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At Risk for Neuropsychiatric Disorders: An Affective Neuroscience Approach to Understanding the Spectrum

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450268 Year: Pages: 260 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-026-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Abstract

Neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, and other mental disorders constitute about 13% of the global burden of disease surpassing both cardiovascular disease and cancer. The total cost worldwide of these diseases is estimated to exceed 100 million disability-adjusted life years. In order to begin to address this important problem, the present Research Topic brings together a group of leading affective neuroscience researchers to present their state-of-the-art findings using an affective neuroscience approach to investigate the spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders from patients to those at risk. They focus on different aspects of the emotional and social cognitive disturbances which are core features of neuropsychiatric disorders. While progress has been slow over last couple of decades, we are finally beginning to glimpse some of the underlying neural mechanisms of the emotional and social cognitive disturbances in patients and those at risk. With the technological advances in affective neuroscience and neuroimaging presented in this volume, we hope that progress will be much swifter in the coming years such that we can provide better care for patients and those at risk.

Exploring Gender and Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: from Drug Addiction to Impulse Control Disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198337 Year: Pages: 99 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-833-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Males and females exhibit discrete attitudes and skills, experience dissimilar emotional and psychological needs, and react differently to peer pressure, lack of self-realization, or other personal and social expectations. In addition, they are differently influenced by family history, and diverge in the perception of self-image and health risks. To complicate the matter on gender dichotomy, male testosterone levels markedly vary over the course of the day, while female levels of sex hormones significantly fluctuate depending upon the menstrual cycle, the pre- or post-menopausal age, and the use of oral contraceptives. All of these factors interact with genetic background and sex hormonal fluctuations, and determine the differences observed in their predisposition to develop an addiction. This term is traditionally associated to the abuse of legal and illegal substances. However, a compulsion toward the engagement in a non-drug-related rewarding behavior, usually involving a natural reward, also activates the brain reward system and engenders persistent behavior, thus resulting in a diminished control over it. These latter behaviors are defined as “behavioral addictions”. This definition encompasses any behavior characterized by the followings: i) feeling of tension or arousal before the action; ii) gratification and/or relief at the time of performing the act; iii) inability to resist an urge or drive even against great obstacles or dangers; iv) absence of consideration for the negative consequences that may affect family, friends, and/or work. As such, behavioral addictions include compulsive food intake and sexual activity, pathological gambling and Internet addiction, excessive exercising, compulsive buying and pyromania. These behaviors, which are often classified as "impulse control disorders", result in actions that are harmful to oneself and/or others, share common features (e.g. compulsiveness, impulsivity, impaired decision-making, craving, tolerance, withdrawal, high rates of relapse), and involve dysfunction of several brain circuits. Derangement from functional neurobiological mechanisms underpinning both sensitivity to reward and inhibitory control can also lead to compulsive behaviors. For instance, pathological gambling and other impulse control disorders (e.g., hypersexuality, compulsive painting, eating and buying) are often reported in Parkinson's disease patients. Gender-dependent differences in the rate of initiation and frequency of misuse of addicting drugs have been widely described. Yet, men and women also differ in their propensity to become addicted to other rewarding stimuli (e.g. sex, food) or activities (e.g. gambling, exercising). The goal of the present Research Topic is to explore and summarize current evidence for gender (and sex) differences not only in drug addiction, but also in other forms of addictive behaviors. Thus, it will include studies showing gender-dependent differences in drug addiction, food addiction, compulsive sexual activity, pathological gambling, Internet addiction and physical exercise addiction. Psychiatric comorbidity, potential risk factors and the underlying neural mechanisms will be also examined, with particular emphasis to the role of sex hormones in modulating addictive and compulsive behaviors.

Internet and Mobile Phone Addiction. Health and Educational Effects

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ISBN: 9783038976042 Year: Pages: 328 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-605-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 15:50:41
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Internet use-related addiction problems (e.g., Internet addiction, problem mobile phone use, problem gaming, and social networking) have been defined according to the same core element: the addictive symptomatology presented by individuals who excessively and problematically behave using the technology. Online activity is the most important factor in their lives, causing them the loss of control by stress and difficulties in managing at least one aspect of their daily life, affecting users’ wellbeing and health. In 2018, Gaming Disorder was included as a mental disease in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases by the World Health Organization. In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association requested additional research on Internet Gaming Disorder. The papers contained in this e-Book provide unique and original perspectives on the concept, development, and early detection of the prevention of these health problems. They are diverse in the nature of the problems they deal with, methodologies, populations, cultures, and contain insights and a clear indication of the impact of individual, social, and environmental factors on Internet use-related addiction problems. The e-Book illustrates recent progress in the evolution of research, with great emphasis on gaming and smartphone problems, signaling areas in which research would be useful, even cross-culturally.

