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Umwege zum eigenen Kind - Ethische und rechtliche Herausforderungen an die Reproduktionsmedizin 30 Jahre nach Louise Brown

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ISBN: 9783940344465 Year: DOI: 10.17875/gup2008-33 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Law --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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Even 30 years after the birth of the first "artificially produced baby Louise Brown in 1978, the desire for a child remains unfulfilled for many couples. Their hopes are to modern techniques of assisted reproduction. Reproductive medicine has since made enormous progress and opens up new opportunities. With these opportunities, however, are also linked new challenges, their moral and legal implications are considerable.

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retort --- child --- birth --- parents --- in vitro fertilization --- medicine

Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products

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ISBN: 9783038971603 9783038971610 Year: Pages: 144 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-10 11:33:13
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Currently, in the cosmetic industry, there is an increasing interest in natural extracts, particularly plant extracts. The inclusion of antioxidants in topical formulations may contribute to minimize skin oxidative stress, which has been associated with aging. Many herbal agents used in cosmetics have been selected by a process of ‘trial and error’ and, thus, are used on the basis of experience rather than of experimental investigation. Nevertheless, there is now a growing scientific evidence that plants possess a vast and complex arsenal of active ingredients able not only to calm or smooth but also to actively restore, heal, and protect the human skin. In addition, plant extracts may contain compounds with antimicrobial or other beneficial properties, influencing the formulation of natural and non-chemical cosmetic products. The public trend towards natural and sustainable products is ongoing. Although the term “plant extract” inherently purports their beneficial and benign properties, these products could have adverse reactions in individuals. Therefore, it is essential to ensure quality and safety of these extracts in cosmetic products before embarking on the more arduous task of ensuring efficacy.

Criticality as a signature of healthy neural systems: multi-scale experimental and computational studies

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195039 Year: Pages: 139 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-503-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Since 2003, when spontaneous activity in cortical slices was first found to follow scale-free statistical distributions in size and duration, increasing experimental evidences and theoretical models have been reported in the literature supporting the emergence of evidence of scale invariance in the cortex. Although strongly debated, such results refer to many different in vitro and in vivo preparations (awake monkeys, anesthetized rats and cats, in vitro slices and dissociated cultures), suggesting that power law distributions and scale free correlations are a very general and robust feature of cortical activity that has been conserved across species as specific substrate for information storage, transmission and processing. Equally important is that the features reminiscent of scale invariance and criticality are observed at scale spanning from the level of interacting arrays of neurons all the way up to correlations across the entire brain. Thus, if we accept that the brain operates near a critical point, little is known about the causes and/or consequences of a loss of criticality and its relation with brain diseases (e.g. epilepsy). The study of how pathogenetical mechanisms are related to the critical/non-critical behavior of neuronal networks would likely provide new insights into the cellular and synaptic determinants of the emergence of critical-like dynamics and structures in neural systems. At the same time, the relation between the impaired behavior and the disruption of criticality would help clarify its role in normal brain function. The main objective of this Research Topic is to investigate the emergence/disruption of the emergent critical-like states in healthy/impaired neural systems.

Doubled haploidy in model and recalcitrant species

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197835 Year: Pages: 119 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-783-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Doubled haploids (DHs) are powerful tools to reduce the time and costs needed to produce pure lines to be used in breeding programs. DHs are also useful for genetic mapping of complex qualitative traits, to avoid transgenic hemizygotes, for studies of linkage and estimation of recombination fractions, for screening of recessive mutants. These are just some of the advantages that make DH technology one of the most exciting fields of present and future plant biotechnology. All of the DH methods have model species where these technologies have been developed, or that respond every efficiently to their corresponding induction treatment. However, not all the species of economical/agronomical interest respond to these methodologies as they should be in order to obtain DHs on a routine basis. Indeed, many of them are still considered as low-responding or recalcitrant to these treatments, including many of the most important crops worldwide. Although many groups are making significant progresses in the understanding of these intriguing experimental pathways, little is known about the origin, causes and ways to overcome recalcitrancy. It would be very important to shed light on the particularities of recalcitrant species and the special conditions they need to be induced. In parallel, the knowledge gained from the study of basic aspects in model species could also be beneficial to overcome recalcitrancy. In this e-book, we present a compilation of different approaches leading to the generation of DHs in model and in recalcitrant species, and different studies on new and relevant aspects of this process, useful to extract common traits and features, to know better these processes, and eventually, to elucidate how to make DH technology more efficient.

Tox21 Challenge to Build Predictive Models of Nuclear Receptor and Stress Response Pathways as Mediated by Exposure to Environmental Toxicants and Drugs

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451975 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-197-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Tens of thousands of chemicals are released into the environment every day. High-throughput screening (HTS) has offered a more efficient and cost-effective alternative to traditional toxicity tests that can profile these chemicals for potential adverse effects with the aim to prioritize a manageable number for more in depth testing and to provide clues to mechanism of toxicity. The Tox21 program, a collaboration between the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)/National Toxicology Program (NTP), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has generated quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) data on a library of 10K compounds, including environmental chemicals and drugs, against a panel of nuclear receptor and stress response pathway assays during its production phase (phase II). The Tox21 Challenge, a worldwide modeling competition, was launched that asks a “crowd” of researchers to use these data to elucidate the extent to which the interference of biochemical and cellular pathways by compounds can be inferred from chemical structure data. In the Challenge participants were asked to model twelve assays related to nuclear receptor and stress response pathways using the data generated against the Tox21 10K compound library as the training set. The computational models built within this Challenge are expected to improve the community’s ability to prioritize novel chemicals with respect to potential concern to human health. This research topic presents the resulting computational models with good predictive performance from this Challenge.

