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9. Sammenhengen mellom mindfulness og eksekutiv funksjon hos profesjonelle fotballspillere (Book chapter)

Book title: Trender for idrettspsykologisk forskning i Skandinavia

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9788202596903 9788202596903 Year: Pages: 18 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.39.ch9 Language: Norwegian
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-28 11:01:02
License: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)

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"Mindfulness has become a popular tool for athletes, but the knowledge about the exact associations between trait mindfulness and key performance variables are lacking. This is especially problematic for athletes competing at a higher level where minor costs of a trait or an intervention could easily outweigh the benefits. In this study we investigated the association between self-reported level of mindfulness and performance on two PC based tests of inhibitory control on forty-two professional soccer players. The results showed that the observation facet of mindfulness was associated with better performance on one of the tests, while the non-judgement facet was associated with lower performance on both tests due to more impulsive responding. These findings suggest that trait mindfulness and inhibitory control is related, but that the relationship may not only be beneficial."

Inhibitory Function in Auditory Processing

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196678 Year: Pages: 231 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-667-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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There seems little doubt that from the earliest evolutionary beginnings, inhibition has been a fundamental feature of neuronal circuits - even the simplest life forms sense and interact with their environment, orienting or approaching positive stimuli while avoiding aversive stimuli. This requires internal signals that both drive and suppress behavior. Traditional descriptions of inhibition sometimes limit its role to the suppression of action potential generation. This view fails to capture the vast breadth of inhibitory function now known to exist in neural circuits. A modern perspective on inhibitory signaling comprises a multitude of mechanisms. For example, inhibition can act via a shunting mechanism to speed the membrane time constant and reduce synaptic integration time. It can act via G-protein coupled receptors to initiate second messenger cascades that influence synaptic strength. Inhibition contributes to rhythm generation and can even activate ion channels that mediate inward currents to drive action potential generation. Inhibition also appears to play a role in shaping the properties of neural circuitry over longer time scales. Experience-dependent synaptic plasticity in developing and mature neural circuits underlies behavioral memory and has been intensively studied over the past decade. At excitatory synapses, adjustments of synaptic efficacy are regulated predominantly by changes in the number and function of postsynaptic glutamate receptors. There is, however, increasing evidence for inhibitory modulation of target neuron excitability playing key roles in experience-dependent plasticity. One reason for our limited knowledge about plasticity at inhibitory synapses is that in most circuits, neurons receive convergent inputs from disparate sources. This problem can be overcome by investigating inhibitory circuits in a system with well-defined inhibitory nuclei and projections, each with a known computational function. Compared to other sensory systems, the auditory system has evolved a large number of subthalamic nuclei each devoted to processing distinct features of sound stimuli. This information once extracted is then re-assembled to form the percept the acoustic world around us. The well-understood function of many of these auditory nuclei has enhanced our understanding of inhibition's role in shaping their responses from easily distinguished inhibitory inputs. In particular, neurons devoted to processing the location of sound sources receive a complement of discrete inputs for which in vivo activity and function are well understood. Investigation of these areas has led to significant advances in understanding the development, physiology, and mechanistic underpinnings of inhibition that apply broadly to neuroscience. In this series of papers, we provide an authoritative resource for those interested in exploring the variety of inhibitory circuits and their function in auditory processing. We present original research and focused reviews touching on development, plasticity, anatomy, and evolution of inhibitory circuitry. We hope our readers will find these papers valuable and inspirational to their own research endeavors.

Regulation of Chemokine- Receptor Interactions and Functions

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ISBN: 9783038427285 9783038427278 Year: Pages: 228 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-26 15:44:06
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A hallmark of inflammation is the accumulation of leukocytes, which can serve to remove pathogens and necrotic tissue, but may also damage healthy tissue and exacerbate the inflammatory response. Our understanding of leukocyte recruitment in inflammation was revolutionized in the late 1980s by the discovery of chemokines (chemotactic cytokines), a family of small, secreted proteins that induce migration of selective subsets of leukocytes. Shortly afterwards, chemokines were found to exert their functions through the now familiar chemokine receptors, members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. As their physiological and pathological functions were elucidated, chemokine receptors have become popular targets for drug development in inflammatory diseases as well as cancer metastasis and HIV infection. Extensive research has revealed that the functions of chemokines and their receptors are regulated at numerous levels, including: genetic mutations/polymorphisms; control of expression levels; ligand internalization via functional or decoy receptors; intrinsic selectivity of chemokine-receptor binding; hetero- or homo-oligomerization of chemokines or of receptors; alternative signalling pathways; interaction of chemokines with glycosaminoglycans; post-translational modifications; and binding to pathogen-derived inhibitors. This Special Issue of IJMS focused on the natural and pharmacological mechanisms by which the activities of chemokines and their receptors can be regulated.

