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Obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194285 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-428-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Immune response and metabolic regulation are highly integrated and this interface maintains a central homeostatic system, dysfunction of which can cause obesity-associated metabolic disorder such as type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance is an underlying basis for the pathogenesis of these metabolic diseases. Overnutrition or obesity activates the innate immune system with subsequent recruitment of immune cells such as macrophages and T cells, which contributes to the development of insulin resistance. In particular, a significant advance in our understanding of obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance has been recognition of the critical role of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). ATMs are a prominent source of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-a and IL-6, that can block insulin action in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver autocrine/paracrine signaling and cause systemic insulin resistance via endocrine signaling, providing a potential link between inflammation and insulin resistance. All articles in this topic highlight the interconnection between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance in all its diversity to the mechanisms of obesity-induced inflammation and role of immune system in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and diabetes.

Carotid Body: A New Target for Rescuing Neural Control of Cardiorespiratory Balance in Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199433 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-943-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The carotid body (CB) is in charge of adjusting ventilatory and cardiovascular function during changes in arterial blood gases. Regardless this essential function, the CB has been implicated in the sensing of other physiological signals such as changes in blood flow and glucose levels. More important, malfunction of the CB chemoreceptors has been associated with the progression and deterioration of several disease states such as hypertension, heart failure, renal failure, insulin resistance, diabetes and sleep apnea. Although the mechanisms involved in the alterations of the CB function in pathophysiology are currently under intense research, the development of therapeutic approaches to restore normal CB chemoreflex function remains unsolved. Recent studies showing the effect of CB denervation in pathophysiology have unveiled a key role of these arterial chemoreceptors in the development of autonomic imbalance and respiratory disturbances, and suggest that targeting the CB could represent a novel strategy to improve disease outcome. Unfortunately, classical pharmacotherapy intended to normalize CB function may be hard to establish since several cellular pathways are involved in the CB dysfunction. Augmented levels of angiotensin II, endothelin-1, cytokines and free radicals along with decreases in nitric oxide had all been related to the CB dysfunction. Moreover, changes in expression of angiotensin receptors, nitric oxide synthases and cytokines that take place within the CB tissue in pathological states also contribute to the enhanced CB chemoreflex drive. It has been shown in heart failure, hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea that the CB becomes tonically hyper-reactive. During the progression of the disease this CB chemosensory facilitation process induces central nervous system plasticity. The altered autonomic-respiratory control leads to increased cardiorespiratory distress and the deterioration of the condition. The focus of this e-book will be to cover the role of the CB in pathophysiology and to provide new evidence of the pathways involved in the maladaptive potentiation of the CB chemoreflex function. In memory of Professor Mashiko Shirahata and Professor Constancio Gonzalez.

Obesity and Diabetes: Energy Regulation by Free Fatty Acid Receptors

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197477 Year: Pages: 45 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-747-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Food intake regulates energy balance and its dysregulation leads to metabolic disorder, such as obesity and diabetes. During feeding, free fatty acids (FFAs) are not only essential nutrients but also act as signaling molecules in various cellular processes. Recently, several orphan G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that act as FFA receptors (FFARs) have been identified; GPR40/FFAR1, GPR119, and GPR120 are activated by medium- and long-chain FFAs. GPR84 is activated by medium-chain FFAs. GPR41/FFAR3 and GPR43/FFAR2 are activated by short-chain FFAs. These FFARs have come to be regarded as new drug targets for metabolic disorder such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, because a number of pharmacological and physiological studies have shown that these receptors are primarily involved in the energy metabolism in various tissues; insulin secretion, gastrointestinal hormone secretion, adipokine secretion, regulation of inflammation, regulation of autonomic nervous system, relation to gut microbiota, and so on. This Research Topic provides a comprehensive overview of the energy regulation by free fatty acid receptors and a new prospect for treatment of metabolic disorder such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Nutritional Intake and the Risk for Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)

