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Insectes ravageurs des graines de légumineuses

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ISBN: 9782759216567 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.35690/978-2-7592-1656-7 Language: French
Publisher: éditions Quae
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-10 11:21:04
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Using the concrete example of industrial and food crop legumes in West Africa, the authors reflect on the development of African agriculture in the context of sustainable development. They address exhaustively the biology of legume seed pests (bean weevils) and analyse the various methods of effective and environmentally-friendly control. The work expands on the Integrated Pest Management methods for the bean weevils, the main legume seed pests: simple, inexpensive and low-pollution methods.

L'apiculture

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ISBN: 9782759206780 Year: DOI: 10.35690/978-2-7592-0678-0 Language: French
Publisher: éditions Quae
Subject: Zoology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-09-13 11:21:05
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This book, through its clear explanatory text and admirable illustrations, skilfully lays out the elements of good practice in tropical beekeeping. It explains both traditional techniques using low-cost hives and more advanced methods, pointing out the most appropriate system for the level of investment the beekeeper wishes to make. Existing beekeepers wishing to improve their techniques and those looking to start a new beekeeping enterprise will find the book invaluable.&#xD;

Keywords

Africa --- food --- insect --- transformation technique --- entomology --- bee

Grassland-Invertebrate Interactions: Plant Productivity; Resilience and Community Dynamics

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452903 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-290-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Natural and anthropogenic grasslands such as prairies, meadows, rangelands, and pastures cover more than 40% of the planet’s surface and provide a wealth of ecological services. Grasslands alone store one third of the global carbon stocks and grass roots, through their specific architectures, ensure water cycling and prevent the erosion of fertile topsoil. In addition, grasslands are of vital importance for human food production as vast areas of rangelands and pastures provide feed for livestock. Pastoral legumes mobilize atmospheric nitrogen and improve fertility of arable soils. Not least, grasslands are an essential genetic resource. The three major crop species that feed half of the global population have been bred from wild grasses. Ancestors of our contemporary turf cultivars, common components of urban landscapes and recreation spaces, originated from wild grasslands. Although natural and managed grasslands represent pivotal ecosystems, many aspects of how they function are poorly understood. To date, most attention has focused on grassland primary producers (i.e. forage plants) and mammalian grazers but invertebrates are likely to play an equally, if not more important role in grassland ecosystem functioning. In Australian pastures, for example, the biomass of root-feeding scarab beetles can often exceed that of sheep and plant damage caused by invertebrates is sometimes equivalent to an average dairy cow’s grass consumption. Indeed, grasslands are one of the most densely populated ecosystems with invertebrates being probably the most important engineers that shape both plant communities and the grassland as a whole. In a rapidly changing world with increasing anthropogenic pressure on grasslands, this Research Topic focuses on: 1. How grassland habitats shape invertebrate biodiversity2. Impacts of climate change on grassland-invertebrate interactions3. Plant and invertebrate pest monitoring and management4. Plant-mediated multitrophic interactions and biological control in grasslands5. Land use and grassland invertebrates6. Plant resistance to invertebrate pests Given the increasing demand for food and land for human habitation, unprecedented threats to grasslands are anticipated. Resilient to some extent, these key ecosystems need to be better comprehended to guarantee their sustainable management and ecosystem services.

