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Functional Imaging in living Plants - Cell Biology meets Physiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194650 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-465-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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The study of plant cell physiology is currently experiencing a profound transformation. Novel techniques allow dynamic in vivo imaging with subcellular resolution, covering a rapidly growing range of plant cell physiology. Several basic biological questions that have been inaccessible by the traditional combination of biochemical, physiological and cell biological approaches now see major progress. Instead of grinding up tissues, destroying their organisation, or describing cell- and tissue structure, without a measure for its function, novel imaging approaches can provide the critical link between localisation, function and dynamics. Thanks to a fast growing collection of available fluorescent protein variants and sensors, along with innovative new microscopy technologies and quantitative analysis tools, a wide range of plant biology can now be studied in vivo, including cell morphology & migration, protein localization, topology & movement, protein-protein interaction, organelle dynamics, as well as ion, ROS & redox dynamics. Within the cell, genetic targeting of fluorescent protein probes to different organelles and subcellular locations has started to reveal the stringently compartmentalized nature of cell physiology and its sophisticated spatiotemporal regulation in response to environmental stimuli. Most importantly, such cellular processes can be monitored in their natural 3D context, even in complex tissues and organs – a condition not easily met in studies on mammalian cells. Recent new insights into plant cell physiology by functional imaging have been largely driven by technological developments, such as the design of novel sensors, innovative microscopy & imaging techniques and the quantitative analysis of complex image data. Rapid further advances are expected which will require close interdisciplinary interaction of plant biologists with chemists, physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists. High-throughput approaches will become increasingly important, to fill genomic data with ‘life’ on the scale of cell physiology. If the vast body of information generated in the -omics era is to generate actual mechanistic understanding of how the live plant cell works, functional imaging has enormous potential to adopt the role of a versatile standard tool across plant biology and crop breeding. We welcome original research papers, methodological papers, reviews and mini reviews, with particular attention to contributions in which novel imaging techniques enhance our understanding of plant cell physiology and permits to answer questions that cannot be easily addressed with other techniques.

Application of genetically encoded indicators to mammalian central nervous system

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198047 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-804-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Genetically encoded indicators emerged as promising tools for cell type-specific and chronic recording of neuronal population activity. Since publication of the first prototypical genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators (Cameleons) in 1997, we have witnessed remarkable evolution of the field, with rapid improvement of indicator performance as well as expanded application to many model organisms in the neuroscience community. Challenges still remain, however, concerning the mammalian central nervous system: limited sensitivity of indicators to subtle changes in activity, slow signal kinetics, cytotoxicity after a long-term and high-level expression of indicators, and variable performance across cell types. In addition to improvement of the indicators per se, development of strategies that allow combined use of the indicators and optogenetic tools is also desired. In this Research Topic, we recruited top researchers in the field and their young colleagues to present their cutting-edge research as well as insightful opinions on the following subtopics:1) Latest breakthroughs on development of genetically encoded indicators2) Novel scientific findings obtained with genetically encoded indicators3) Wishlist for the next-generation genetically encoded indicators4) Guideline for selecting an appropriate indicator5) Optimal methodology for indicator delivery to mammalian CNS

Neural Microelectrodes: Design and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039213191 / 9783039213207 Year: Pages: 378 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-320-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Neural electrodes enable the recording and stimulation of bioelectrical activity in the nervous system. This technology provides neuroscientists with the means to probe the functionality of neural circuitry in both health and disease. In addition, neural electrodes can deliver therapeutic stimulation for the relief of debilitating symptoms associated with neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and may serve as the basis for the restoration of sensory perception through peripheral nerve and brain regions after disease or injury. Lastly, microscale neural electrodes recording signals associated with volitional movement in paralyzed individuals can be decoded for controlling external devices and prosthetic limbs or driving the stimulation of paralyzed muscles for functional movements. In spite of the promise of neural electrodes for a range of applications, chronic performance remains a goal for long-term basic science studies, as well as clinical applications. New perspectives and opportunities from fields including tissue biomechanics, materials science, and biological mechanisms of inflammation and neurodegeneration are critical to advances in neural electrode technology. This Special Issue will address the state-of-the-art knowledge and emerging opportunities for the development and demonstration of advanced neural electrodes.

Keywords

neural interface --- silicon carbide --- robust microelectrode --- microelectrode array --- liquid crystal elastomer --- neuronal recordings --- neural interfacing --- micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies --- microelectromechanical systems --- neuroscientific research --- magnetic coupling --- freely-behaving --- microelectrodes --- in vivo electrophysiology --- neural interfaces --- enteric nervous system --- conscious recording --- electrode implantation --- intracranial electrodes --- foreign body reaction --- electrode degradation --- glial encapsulation --- electrode array --- microelectrodes --- neural recording --- silicon probe --- three-dimensional --- electroless plating --- intracortical implant --- microelectrodes --- stiffness --- immunohistochemistry --- immune response --- neural interface response --- neural interface --- micromachine --- neuroscience --- biocompatibility --- training --- education --- diversity --- bias --- BRAIN Initiative --- multi-disciplinary --- micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) --- n/a --- silicon neural probes --- LED chip --- thermoresistance --- temperature monitoring --- optogenetics --- microfluidic device --- chronic implantation --- gene modification --- neural recording --- neural amplifier --- microelectrode array --- intracortical --- sensor interface --- windowed integration sampling --- mixed-signal feedback --- multiplexing --- amorphous silicon carbide --- neural stimulation and recording --- insertion force --- microelectrodes --- neural interfaces --- intracortical --- microelectrodes --- shape-memory-polymer --- electrophysiology --- electrode --- artifact --- electrophysiology --- electrochemistry --- fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) --- neurotechnology --- neural interface --- neuromodulation --- neuroprosthetics --- brain-machine interfaces --- intracortical implant --- microelectrodes --- softening --- immunohistochemistry --- immune response --- neural interface --- shape memory polymer --- deep brain stimulation --- fast scan cyclic voltammetry --- dopamine --- glassy carbon electrode --- magnetic resonance imaging --- system-on-chip --- neuromodulation --- bidirectional --- closed-loop --- sciatic nerve --- vagus nerve --- precision medicine --- neural probe --- intracortical --- microelectrodes --- bio-inspired --- polymer nanocomposite --- cellulose nanocrystals --- photolithography --- Parylene C --- impedance --- Utah electrode arrays --- electrode–tissue interface --- peripheral nerves --- wireless --- implantable --- microstimulators --- neuromodulation --- peripheral nerve stimulation --- neural prostheses --- microelectrode --- neural interfaces --- dextran --- neural probe --- microfabrication --- foreign body reaction --- immunohistochemistry --- polymer --- chronic --- electrocorticography --- ECoG --- micro-electrocorticography --- µECoG --- neural electrode array --- neural interfaces --- electrophysiology --- brain–computer interface --- in vivo imaging --- tissue response --- graphene --- n/a

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