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Incentives and Two-Sided Matching - Engineering Coordination Mechanisms for Social Clouds

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Book Series: Studies on eOrganisation and Market Engineering ISSN: 18628893 ISBN: 9783731502371 Year: Volume: 12 Pages: XVI, 281 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000041861 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-11 12:46:28
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The Social Cloud framework leverages existing relationships between members of a social network for the exchange of resources. This thesis focuses on the design of coordination mechanisms to address two challenges in this scenario. In the first part, user participation incentives are studied. In the second part, heuristics for two-sided matching-based resource allocation are designed and evaluated.

Management Accountants’ Business Orientation and Involvement in Incentive Compensation

Author:
Book Series: Controlling & Business Accounting ISBN: 9783631606872 Year: Pages: 193 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:35
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Changing roles of management accountants have been intensively discussed in business practice and academic research. The objective of this empirical study is to gain a deeper understanding of management accountants’ business orientation and extended tasks. Based on data collected from the top 1,500 companies in Germany, results reveal that especially subjective norms have a strong impact on the practice of management accountants acting business-oriented. Furthermore, the results reinforce the frequently postulated positive effect of management accountants’ business orientation. The analyses also show positive associations between the involvement of management accountants in incentive compensation, the effort effects of incentive schemes, and firm performance.

The Price of Uncertainty in Present-Biased Planning (Book chapter)

Book title: Web and Internet Economics

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783319719245 Year: Pages: 15 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-71924-5_23 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: H2020 European Research Council - 691672
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-04 11:01:52
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The tendency to overestimate immediate utility is a common cognitive bias. As a result people behave inconsistently over time and fail
to reach long-term goals. Behavioral economics tries to help affected individuals
by implementing external incentives. However, designing robust
incentives is often difficult due to imperfect knowledge of the parameter
β ∈ (0, 1] quantifying a person’s present bias. Using the graphical model
of Kleinberg and Oren [8], we approach this problem from an algorithmic
perspective. Based on the assumption that the only information about
β is its membership in some set B ⊂ (0, 1], we distinguish between two
models of uncertainty: one in which β is fixed and one in which it varies
over time. As our main result we show that the conceptual loss of effi-
ciency incurred by incentives in the form of penalty fees is at most 2
in the former and 1 + max B/ min B in the latter model. We also give
asymptotically matching lower bounds and approximation algorithms.

Manipulations in Prediction Markets : Analysis of Trading Behaviour not Conforming with Trading Regulations

Author:
ISBN: 9783866443440 Year: Pages: VII, 164 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000010432 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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Fraud and manipulation in prediction markets are systematic results of incentive incompatibility, which, if present, have to be detected and balanced. ""Manipulations in Prediction Markets"" gives a critical insight into manipulations that are most likely to occur in prediction markets. In a general approach the book discusses the issue of incentives in markets and the breakdown of the incentive system. On this basis a new way of detecting irregular trading behaviour is introduced.

The Economics of Protected Marine Species: Concepts in Research and Management

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199907 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-990-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Protected marine species have populations that are depleted, decreasing, or are at-risk of extinction or local extirpation. As of 2015 The International Union for the Conservation of Nature, a global environmental organization, lists approximately 737 marine species worldwide that are considered at risk of extinction. Many are provided legal protection through national laws requiring research and management measures aimed at recovering and maintaining the species at a sustainable population level. Integral to the policy decision process involving the management and recovery of marine species is the consideration of trade-offs between the economic and ecological costs and benefits of protection. This suggests that economics, at its core the study of trade-offs, has a significant role.

Reward Processing in Motivational and Affective Disorders

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199860 Year: Pages: 117 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-986-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Preferential reward processing is the hallmark of addiction, where salient cues become overvalued and trigger compulsion. In depression, rewards appear to lose their incentive properties or become devalued. In the context of schizophrenia, aberrations in neural reward signalling are thought to contribute to the overvaluation of irrelevant stimuli on the one hand and the onset of negative symptoms on the other. Accordingly, reward processing has emerged as a key variable in contemporary, evidence based, diagnostic frameworks, such as the Research Domain Criteria launched by the United States National Institute of Mental Health. Delineation of the underlying mechanisms of aberrant or blunted reward processing can be of trans-diagnostic importance across several neuropsychiatric disorders. Reward processing can become automatic thus raising the question of cognitive control, a core theme of this Topic, which aims at justifying the necessity of reward processing as a potential therapeutic target in clinical settings. Empirical and theoretical contributions on the following themes were expected to: *Explore new avenues of research by investigating the processing of rewards at the cognitive, behavioral, motivational, neural systems and individual difference levels. A developmental focus is promising in this regard, probing the core processes that shape reward processing and thus subsequent liability to motivational and affective disorders. *Develop and refine conceptual models of reward processing from computational neuroscience. *Promote greater understanding and development of emergent therapeutic approaches such as cognitive bias modification and behavioural approach or avoidance training. A key question is the feasibility of reversing or modifying maladaptive patterns of reward processing to therapeutic ends. *Refine and augment the evidential database for tried and tested therapies such as Contingency Management and Behavioral Activation by focusing on core cognitive processes mediating rewards. *Provide a potential dimensional approach for reward processing deficits that can be of trans-diagnostic importance in clinically relevant disorders, including depression and addiction * Investigate the subjective experience of pleasure- the hedonic aspect of reward seeking and consumption – and how this can be distinguished from the motivational, sometimes compulsive, component of reward pursuit. This promises more nuanced and effective interventions. Depression, for instance, could be seen as the restricted pursuit of pleasure rather than blunted pleasure experience; addiction can be viewed as accentuated drug seeking despite diminished consummatory pleasure. This aims to place motivation centre stage in both scenarios, emphasising the transdiagnostic theme of the Topic. *Temporal discounting of future rewards, whereby smaller, more immediate rewards are chosen even when significantly more valuable deferred rewards are available, is another trans-diagnostic phenomenon of interest in the in the present context. Factors that influence this, such as discounting of future reward are thought to reflect compulsion in the addictive context and hopelessness on the part of people experiencing depression. The executive cognitive processes that regulate this decision making are of both scientific and clinical significance. Empirical findings, theoretical contributions or commentaries bearing on cognitive or executive control were therefore welcome.