Hidden Transfers of Assets and Hidden Payouts of Profit

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ISBN: 9789616842709 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 257 DOI: 10.4335/978-961-6842-70-9 Language: Slovenian
Publisher: Institute for Local Self-Government and Public Procurement Maribor
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2016-09-28 16:45:30
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The concept of "hidden payout of profit” is characteristic for tax law, but inappropriate for corporate law, although it became deep-rooted in this field by practice. Within the context of corporate law it is not only about the problem of profit payouts, but also about the protection of the so-called tied up assets of a capital company within the so-called principle of capital preservation. The purpose of the corporate legislation is to prevent inadmissible interferences of shareholders or associates in the company's assets. Unlike corporate law, the purpose of tax law is to protect (fiscal) interests of the state, primarily to protect the tax base of the company as an independent and only subject to taxation, therefore the payouts of profit don’t have an effect on the amount of the tax base, irrespective of whether the company pays out the profit in an open or hidden way. Hidden payouts of profit - as the open ones - do not reduce the tax base for income. The subject of the discussion are both aspects - the corporate aspect of hidden transfers of assets and the tax aspects of hidden transfers of assets within the law of joint-stock companies and limited liability companies.

Individual Variation and the Bilingual Advantage - Factors that Modulate the Effect of Bilingualism on Cognitive Control and Cognitive Reserve

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039281046 9783039281053 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-105-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The number of bilingual and multilingual speakers around the world is steadily growing, leading to the questions: How do bilinguals manage two or more language systems in their daily interactions, and how does being bilingual/multilingual affect brain functioning and vice versa? Previous research has shown that cognitive control plays a key role in bilingual language management. This hypothesis is further supported by the fact that foreign languages have been found to affect not only the expected linguistic domains, but surprisingly, other non-linguistic domains such as cognitive control, attention, inhibition, and working memory. Somehow, learning languages seems to affect executive/brain functioning. In the literature, this is referred to as the bilingual advantage, meaning that people who learn two or more languages seem to outperform monolinguals in executive functioning skills. In this Special Issue, we first present studies that investigate the bilingual advantage. We also go one step further, by focusing on factors that modulate the effect of bilingualism on cognitive control. In the second, smaller part of our Special Issue, we focus on the cognitive reserve hypothesis with the aim of addressing the following questions: Does the daily use of two or more languages protect the aging individual against cognitive decline? Does lifelong bilingualism protect against brain diseases, such as dementia, later in life?

Keywords

multilingualism --- bilingual advantage --- Stroop task --- cognates --- orthographic neighbors --- cognitive control --- controlled language processing --- German as a foreign language --- bilingual advantage --- bilingualism --- cognitive control --- individual differences --- longitudinal studies --- methodology --- bilingualism --- bilingual experiences --- executive functioning --- language proficiency --- language use --- language switching --- interactional contexts --- domain-specific self-concept --- academic achievement --- metacognition --- executive functions --- multilingual children --- reading comprehension --- reading fluency --- spelling --- bilingual language dominance --- Stimulus-Stimulus inhibition --- Stimulus-Response inhibition --- speed-accuracy trade-off --- attention network --- alerting --- orienting --- executive functioning --- interpreting --- translation --- bilingualism --- inhibition --- bilingualism --- early childhood --- attention --- cognitive flexibility --- aging --- bilingualism --- cognitive decline --- cognitive reserve hypothesis --- dementia --- onset --- bilingual advantage --- executive control --- language switching --- shifting --- inhibition --- self-reports --- bilingualism --- Attentional Control Theory --- executive function --- trait anxiety --- rumination --- inhibitory control --- eye tracking --- multilingualism --- cognitive abilities --- inhibition --- switching --- disengagement of attention --- executive function --- cognitive effects --- bilingual advantage --- modulating factors --- bilingualism --- aging --- third-age language learning