Current Knowledge in Thyroid Cancer — From Bench to Bedside

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ISBN: 9783038424765 9783038424772 Year: Pages: VIII, 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-477-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-11 11:32:17
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In recent years, studies in the field of thyroid cancer have been performed in order to identify and verify thyroid specific biomarkers, as well as cancer-specific changes in gene expression patterns and alterations of the protein content. Furthermore, new drugs, small molecules and antibodies were developed and tested in vitro and in vivo. Trials investigated the ratio between therapeutic and adverse effects. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have become a new therapeutic option of both differentiated thyroid cancer and medullary thyroid cancer. In the last few years, new substances for targeted systemic therapy have been approved after their efficacy was demonstrated in Phase III trials. Most of them show a moderate response. However, adverse effects are common. TKI are used in patients with advanced metastatic thyroid cancer that is radioiodine (RAI)-refractory.In this Special Issue, original studies on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy of thyroid cancer, including genetics, proteomics, metabolomics, molecular and cell biology, will be published. It will also cover reports on patients, providing novel mechanistic insights into the underlying pathogenesis or new aspects that may impact clinical therapy, and recent study results in order to review the current status of new therapy options in thyroid cancer.

Advances in Micro-Bioreactor Design for Organ Cell Studies

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ISBN: 9783038972334 9783038972327 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-232-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-06 11:44:20
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Micro-bioreactors offer unique opportunities to study biological systems under fluidic conditions. The concept of micro-bioreactors suggests that biological reaction conditions on a large scale can be scaled down to micro-volumes while maintaining performance and functionality. Models and operation principles can be simulated at a smaller scale, either by scaling down organs in the human body, or using bioreactors for the production of biologics. This book highlights these issues with a strong focus on new engineering design. The initial chapters cover the conceptual design of microbioreactors and organ-on-chips, and the role of microbioreactors in tissue engineering for clinical and therapeutic targets. Two chapters are dedicated to microbioreactors for implementing tumor models. Other chapters discuss three-dimensional models for hepatic and cardiac cells for toxicity testing and drug evaluation. Finally, the design of organ chips for cartilage scaffolds and the integration of sensors are covered in separate chapters. We believe the book will have substantial value for researchers active in bioreactor engineering, drug development and cell physiology, as well as readers interested in these topics.

Cancer Metabolomics 2018

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039213450 / 9783039213467 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-346-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The metabolomics approach, defined as the study of all endogenously-produced low-molecular-weight compounds, appeared as a promising strategy to define new cancer biomarkers. Information obtained from metabolomic data can help to highlight disrupted cellular pathways and, consequently, contribute to the development of new-targeted therapies and the optimization of therapeutics. Therefore, metabolomic research may be more clinically translatable than other omics approaches, since metabolites are closely related to the phenotype and the metabolome is sensitive to many factors. Metabolomics seems promising to identify key metabolic pathways characterizing features of pathological and physiological states. Thus, knowing that tumor metabolism markedly differs from the metabolism of normal cells, the use of metabolomics is ideally suited for biomarker research. Some works have already focused on the application of metabolomic approaches to different cancers, namely lung, breast and liver, using urine, exhaled breath and blood. In this Special Issue we contribute to a more complete understanding of cancer disease using metabolomics approaches.

Impact of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038976202 / 9783038976219 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-621-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Technology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-19 09:06:48
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Food-derived bioactive peptides or dietary peptides are increasingly becoming recognized as major food compounds for human health promotion, which prevent the occurrence of chronic diseases through their impacts on the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, immune, and nervous systems. Further bioactive peptide discoveries are essential for maintaining human health and commercial development in the area of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This Special Issue covers a wide range of research topics specifically on food-derived bioactive proteins and peptides including the in-vitro and in-vivo evaluation of biological activities, bio-accessibility, intestinal absorption, bioavailability, the effect on chronic diseases, and the modulation of human nutrition.

Quality and Production of Forage

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ISBN: 9783039216741 / 9783039216758 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-675-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The book ""Quality and Production of Forage"" is intended to keep readers updatedon the developments occurring in this field. As it is apparent that livestockanimals are important throughout the world because of the meat, milk and eggthey produce, knowledge about the forages available to animals must also beconsidered for increased production, quality and efficiency. This book providesinformation that readers will find considerably invaluable about forage feeds, suchas grass, legumes, and straw. The book is composed of ten papers, focusing on awide range of research activities and topics that feature the following concepts offorage: the effect of conservation method on forage protein value; Microbial thecomposition and mycotoxin content in forage; genetic diversity of forages; timelysowing to maximize yield for both grain and biomass; ensiling treatments onforage quality; the qualitative characteristics of different accessions of new foragespecies; forage policy influencing feed costs; feeding forage on animal health;high-protein tropical forages as alternative sources for poultry; impact of foragesin poultry diet and significance of forages in sustainable poultry productionsystems. This book will be an invaluable reference for students and professionalsin agricultural science and grassland and animal husbandry researches.

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