for terrestrial studies, driven by the rise in the acquisition of high-resolution seafloor data and by the availability of user-friendly spatial analytical tools. Considering that the seafloor represents 71% of the surface of our planet, this is an important step towards understanding the Earth in its entirety.This volume is the first one dedicated to marine applications of geomorphometry. It showcases studies addressing the five steps of geomorphometry: sampling a surface (e.g., the seafloor), generating a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) from samples, preprocessing the DTM for subsequent analyses (e.g., correcting for errors and artifacts), deriving terrain attributes and/or extracting terrain features from the DTM, and using and explaining those terrain attributes and features in a given context. Throughout these studies, authors address a range of challenges and issues associated with applying geomorphometric techniques to the complex marine environment, including issues related to spatial scale, data quality, and linking seafloor topography with physical, geological, biological, and ecological processes. As marine geomorphometry becomes increasingly recognized as a sub-discipline of geomorphometry, this volume brings together a collection of research articles that reflect the types of studies that are helping to chart the course for the future of marine geomorphometry.

Keywords

bedforms --- forage fish --- Pacific sand lance --- sediment habitats --- bathymetry --- currents --- seabed mapping --- marine geology --- submarine topography --- marine geomorphology --- terrain analysis --- multibeam echosounder --- bathymetry --- DEM --- satellite imagery --- multi beam echosounder --- filter --- geomorphology --- coral reefs --- Acoustic applications --- object segmentation --- seafloor --- underwater acoustics --- Cretaceous --- Cenomanian–Turonian --- paleobathymetry --- paleoclimate --- paleoceanography --- reconstruction --- simulation --- shelf-slope-rise --- geomorphometry --- GIS --- spatial scale --- spatial analysis --- terrain analysis --- seafloor geomorphometry --- domes --- volcanoes --- digital elevation models (DEMs) --- Canary Basin --- Atlantic Ocean --- cold-water coral --- carbonate mound --- habitat mapping --- spatial prediction --- image segmentation --- geographic object-based image analysis --- random forest --- accuracy --- confidence --- global bathymetry --- Seabed 2030 --- Nippon Foundation/GEBCO --- seafloor mapping technologies --- seafloor mapping standards and protocols --- benthic habitats --- shelf morphology --- eastern Brazilian shelf --- geomorphometry --- terrain analysis --- bathymetry --- surface roughness --- benthic habitat mapping --- python --- geomorphology --- submerged glacial bedforms --- deglaciation --- sedimentation --- multibeam --- acoustic-seismic profiling --- swath geometry --- multibeam spatial resolution --- integration artefacts --- Multibeam bathymetry --- benthic habitat mapping --- multiscale --- Random Forests --- pockmarks --- automated-mapping --- ArcGIS --- Glaciated Margin --- North Sea --- Malin Basin --- Barents Sea --- bathymetry --- thalwegs --- canyons --- Alaska --- Bering Sea --- multibeam sonar --- carbonate banks --- semi-automated mapping --- polychaete --- Northwestern Australia --- Oceanic Shoals Australian Marine Park --- Bonaparte Basin --- Timor Sea --- bathymetry --- digital terrain analysis --- geomorphometry --- geomorphology --- habitat mapping --- marine remote sensing

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