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Molecular mechanisms regulating cytotoxic lymphocyte development and function, and their associations to human diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192793 Year: Pages: 163 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-279-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Abstract

Cytotoxic lymphocytes, comprised of NK cells and cytotoxic T cells, play a pivotal role in immune defense. By directed release of perforin-containing lytic granules, NK and cytotoxic T cells can eradicate pathogen-infected, tumorigenic, and otherwise stressed cells. By the virtue of cytokine and chemokine secretion, they can influence other cells of the immune system. Through these processes, cytotoxic lymphocytes also contribute to the maintenance of immune homeostasis. In recent years, much progress has been made with respect to the mechanisms by which cytotoxic lymphocytes develop, differentiate, and exert their effector functions. In a clinical perspective, a wide variety of mutations impairing cytotoxic lymphocyte development and/or function have been associated with immunodeficiency and severe diseases in humans. Aberrant activity of cytotoxic T cells and/or NK cells has been linked to an increased susceptibility to viral infections, persistent inflammation, cancer and autoimmunity. In addition, lymphocyte cytotoxic activity may be harnessed therapeutically to target tumor cells in different adoptive cellular therapy regimes, or through the use of recombinant antibodies. Still, a number of questions remain in regards to how cytotoxic lymphocytes develop, their relationships and plasticity, as well as the mechanisms dictating target cell discrimination, lytic granule release and induction of target cell death. In this Research Topic we encourage submission of research articles, reviews, perspectives, or methods on cytotoxic lymphocyte development and function, their relation to the pathogenesis or treatment of different diseases, as well as comparison between similarities and/or differences in their effector functions. Considering the clinical significance of NK cells and cytotoxic T cells, we aim to provide a range of articles summarizing the current knowledge on the identification and elucidation of the mechanisms governing cytotoxic lymphocyte activity.

The Second Life of Natural Killer (NK) Cells

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455461 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-546-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Abstract

Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes, now recognized as members of a larger family of “Innate lymphoid cells” (ILCs). Both murine and human NK cells are well characterized effector cells with cytotoxic as well as cytokine production ability which mainly react in response to microbial and cell stress stimuli, thus playing a central role in the defense against pathogen infection, in tumor surveillance and in regulating immune homeostasis. Despite these established concepts, our understanding of the complexity of NK cells, also in view of their developmental and functional relationship with other ILC subsets, is only recently emerging. This Research Topic highlights the recent advances in NK cell (and ILC) research in human and mouse from basic research to clinical applications.

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