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Cloud-Based Benchmarking of Medical Image Analysis

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ISBN: 9783319496443 Year: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-49644-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-19 16:06:14
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This book presents the VISCERAL project benchmarks for analysis and retrieval of 3D medical images (CT and MRI) on a large scale, which used an innovative cloud-based evaluation approach where the image data were stored centrally on a cloud infrastructure and participants placed their programs in virtual machines on the cloud. The book presents the points of view of both the organizers of the VISCERAL benchmarks and the participants.The book is divided into five parts. Part I presents the cloud-based benchmarking and Evaluation-as-a-Service paradigm that the VISCERAL benchmarks used. Part II focuses on the datasets of medical images annotated with ground truth created in VISCERAL that continue to be available for research. It also covers the practical aspects of obtaining permission to use medical data and manually annotating 3D medical images efficiently and effectively. The VISCERAL benchmarks are described in Part III, including a presentation and analysis of metrics used in evaluation of medical image analysis and search. Lastly, Parts IV and V present reports by some of the participants in the VISCERAL benchmarks, with Part IV devoted to the anatomy benchmarks and Part V to the retrieval benchmark.This book has two main audiences: the datasets as well as the segmentation and retrieval results are of most interest to medical imaging researchers, while eScience and computational science experts benefit from the insights into using the Evaluation-as-a-Service paradigm for evaluation and benchmarking on huge amounts of data.

Keywords

Medical imaging

Modelling Seismic Wave Propagation for Geophysical Imaging (Book chapter)

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9789533079448 Year: Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 226837
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:47:57
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The Earth is an heterogeneous complex media from the mineral composition scale (10−6m) to the global scale ( 106m). The reconstruction of its structure is a quite challenging problem because sampling methodologies are mainly indirect as potential methods (Günther et al., 2006; Rücker et al., 2006), diffusive methods (Cognon, 1971; Druskin & Knizhnerman, 1988; Goldman & Stover, 1983; Hohmann, 1988; Kuo & Cho, 1980; Oristaglio & Hohmann, 1984) or propagation methods (Alterman & Karal, 1968; Bolt & Smith, 1976; Dablain, 1986; Kelly et al., 1976; Levander, 1988; Marfurt, 1984; Virieux, 1986). Seismic waves belong to the last category. We shall concentrate in this chapter on the forward problem which will be at the heart of any inverse problem for imaging the Earth. The forward problem is dedicated to the estimation of seismic wavefields when one knows the medium properties while the inverse problem is devoted to the estimation of medium properties from recorded seismic wavefields.

Quantitative MR Imaging of the Electric Properties and Local SAR based on Improved RF Transmit Field Mapping

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Book Series: Karlsruhe transactions on biomedical engineering / Ed.: Universität Karlsruhe (TH) / Institute of Biomedical Engineering ISSN: 18645933 ISBN: 9783866445987 Year: Volume: 11 Pages: VII, 145 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000020953 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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This work presents three new quantitative methods for magnetic resonance imaging. A method for simultaneous mapping of B1 and T1 (MTM) is developed and validated. Electric Properties Tomography (EPT), a method for quantitative imaging of dielectric properties of tissue, is presented. Based on EPT, separate (phase-based) conductivity and (amplitude-based) permittivity measurements are introduced. Finally, a B1-based method for patient-specific local SAR measurements is presented.

X-Ray Contrast Media: Overview, Use and Pharmaceutical Aspects

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ISBN: 9783662564646 9783662564653 Year: Pages: 131 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-56465-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Bayer Pharma AG
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-27 15:48:01
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This open access book is an overview on CT/X-ray contrast media designed for radiologists and other medical specialists who use contrast media in imaging and interventional procedures as well as related scientists on the use and pharmaceutical aspects of X-ray contrast media. The overall goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive overview relevant for the optimal use of x-ray contrast media covering next to the historic development, their structure and properties also practical information for handling of contrast media, and explanation of the relevant risks during use and measures for prevention and treatment of potential side effects.

Keywords

X-Ray --- Radiography --- Imaging --- Radiology

Language and Cognition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196272 Year: Pages: 125 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-627-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Interaction between language and cognition remains an unsolved scientific problem. What are the differences in neural mechanisms of language and cognition? Why do children acquire language by the age of six, while taking a lifetime to acquire cognition? What is the role of language and cognition in thinking? Is abstract cognition possible without language? Is language just a communication device, or is it fundamental in developing thoughts? Why are there no animals with human thinking but without human language? Combinations even among 100 words and 100 objects (multiple words can represent multiple objects) exceed the number of all the particles in the Universe, and it seems that no amount of experience would suffice to learn these associations. How does human brain overcome this difficulty?

