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How Salmonella infection can inform on mechanisms of immune function and homeostasis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197996 Year: Pages: 143 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-799-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-03 17:04:57
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Abstract

The use of model antigens such as haptens and ovalbumin has provided enormous insights into how immune responses develop, particularly to vaccine antigens. Furthermore, these studies are overwhelmingly performed in animals housed in clean facilities and are not known to have experienced overt clinical signs caused by infectious agents. Therefore, this is unlikely to reflect the impact more complex host-pathogen interactions can have on the host, nor the diversity in how immunity is regulated. Humans develop immune responses in the context of the periodic exposure to multiple pathogens and vaccines over a life-time. These are likely to have a long-lasting effect on who and what we are and how we respond to further antigen challenge. Therefore, studies on how infection influences immune homeostasis and how the development of responses to a pathogen reflects what is known on immune regulation will be informative on how we can translate findings from our standard models into treatments usable in humans. One organism allows us to do just this. Bacteria of the genus Salmonella are devastating human pathogens. Nevertheless, many aspects of the diseases they cause can be successfully modelled in murine systems so that the infection is either resolving or non-resolving. This has the advantage of allowing the long-term impact of infection on immune function to be assessed. We propose to welcome key workers to write about their research that examine the consequence of Salmonella infection on the host and the elements of the bacterium that contribute to this.

Natural Killer Cells in Human Diseases: Friends or Foes?

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454044 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-404-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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NK cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that share some features with adaptive immune cells like T cells. They are well known for their importance to control viral infections and tumor development, but also intracellular bacterial and parasitic infections. A balance between negative and positive signals transmitted via germ line-encoded inhibitory and activating receptors controls the function of NK cells. Activated NK cells respond by killing the infected or tumor cells without prior sensitization, and by producing cytokines and chemokines. It has been shown that NK cells cross-talk with other immune cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages, can shape T cell and B cell immune responses through direct interactions as well as by virtue of their cytokine/chemokine production. NK cells can also regulate immune responses by killing other immune cells, including activated T cells, or by producing anti-inflammatory cytokines upon excessive inflammation. However, NK cells are not friends in all situations. Indeed, it has been shown in LCMV-infected murine models that, depending on the viral inoculation load, NK cells may either help fight infection or can promote chronic infection. Moreover in cancer models, it has been shown that NK cells can kill anti-tumoral T cells. Recent studies of NK cells in patients with cancer support the notion of detrimental roles of NK cells. Furthermore, studies implicate NK cells in contributing to both graft rejection and tolerance to an allograft. In some autoimmune diseases, like rheumatoid arthritis, NK cells may promote disease pathogenesis. The scope of this Research Topic is to present and discuss knowledge on the role of NK cells in various diseases settings: viral infections as well as other infections, cancer, transplantation, and autoimmunity. The aim is to discuss how NK cells respond during disease and specifically when, why and how NK cells can be harmful and if they exert different functions (production of specific cytokines, inhibition of other immune cells through other mechanisms beside cytotoxicity) in these situations. Which are the NK cell subsets that play beneficial or deleterious roles in these diseases? Are there different phenotypes associated with protective NK cells (e.g. antiviral, antitumoral) and NK cells involved in disease pathogenesis? How are these diverse NK cells activated and do they function primarily through direct cytotoxicity, ADCC or cytokine and chemokine production? What are the signals or interactions that can change and shape the NK cell response shifting them from protective to harmful? We thank the authors that submitted reviews and original research manuscripts that help to better understand these questions, with the aim that this will help the scientific community to determine what could be the main future research directions to better understand the role of NK cells in disease protection or development.

Virus Bioinformatics

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039218820 9783039218837 Year: Pages: 330 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-883-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Virus bioinformatics is evolving and succeeding as an area of research in its own right, representing the interface of virology and computer science. Bioinformatic approaches to investigate viral infections and outbreaks have become central to virology research, and have been successfully used to detect, control, and treat infections of humans and animals. As part of the Third Annual Meeting of the European Virus Bioinformatics Center (EVBC), we have published this Special Issue on Virus Bioinformatics.

Keywords

bioinformatics --- virus --- comparative genomics --- software --- Base-By-Base --- BBB --- poxvirus --- ASFV --- MSA --- foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) --- bovine soft palate --- nasopharynx --- transcriptomics --- proteomics --- bioinformatics --- virus-host interaction --- innate immune system --- interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) --- cellular immunity --- codon frequency distribution --- HPV58 --- minor capsid protein --- TLR agonist --- prophylaxis --- virus --- infection --- fluorescent reporter protein --- image quantification --- Hepatitis C virus --- Yellow Fever Virus --- polyomavirus --- Coxsackievirus B4 --- bivalve --- virome --- RNA-seq --- RNA viruses --- sncRNA --- ADAR --- RNAi --- Marek’s disease virus (MDV) --- RNA-seq --- transcriptome --- splicing --- polycistronic viral transcripts --- primary B cells --- RB1B --- CVI988/Rispens --- ICP0 --- DNA replication --- ori --- mitochondria --- Rickettsia --- gram-positive bacteria --- APMV --- Mimivirus --- giant virus --- eukaryogenesis --- flavivirus --- non-coding RNA --- secondary structure --- endogenous viral elements --- bioinformatics --- horizontal gene transfer --- virus-to-host gene transfer --- HMM --- tobacco mosaic virus --- Drosophila --- capsid protein --- deep sequencing --- virus genomics --- hepatitis C virus --- variant calling --- sequence interpretation --- drug resistance --- bioinformatics --- alignment --- assembly --- taxonomic classification --- time series --- data transformation --- DWT --- DFT --- PAA --- data compression --- compressive genomics --- RNAseq --- honey bees --- deformed wing virus --- quasispecies --- apiary pests --- recombination --- mRNA structure --- structure database --- secondary structure --- viral mRNA --- subVOG --- structurally related --- RNA structure --- structurally homogenous --- structurally related --- mRNA families --- Amebae viruses --- viral evolution --- protein domains --- mimivirus --- dsdna viruses --- translation machinery --- pandoravirus --- NCLDV --- virology --- virus bioinformatics --- software --- systems virology --- metagenomics --- virome --- viral taxonomy --- virus classification --- genome evolution --- bacteriophage --- virosphere --- chemical organization theory --- influenza A --- virus dynamics modeling --- complex networks analysis --- viral metagenome --- groundwater --- aquifer --- AquaDiva --- sequencing library preparation --- virus proteomics --- mass spectrometry --- virus diagnostics --- data analysis --- targeted proteomics --- peptide selection --- parallel reaction monitoring

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