Viruses threatening stable production of cereal crops

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196128 Year: Pages: 117 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-612-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Cereal crops such as maize, wheat, and rice account for a majority of biomass produced globally in agriculture. Continuous economic and population growth especially in developing countries accompanied more intensive production of cereal crops to meet increasing demands for them as main staple foods and livestock feeds. However, imbalance between production and consumption of cereal crops, which is inevitably reflected as their higher market prices, is becoming palpable in recent years. Stable production of cereal crops has been threatened by various abiotic and biotic stresses. One of the most threatening constraints is virus diseases. Especially, intensification of cereal crop production is often achieved by monoculture of a popular crop variety in a wide area. Such agroecosystems with low biodiversity is usually more conducive to biotic stresses, and may result in the outbreaks of existing and emerging cereal viruses. Numerous reports on incidences of various virus diseases of cereal crops attested that viruses have been a long-standing obstacle eroding yields of cereal crops worldwide. Despite of the evident economic losses incurred by virus disease of cereal crops, the progress in basic research on virus species causing major diseases of cereal crops lagged behind compared to that carried out for viruses that can infect dicotyledonous plants. This was partially due to the lack of ideal experimental systems to investigate the interaction between viruses and monocotyledonous crops. For example, inoculation of many viruses to cereal plants still requires tedious manipulation of vector organisms, and reverse genetic systems are not available for many cereal viruses. However, application of latest molecular biology technologies has led to significant advance in cereal virology recently; transient gene expression systems through particle bombardment and agroinfiltration have been exploited to examine the functions of cereal virus proteins. Cell culture systems of vector insects enabled to investigate the molecular interactions between cereal viruses and insect vectors. Furthermore, RNAi technologies for vector insects and monocotyledonous plants facilitated identification of specific host and viral factors involved in viral replication and transmission cycles. Also, accumulating information on the genome sequences of cereal crop species has been simplifying the roadmap to pinpoint resistance genes against cereal viruses. The objective of this research topic is to provide and share the information which can contribute to advances in cereal virology by covering recent progresses in areas such as: 1) characterization of emerging viruses, 2) analyses of genetic and biological diversities within particular viruses, 3) development of experimental systems applicable to cereal viruses, 4) elucidation of the molecular interactions among viruses, vector organisms, and host plants, 5) identification of traits and genes linked to virus resistance in cereal crops, 6) development of novel genetic approaches for virus resistance, and 7) assessment of epidemiological factors affecting the incidences of cereal virus diseases. Synergistic integration of ideas from such areas under this research topic should help to formulate practical alternatives to the current management options for virus diseases in cereal crops.

Evolution of Reproductive Organs in Land Plants

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454402 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-440-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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The great diversity of land plants (especially angiosperms) is mainly reflected in the diversity of various reproductive organs of plants. However, despite long time intensive investigations, there are still uncertainties and sometimes misunderstandings over the nature and evolution of reproductive organs in land plants. With the new advances made in various fields of botany (especially at molecular level), there is increasing light shed on some aspects of flowers (reproductive organs of angiosperms). In this ebook, we collect 15 papers reporting new understanding on plant reproductive organs. These works range from morphology and anatomy to molecular regulatory networks underlying traditional observations. We understand this single book cannot reach our goal, but we do hope that this book can contribute to or initiate some efforts leading to the final solution of some problems concerning the homology and evolution of reproductive organs in plants.

Keywords

angiosperm --- flower --- seed --- carpel --- homology --- gene --- incompatibility --- evolution --- insect --- fossil

Insect Physiology and Ecology

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ISBN: 9789535130338 9789535130345 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.5772/67619 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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This book discusses recent contributions focusing on insect physiology and ecology written by experts in their respective fields. Four chapters in this book are dedicated to evaluating the morphological and ecological importance and distribution of water beetles, dung beetles, weevils, and tabanids, while two others investigate the symbiotic relationships between various insects and their associations with bacteria, fungi, or mites. Two other chapters consider insecticide detoxification, as well as insect defense mechanisms against infections. The last two chapters concentrate on insects as sustainable food. This book targets a wide audience of general biologists, as well as entomologists, ecologists, zoologists, virologists, and epidemiologists, including both teachers and students in gaining a better appreciation of this rapidly growing field.

What can simple brains teach us about how vision works

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196784 Year: Pages: 290 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-678-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Vision is the process of extracting behaviorally-relevant information from patterns of light that fall on retina as the eyes sample the outside world. Traditionally, nonhuman primates (macaque monkeys, in particular) have been viewed by many as the animal model-of-choice for investigating the neuronal substrates of visual processing, not only because their visual systems closely mirror our own, but also because it is often assumed that “simpler” brains lack advanced visual processing machinery. However, this narrow view of visual neuroscience ignores the fact that vision is widely distributed throughout the animal kingdom, enabling a wide repertoire of complex behaviors in species from insects to birds, fish, and mammals. Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in alternative animal models for vision research, especially rodents. This resurgence is partly due to the availability of increasingly powerful experimental approaches (e.g., optogenetics and two-photon imaging) that are challenging to apply to their full potential in primates. Meanwhile, even more phylogenetically distant species such as birds, fish, and insects have long been workhorse animal models for gaining insight into the core computations underlying visual processing. In many cases, these animal models are valuable precisely because their visual systems are simpler than the primate visual system. Simpler systems are often easier to understand, and studying a diversity of neuronal systems that achieve similar functions can focus attention on those computational principles that are universal and essential. This Research Topic provides a survey of the state of the art in the use of animal models of visual functions that are alternative to macaques. It includes original research, methods articles, reviews, and opinions that exploit a variety of animal models (including rodents, birds, fishes and insects, as well as small New World monkey, the marmoset) to investigate visual function. The experimental approaches covered by these studies range from psychophysics and electrophysiology to histology and genetics, testifying to the richness and depth of visual neuroscience in non-macaque species.