Keywords

commuting --- well-being --- personality --- gender --- stress --- Internet addiction --- Internet gaming disorder --- game device usage pattern --- smartphone --- comorbidity --- Internet gaming disorder --- IGD --- emotional regulation --- cognitive reappraisal --- suppression --- depression --- hostility --- internet gaming disorder --- Dickman Impulsivity Inventory-Short Version (DII) --- Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS) --- Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) --- Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) --- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) --- gambling --- video-game addiction --- screen addiction --- immersion --- problematic Internet use --- comorbidity --- cognitive distortion --- problematic smartphone use --- smartphone addiction --- social media --- approaches to learning --- deep approach to learning --- surface approach to learning --- smartphone --- problematic mobile phone use --- convergent design --- focus group --- survey --- internet gaming disorder --- impulsivity --- depression --- interpersonal relationships --- serial mediation --- Internet addiction --- mobile phone addiction --- online social network --- university students --- technological addictions --- behavioral addictions --- CERI --- CERM --- mobile phone dependence --- mobile phone use --- impulsivity --- China --- Internet addiction --- Internet-use disorder --- Internet literacy --- expectancies --- personality --- cultural differences --- pathological video-game use --- Internet Gaming Disorder --- comorbid psychopathology --- review --- Internet Use Disorder --- prevalence --- epidemiology --- adolescence --- latent profile analysis --- anxiety --- depression --- Internet addiction --- smartphone addiction --- propensity score --- Internet addiction --- coping strategies --- personality traits --- young people --- mobile phone use --- smartphone use --- Problematic Mobile Phone Use --- Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire --- psychometric testing --- measurement invariance --- time --- gaming disorder --- interpersonal relations --- self-efficacy --- self-control --- expectations --- fear of missing out (FOMO) --- social media --- problematic social media use (PSMU) --- phubbing --- teenagers --- adolescents --- addiction --- internet addiction --- mobile phone (or smartphone) use --- young children --- early childhood education --- parenting --- emergent bilinguals --- intergenerational language transmission --- behavioural addictions --- generalised versus specific problem Internet uses --- Internet addiction --- gaming disorder --- social networking --- mixed methods research

Eating Disorders and Obesity: The Challenge for Our Times

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ISBN: 9783038979982 / 9783038979999 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-999-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Eating Disorders have traditionally been considered apart from public health concerns about increasing obesity. It is evident that these problems are, however, related in important ways. Comorbid obesity and eating disorder is increasing at a faster rate than either obesity or eating disorders alone and one in five people with obesity also presents with an Eating Disorder, commonly but not limited to Binge Eating Disorder. New disorders have emerged such as normal weight or Atypical Anorexia Nervosa. However research and practice too often occurs in parallel with a failure to understand the weight disorder spectrum and consequences of co-morbidity that then contributes to poorer outcomes for people living with a larger size and an Eating Disorder. Urgently needed are trials that will inform more effective assessment, treatment and care where body size and eating disorder symptoms are both key to the research question.

Keywords

obesity risk --- mothers --- women --- young children --- socioecological --- obesity --- eating disorders --- binge eating --- dieting --- treatment --- the Roma --- nurse --- overweight --- obesity --- health education --- lifestyle factors --- nutrition --- cultural features --- spinal cord injury --- athlete --- energy availability --- nutrient deficiency --- low energy availability --- bone mineral density --- para athlete --- menstrual dysfunction --- Female Athlete Triad --- Relative Energy Deficiency in Sports (RED-S) --- binge eating --- questionnaire --- psychometric --- eating disorders --- obesity --- obesity --- weight loss --- bariatric surgery --- eating behaviour --- psychology --- Bulimia Nervosa --- binge-eating disorder --- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders --- International Classification of Diseases --- biofeedback --- EEG-Neurofeedback --- fMRI-Neurofeedback --- eating disorders --- psychophysiology --- eating disorders-related symptoms --- loss of control eating --- obesity --- BMI --- adolescent --- females --- family functioning --- energy intake --- physical fitness --- visceral adipose tissue --- obesity --- eating disorders --- nutrition --- physical activity --- exercise --- bulimia --- binge eating disorder --- feeding behavior --- cognition --- obesity --- event-related potential --- P3 --- children --- eating disorders --- eating behavior --- feeding practices --- obesity --- EEG --- frequency bands --- obesity --- brain activity --- impulsivity --- children --- eating disorders --- obesity --- prevention --- food industry --- food environment --- food policy --- executive function --- obesity --- binge-eating disorder --- food addiction --- addictive-like eating --- dietary patterns --- body satisfaction --- orthorexia nervosa --- students --- binge-eating disorder --- BED --- obesity --- binge-type eating --- neuromedin U receptor 2 --- NMUR2 --- nucleus accumbens --- ventral tegmental area --- usability study --- online health intervention --- adolescents --- school setting --- eating disorders --- overweight --- prevention --- engagement --- E-Mental Health --- bulimia nervosa --- binge eating disorder --- weight --- dieting --- treatment

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