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ISBN: 9783038975984 / 9783038975991 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-599-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-13 10:25:01
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The aim of this Special Issue focusing on “Nutritional Intake and the Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease” is to provide an in-depth overview of the role of the intake of different macro- and micronutrients in the development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as well as in its prevention and treatment. General over-nutrition but also alterations of the dietary pattern (e.g., towards a higher intake of fat, cholesterol, and sugar—and herein especially fructose) are discussed as being critical in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, it has also been suggested that a general reduction of caloric intake and/or modulation of dietary composition, be it in regard to fat or to sugar intake, may have beneficial effects on the liver status in settings of NAFLD. Furthermore, in more recent years, the intake of pre- and probiotics, but also of specific micronutrients or secondary plant compounds, has also been considered a means in the prevention and therapy of this disease. Despite intense research efforts during the last decades, our understanding of the effects of nutritional intake on the development as well as on the prevention and cure of NAFLD is still limited.Providing a better understanding of the effects of diet and especially of specific macro- and micronutrients as well as pre- and probiotics and secondary plant compounds in the context of the development of NAFLD and its progression could lead to novel prevention and therapeutic strategies for this metabolic liver disease. This Special Issue will thus include original research and scientific perspectives on the relationship between NAFLD and dietary constituents that may 1) be involved in the development of the disease and 2) prevent its onset and progression. Mechanistic insights defining the contribution of certain nutritional factors (e.g., macronutrients like fat and sugar but also micronutrients and secondary plant compounds as well as pre- and probiotics) to the occurrence and management of NAFLD will improve our understanding of the disease and eventually lead to the development of universally accepted prevention and therapeutic strategies.

Dietary Fructose and Glucose: The Multifacetted Aspects of Their Metabolism and Implication for Human Health (Vol. 1)

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ISBN: 9783038970538 9783038970545 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: X, 318 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-15 09:00:11
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We welcome the submission of manuscripts, either describing original research, or reviewing scientific literature. Manuscripts should focus on well-defined topics, not previously reported extensively in the literature, such as (without being limited to): functional aspects of fructose and glucose metabolism health effects of chronic fructose and glucose consumption molecular and mechanistic insights of hexoses-induced metabolic adaptations sugars, sweet taste receptors and brain responses intervention studies in humansPapers covering species comparisons of nutrition/metabolism or evolutionary perspectives, or effects of fructose and glucose in specific physiological conditions (physical activity, pregnancy, growth, etc.) or special tissues (testis, placenta) are welcome.

Dietary Fructose and Glucose: The Multifacetted Aspects of Their Metabolism and Implication for Human Health (Vol. 2)

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ISBN: 9783038970835 9783038970842 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: X, 318 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-15 09:25:11
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We welcome the submission of manuscripts, either describing original research, or reviewing scientific literature. Manuscripts should focus on well-defined topics, not previously reported extensively in the literature, such as (without being limited to): functional aspects of fructose and glucose metabolism health effects of chronic fructose and glucose consumption molecular and mechanistic insights of hexoses-induced metabolic adaptations sugars, sweet taste receptors and brain responses intervention studies in humansPapers covering species comparisons of nutrition/metabolism or evolutionary perspectives, or effects of fructose and glucose in specific physiological conditions (physical activity, pregnancy, growth, etc.) or special tissues (testis, placenta) are welcome.

Berry Antioxidants in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783038423485 9783038423492 Year: Pages: VIII, 156 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-349-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Genetics --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-21 07:38:04
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During the last decade, a high volume of work has been published on the health-promoting effects of berries (e.g., blueberries, cranberries, blackberries, etc.) that are rich in antioxidant phytochemicals, polyphenols. Consuming a diet rich in polyphenols has been documented to attenuate the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, diabetes mellitus, and neurodegenerative disorders. Recent evidence also reveals that the biological effects of polyphenols extend beyond their traditional antioxidant role.This Special Issue includes 10 peer-reviewed papers, including original research papers and reviews. They present the most recent advances in the role of berry antioxidants, not only in maintaining health but also in preventing and/or reversing disease both in cell culture, animal models and in humans. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways modulated by berry antioxidants are presented. Chapters include the role of berry antioxidants in whole fruit and leaves on the metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes and glucose intolerance, cancer, inflammation, oxidative stress and neuroprotection as well as cardiovascular disease. As a guest editor, I would like to acknowledge the authors of all chapters for their valuable contributions and reviewers for their thoughtful and constructive suggestions and time. Special thanks to the publishing team of the Antioxidants Journal for their professionalism, attention to detail and timely completion of this volume.