Exploring Cancer Metabolic Reprogramming Through Molecular Imaging

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452347 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-234-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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The inclusion of oncogene-driven reprogramming of energy metabolism within the list of cancer hallmarks (Hanahan and Weinberg, Cell 2000, 2011) has provided major impetus to further investigate the existence of a much wider metabolic rewiring in cancer cells, which not only includes deregulated cellular bioenergetics, but also encompasses multiple links with a more comprehensive network of altered biochemical pathways. This network is currently held responsible for redirecting carbon and phosphorus fluxes through the biosynthesis of nucleotides, amino acids, lipids and phospholipids and for the production of second messengers essential to cancer cells growth, survival and invasiveness in the hostile tumor environment. The capability to develop such a concerted rewiring of biochemical pathways is a versatile tool adopted by cancer cells to counteract the host defense and eventually resist the attack of anticancer treatments. Integrated efforts elucidating key mechanisms underlying this complex cancer metabolic reprogramming have led to the identification of new signatures of malignancy that are providing a strong foundation for improving cancer diagnosis and monitoring tumor response to therapy using appropriate molecular imaging approaches. In particular, the recent evolution of positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), functional MR imaging (fMRI) and optical imaging technologies, combined with complementary cellular imaging approaches, have created new ways to explore and monitor the effects of metabolic reprogramming in cancer at clinical and preclinical levels. Thus, the progress of high-tech engineering and molecular imaging technologies, combined with new generation genomic, proteomic and phosphoproteomic methods, can significantly improve the clinical effectiveness of image-based interventions in cancer and provide novel insights to design and validate new targeted therapies. The Frontiers in Oncology Research Topic “Exploring Cancer Metabolic Reprogramming Through Molecular Imaging” focusses on current achievements, challenges and needs in the application of molecular imaging methods to explore cancer metabolic reprogramming, and evaluate its potential impact on clinical decisions and patient outcome. A series of reviews and perspective articles, along with original research contributions on humans and on preclinical models have been concertedly included in the Topic to build an open forum on perspectives, present needs and future challenges of this cutting-edge research area.

Inflammation in the CNS: Advancing the Field Using Intravital Imaging

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453641 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-364-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Inflammation of the CNS can have devastating, long-lived, and in some cases fatal consequences for patients. The stimuli that can induce CNS inflammation are diverse, and include infectious agents, autoimmune responses against CNS-expressed antigens, and sterile inflammation following ischemia or traumatic injury. In these conditions, cells of the immune system play central roles in promulgation and resolution of the inflammatory response. However, the immunological mechanisms at work in these diverse responses differ according to the nature of the response. Our understanding of the actions of immune cells in the CNS has been restricted by the difficulty in visualising leukocytes as they undergo recruitment from the cerebral microvasculature and following their entry into the CNS parenchyma. However, advances in in vivo microscopy over the last 10-15 years have overcome many of these difficulties, and studies using these forms of microscopy have revealed a wealth of new information regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of CNS inflammation. This Research Topic brings together state of the art reviews examining the use of in vivo imaging in investigating inflammation and leukocyte behaviour in the CNS. Papers in this Research Topic describe how in vivo microscopy has increased our understanding of the actions of immune cells in the inflamed CNS, following various stimuli including autoimmunity, infection and sterile inflammation.

Optical Methods in Sensing and Imaging for Medical and Biological Applications

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038973706 / 9783038973713 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-371-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-24 12:31:31
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The recent advances in optical sources and detectors have opened up new opportunities for sensing and imaging techniques which can be successfully used in biomedical and healthcare applications. This book, entitled ‘Optical Methods in Sensing and Imaging for Medical and Biological Applications’, focuses on various aspects of the research and development related to these areas. The book will be a valuable source of information presenting the recent advances in optical methods and novel techniques, as well as their applications in the fields of biomedicine and healthcare, to anyone interested in this subject.

Innovative Radiopharmaceuticals in Oncology and Neurology

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451746 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-174-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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The aim of this Research Topic was to assemble a series of articles describing basic, preclinical and clinical research studies on radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medicine. The articles were written by attendees of the third Nuclear Technologies for Health Symposium (NTHS, 10th-11th March 2015, Nantes, Frances) under the auspices of the IRON LabEx (Innovative Radiopharmaceuticals for Oncology and Neurology Laboratory of Excellence). This French network, gathering approximately 160 scientists from 12 academic research teams (Funded by “investissements d’Avenir”), fosters transdisciplinary projects between teams with expertise in chemistry, radiochemistry, radiopharmacy, formulation, biology, nuclear medicine and medical physics. The 12 articles within this resulting eBook present a series of comprehensive reviews and original research papers on multimodality imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy; illustrating the different facets of studies currently conducted in these domains.

Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging

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ISBN: 9783038972846 / 9783038972853 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-285-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-08 11:33:34
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The intent of this Special Issue is to provide a framework with which scientists in several different disciplines, related to phase-contrast and dark-field imaging, can illustrate their ideas and results. The articles are reviews or very recent scientific reports; they address newcomers in the field, as well as experts and professors in fields of X-ray physics, electron, and phase-contrast X-ray imaging.

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