Search results: Found 2

Listing 1 - 2 of 2
Sort by
Inferior Colliculus Microcircuits

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193851 Year: Pages: 484 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-385-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The inferior colliculus (IC) is a unique structure in the auditory system, located between the primary auditory nuclei of the brainstem and the thalamus. The existence of the complex neural circuits in the auditory brainstem and midbrain, lacking in other sensory systems, has motivated an outpouring of research on the circuitry and physiological properties of the IC. IC neurons receive ascending inputs from over 20 separate sources in the brainstem as well as a dense collection of descending connections from the cortex. It is richly connected to both the left and right ears through these circuits and a major theme in research on the IC has been its role in binaural interactions. A second theme is the role of descending circuits in modulating responses to sound in the IC. A third theme is understanding the sound processing that occurs at the level of the IC, essentially how the representation of sound in the IC differs from that in the two auditory nerves. The representation of sound in the IC is an intermediate step in the development of the cortical representation as well as in the development of many perceptual features of sounds. These characteristics have been documented for a number of computations, including sound localization, masking properties, robustness of the representation, and responses to temporal and spectral properties of sounds. This Research Topic aims to discuss a wide range of aspects of the structure and function of the IC in a way that will facilitate future research.

Plasticity of GABAergic synapses

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197323 Year: Pages: 175 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-732-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Learning and memory are believed to depend on plastic changes of neuronal circuits due to activity-dependent potentiation or depression of specific synapses. During the last two decades, plasticity of brain circuits was hypothesized to mainly rely on the flexibility of glutamatergic excitatory synapses, whereas inhibitory synapses were assumed relatively invariant, to ensure stable and reliable control of the neuronal network. As a consequence, while considerable efforts were made to clarify the main mechanisms underlying plasticity at excitatory synapses, the study of the cellular/molecular mechanisms of inhibitory plasticity has received much less attention. Nevertheless, an increasing body of evidence has revealed that inhibitory synapses undergo several types of plasticity at both pre- and postsynaptic levels. Given the crucial role of inhibitory interneurons in shaping network activities, such as generation of oscillations, selection of cell assemblies and signal integration, modifications of the inhibitory synaptic strength represents an extraordinary source of versatility for the fine control of brain states. This versatility also results from the rich diversity of GABAergic neurons in several brain areas, the specific role played by each inhibitory neuron subtype within a given circuit, and the heterogeneity of the properties and modulation of GABAergic synapses formed by specific interneuron classes. The molecular mechanisms underlying the potentiation or depression of inhibitory synapses are now beginning to be unraveled. At the presynaptic level, retrograde synaptic signaling was demonstrated to modulate GABA release, whereas postsynaptic forms of plasticity involve changes in the number/gating properties of GABAA receptors and/or shifts of chloride gradients. In addition, recent research indicates that GABAergic tonic inhibition can also be plastic, adding a further level of complexity to the control of the excitatory/inhibitory balance in the brain. The present Topic will focus on plasticity of GABAergic synapses, with special emphasis on the molecular mechanisms of plasticity induction and/or expression.

Listing 1 - 2 of 2
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

Frontiers Media SA (2)


License

CC by (2)


Language

english (2)


Year
From To Submit

2016 (1)

2015 (1)