Addressing Food and Nutrition Security in Developed Countries

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039212811 / 9783039212828 Year: Pages: 427 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-282-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The Addressing Food and Nutrition Security in Developed Countries Special Issue is a collection of papers from researchers in counties with developed economies who are responding to increasing prevalence of food insecurity. Food insecurity is relatively hidden, and the real extent of the problem is likely to be underestimated in many of these countries. Novel methods to estimate the prevalence of food insecurity in the face of no routine measurement are presented. Population surveys highlight adverse mental health outcomes and new and emerging subgroups that are experiencing food insecurity. Understanding the factors associated with food insecurity and how people cope is extremely important when considering how best to address the problem. Readers can become familiar with the lived experience of food insecurity in some countries—essential intelligence for effective policy and interventions. The extent of food banking operations and the nature of the charitable response in some countries is also described. Country-specific research highlights the importance of understanding the cultural and external environmental context. The influence the cost of food and budgetary tools on diet and food insecurity suggests opportunities for intervention. Researchers calls for social protection and high-quality dignified responses to address this complex public health problem.

Keywords

food insecurity --- charitable food services --- food charity --- food system --- nutrition --- voluntary failure --- INFORMAS --- diet prices --- food affordability --- Pacific diets --- M?ori diets --- food security --- food insecurity --- mental health --- depression --- women --- scoping review --- food bank --- food insecurity --- welfare recipients --- poverty --- food supply --- food aid --- food insecurity --- disaster --- family health --- Hurricane Katrina --- mental health --- physical health --- social support --- Asian Americans --- California Health Interview Survey --- food security --- Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) --- acculturation --- English language use --- food insecurity --- food security --- Indigenous population --- ageing --- Indigenous --- food assistance --- food insecurity --- food charity --- food service --- social enterprise models --- food insecurity --- low-to-middle income --- experience --- mixed methodology research --- rural --- food supply --- food security --- obesity --- food insecurity --- stressors --- stressful life events --- access to food --- food equality --- Healthy Diets ASAP tool --- food security --- food prices --- diet affordability --- rural communities --- INFORMAS --- food insecurity --- monitoring --- surveillance --- determinants --- path diagram --- food security --- food insecurity --- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population --- children --- urban --- experiences --- coping strategies --- household food insecurity --- food poverty --- Scotland --- low income --- families --- children --- women --- older people --- qualitative --- food aid --- charity --- Finland --- welfare state --- food aid recipient --- deservingness --- disadvantages --- inequality --- food security --- diet-related chronic disease --- policy --- food pricing --- food security --- diet price --- food price --- affordability --- food policy --- nutrition policy --- fiscal policy --- obesity prevention --- non-communicable disease --- monitoring and surveillance --- INFORMAS --- reference budgets --- food insecurity --- cost of a healthy diet --- Food-based dietary guidelines --- food insecurity --- food stress --- food affordability --- food insecurity --- food poverty --- prevalence --- household --- food surveys --- secondary data --- Scotland --- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander --- remote --- community store --- fruit and vegetables --- incentive --- subsidy --- food security --- nutrition --- diet --- household food insecurity --- mental health --- sex --- Canadian adults --- food insecurity --- access to food --- social assistance payments --- social security --- Newstart allowance --- food and nutrition security --- research --- values --- co-creation --- trauma-informed --- food insecurity --- hunger --- developed countries --- Sustainable Development Goals --- social determinants --- inequality --- food banks --- food security --- food insecurity --- social assistance --- poverty --- homeless --- nutrition environment --- food stress --- food affordability --- policy --- intervention --- determinants --- food banks --- developed countries

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