Recent Advances in Symbiosis Research: Integrative Approaches

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450152 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-015-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Traditionally, symbiosis research has been undertaken by researchers working independently of one another and often focused on a few cases of bipartite host-symbiont interactions. New model systems are emerging that will enable us to fill fundamental gaps in symbiosis research and theory, focusing on a broad range of symbiotic interactions and including a variety of multicellular hosts and their complex microbial communities. In this Research Topic, we invited researchers to contribute their work on diverse symbiotic networks, since there are a large variety of symbioses with major roles in the proper functioning of terrestrial or aquatic ecosystems, and we wished the Topic to provide a venue for communicating findings across diverse taxonomic groups. A synthesis of recent investigations in symbiosis can impact areas such as agriculture, where a basic understanding of plant-microbe symbiosis will provide foundational information on the increasingly important issue of nitrogen fixation; climate change, where anthropogenic factors are threatening the survival of marine symbiotic ecosystems such as coral reefs; animal and human health, where unbalances in host microbiomes are being increasingly associated with a wide range of diseases; and biotechnology, where process optimization can be achieved through optimization of symbiotic partnerships. Overall, our vision was to produce a volume of works that will help define general principles of symbiosis within a new conceptual framework, in the road to finally establish symbiology as an overdue central discipline of biological science.

Crop Traits for Defense against Pests and Disease: Durability, Breakdown and Future Prospects

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451562 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-156-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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With global populations expected to exceed 9.2 billion by 2050 and available land and water resources devoted to crop production dwindling, we face significant challenges to secure global food security. Only 12 plant species feed 80% of the world’s population, with just three crop species (wheat, rice and maize) accounting for food consumed by 50% of the global population. Annual losses to crop pests and pathogens are significant, thought to be equivalent to that required to feed a billion people, at a time when crop productivity has plateaued. With pesticide applications becoming increasingly unfeasible on cost, efficacy and environmental grounds, there is growing interest in exploiting plant resistance and tolerance traits for crop protection. Indeed, mankind has been selectively breeding plants for desirable traits for thousands of years. However, resistance and tolerance traits have not always been those most desired, and in many cases have been inadvertently lost during the domestication process: crops have been effectively ‘disarmed by domestication’. Moreover, mechanistic understanding of how resistance and tolerance traits operate is often incomplete, which makes identifying the right combination for crop protection difficult. We aimed to address this Research Topic by inviting authors to contribute their knowledge of appropriate resistance and tolerance traits, explore what is known about durability and breakdown of defensive traits and, finally, asking what are the prospects for exploiting these traits for crop protection. The research topic summarised in this book addresses some of the most important issues in the future sustainability of global crop production.

The Insecticidal Bacterial Toxins in Modern Agriculture

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038426622 9783038426639 Year: Pages: 162 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-16 09:46:13
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Increased awareness about environmental adverse effects of human activities has prompted the use of insecticides with low impact on systems associated to agriculture. Currently, the most successful biological products are based on protein toxins from the bacterial species Bacillus thuringiensis. Because of the remarkable properties of these proteins, their encoding genes were introduced into farming species (the so called Bt-crops), in such a way, that these plants are self-protected against some key insect pests. Despite the fact that a relatively large number of these toxins, with different toxicity ranges, have been described, it is still important to find new resources with novel capabilities to complement, or to replace in the future, the currently used ones. On another hand, it is important to continue studying their mode action in susceptible insects, and the changes occurred in resistant ones, to determine the most effective strategy for long lasting pest control. The focus of this Special Issue of Toxins is to provide updated information on the use of B. thuringiensis and their toxins on different field crops, the interactions of these toxins with other molecules, analyze the biochemical and molecular basis of emerging cases of resistance and, in general, to provide information which can contribute to an effective pest management with these toxins.

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