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The Claustrum: charting a way forward for the brain's most mysterious nucleus

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195428 Year: Pages: 141 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-542-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The claustrum is a long, band-like grey matter structure situated in the ventrolateral telencephalon of most, if not all, mammalian brains. Due to its shape and close proximity to white matter structures and insular cortex, the anatomy and behavioral relevance of the claustrum have proven difficult to study. As a result, disagreements in the literature exist over ontogeny, phylogeny, anatomical boundaries, and connectivity. Despite this, it is generally regarded that the claustrum contains excitatory projection neurons that reciprocally connect to most regions of the cerebral cortex, a feature that has fostered varying hypotheses as to its function. These hypotheses propose multisensory integration, coordination of cortical activity for the generation of conscious percepts, or saliency filtration. The articles of this e-book consider the historical and recent highlights in claustrum structure, hodology, and function and seek to provide a compelling way forward for this “hidden” nucleus.

Why Have Cortical Layers? What Is the Function of Layering? Do Neurons in Cortex Integrate Information Across Different Layers?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456604 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-660-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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This research topic was suggested by Robert Sachdev to bring together a series of articles dealing with the laminar organization of the neocortex. By convention, there are six cortical layers but this number may vary throughout the cerebral cortex of a given species or between species: many regions lack one or more layers, whereas in other regions there are more than six layers.The laminar location of cortical neurons —their cell bodies— is determined during development. However, neurons are more than their cell bodies; they also have dendrites that may span within a given layer (intralaminar neurons) or across a variety of layers (translaminar neurons). For example, layer V pyramidal neurons have dendrites that span the entire cortical depth, whereas layer III pyramidal neurons have dendrites that span across layers I to IV. Some GABAergic interneurons have dendrites located within a cortical layer (e.g., neurogliaform cells), whereas the dendrites of other interneurons span several layers (e.g., bitufted cells).For neurons having dendrites that cross laminar boundaries, one might ask, why segregate their cell bodies so carefully into lamina? Among many other obvious questions: What is the evidence for or against integration of information across laminae for neurons whose dendrites span several layers?A traditional view is that activity flows through cortical layers in a feed-forward manner, going from layer IV, to layers II and III and onwards. Another view is that cortical layers can have distinct inputs that activate them, triggering spikes. Can processing sequences be state dependent?Furthermore, different cortical layers have distinct transcriptomic profiles, neurochemical attributes, connectivity patterns, number and types of synapses and many other structural attributes. Thus, based on anatomy, or physiology or imaging: What is the function of each cortical layer? What do the different layers do?

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