Microbial Biofilms in Healthcare: Formation, Prevention and Treatment

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ISBN: 9783039284108 9783039284115 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-411-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Biofilms are ubiquitous and their presence in industry can lead to production losses. However, nowhere do biofilms impact human health and welfare as much as those that are found contaminating the healthcare environment, surgical instruments, equipment, and medical implantable devices. Approximately 70% of healthcare-associated infections are due to biofilm formation, resulting in increased patient morbidity and mortality. Biofilms formed on medical implants are recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment, which leaves implant removal as the principal treatment option. In this book, we investigate the role of biofilms in breast and dental implant disease and cancer. We include in vitro models for investigating treatment of chronic wounds and disinfectant action against Candida sp. Also included are papers on the most recent strategies for treating biofilm infection ranging from antibiotics incorporated into bone void fillers to antimicrobial peptides and quorum sensing.

Carbohydrates 2018

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039283163 9783039283170 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-317-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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This book contains original papers and reviews on carbohydrate research in medicine, authored by participants of the 29th International Carbohydrate Symposium, where this topic had a special emphasis. The focus on biological events involving carbohydrates and glycoconjugates has delivered reliable approaches for disease treatment and diagnosis. Research on carbohydrate-based compounds for therapeutic applications is illustrated in various contributions, namely those covering the development of novel agents against Alzheimer’s disease, e.g. the neuroprotective C-glucosylated flavones and the isonucleoside-based cholinesterase inhibitors. New imino sugar glucosidase inhibitors are also disclosed, a class of compounds with potential for diabetes, Gaucher disease or cancer treatment. Also the development of a useful synthetic method towards multivalent glycoclusters of biomedical interest is here highlighted. The relevance of glycomimetics in drug discovery and the progress on carbohydrates in early diagnosis and cancer treatment are reviewed. Noteworthy is the chitosan-based delivery system for drug oral administration, a new biomaterial-based approach to improve bioavailability. Another study on the conformation of Streptococcus capsular polysaccharide backbones by molecular modelling provides useful information for bacterial immunotherapeutic approaches. All original contributions and reviews clearly demonstrate the potential of glycosciences for innovation in medicinal (glyco)chemistry and pharmaceutical research.

La pluralité interprétative

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ISSN: 9782722601109 ISBN: 9782722601109 9782722601321 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Collège de France
Added to DOAB on : 2014-02-27 14:16:29
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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L’étroitesse d’esprit, le dogmatisme, l’intolérance, le fanatisme sont, à des degrés divers, des formes d’enfermement dans un schéma mental. Pour y échapper, il faut accéder à la « pluralité interprétative » : devenir capable de « manipuler » ses propres représentations et ses idées pour adopter, au moins temporairement et en imagination, d’autres points de vue que le sien. Mais quelles sont les bases cérébrales et mentales d’une telle capacité chez l’enfant et chez l’adulte ? À travers quell...

Thermophiles and Thermozymes

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ISBN: 9783038978169 9783038978176 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-817-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Interest in the study of life in hot environments, both with respect to the inhabiting microorganisms and the enzymes they produce, is currently very high. The biological mechanisms responsible for the resistance to high temperatures are not yet fully understood, whereas thermostability is a highly required feature for industrial applications. In this e-book, the invited authors provide diverse evidence contributing to the understanding of such mechanisms and the unlocking of the biotechnological potential of thermophiles and thermozymes.

Microbial Fuel Cells 2018

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ISBN: 9783039215355 9783039215348 Year: Pages: 84 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-534-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The rapid growth of global energy consumption and simultaneous waste discharge requires more sustainable energy production and waste disposal/recovery technology. In this respect, microbial fuel cell and bioelectrochemical systems have been highlighted to provide a platform for waste-to-energy and cost-efficient treatment. Microbial fuel cell technology has also contributed to both academia and industry through the development of breakthrough sustainable technologies, enabling cross- and multi-disciplinary approaches in microbiology, biotechnology, electrochemistry, and bioprocess engineering. To further spread these technologies and to help the implementation of microbial fuel cells, this Special Issue, entitled “Microbial Fuel Cells 2018”, was proposed for the international journal Energies. This Special Issue mainly covers original research and studies related to the above-mentioned topic, including, but not limited to, bioelectricity generation, microbial electrochemistry, useful resource recovery, system and process design, and the implementation of microbial fuel cells.

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