Inflammation and Cancer

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ISBN: 9783038426080 9783038426097 Year: Pages: VIII, 248 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-27 10:02:13
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Based on the most recent clinical and epidemiologic information, one out of seven newly diagnosed epithelial malignancies worldwide result from infection and chronic inflammation in conjunction with cancer. This book draws contributions from international expert researchers from diverse disciplines, who addressed various aspects of experimental and clinical cancer biology, by selectively focusing on inflammation-mediated oncogenesis to debate these and related issues. Topics covered include the epidemiological links between cancer and inflammation, the parallels between inflammation and cancer, the role of inflammation in cancer, inflammatory genes as risk factors for cancer initiation and progression, inflammation and cancer angiogenesis, and preventative/therapeutic strategies. This comprehensive and cutting-edge Special Issue “Inflammation and Cancer” promises to serve as a vital guide and resource for investigators and clinicians working toward the goal of fighting the estimated 2200 inflammation-related oncogenesis fatalities occurring every day.

Chemical Biology of Sterols, Triterpenoids and Other Natural Products: A Themed Issue in Honor of Professor W. David Nes on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday

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ISBN: 9783038974161 / 9783038974178 Year: Pages: 256 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-417-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Sterols and other isoprenoids are of great interest for their molecular structure and function in cell architecture and evolution, as well as for their importance in medicine and agriculture. Molecules’ 2019 Festschrift Special Issue in honor of the 65th birthday of Prof. W. David Nes, an internationally recognized chemical biologist and recipient of the George Schroepher medal for sterol research, focuses on recent developments in the chemistry, biosynthesis, and function of these polycyclic natural products. This volume of Molecules contains 16 leading-edge review articles and original research contributions from an international cast of scientists. This volume is grouped into three sections: (i) isoprenoid metabolome and diversity, (ii) clinical evaluation of sterol and triterpene structures and biosynthesis, and (iii) methods and synthesis of steroids and other compounds. The volume will be a valuable reference tool for those who study medicinal chemistry, protein chemistry, and biochemistry of isoprenoid lipids.

Keywords

Zingiber officinale --- gingerols --- cytotoxic activity --- oleanolic acid --- high-fat high-carbohydrate diet --- pre-diabetes --- glucose homeostasis --- insulin resistance --- atherosclerosis --- ROS --- HUVECs --- LOX-1 --- alkaloid --- granatane --- N-methylcadaverine --- N-methylpiperidine. reductive deamination --- Mucorales --- Rhizopus arrhizus --- sterol pattern --- antifungal effectivity --- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) --- posaconazole --- sterol biosynthesis --- sterol 14?-demethylase --- sterol C24-methyltransferase --- mechanism-based inactivators --- antifungals --- azoles --- antiparasitic drugs --- human African trypanosomiasis --- Chagas disease --- synthesis --- squalene cyclase --- cycloartenol synthase --- triterpene --- fern --- Polystichum --- terpene --- isoprenoid --- divalent metal co-factor ligation --- antioxidant --- cholesterol --- degeneration --- oxysterol --- retina --- Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome --- algal sterols --- ergosterol biosynthesis --- infectious disease --- lipidomics --- oxyphytosterol --- pharmacognosy --- phytosterol --- sterolomics --- lupeol --- keratinocytes --- fibroblasts --- wound healing --- cell migration --- UV-radiation --- ZnO --- toxicity --- sterol content --- cholesterol --- leishmania --- solanaceae --- withanolides --- aurelianolides --- phytosterols --- mesocarp --- oilseed --- maturity --- pod-blast --- ?-tocopherol --- oil bodies --- campesterol --- stigmasterol --- ?-sitosterol --- sterol --- C4-demethylation complex (C4DMC) --- 4-methylsterol --- hormone --- steroid --- development --- genetic disease --- bile alcohol --- cholestanoic acid --- oxysterol --- sterolomics --- enzyme-assisted derivatization --- electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry --- Girard reagent --- n/a

Plant Natural Products for Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038977124 Year: Pages: 514 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-713-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Plants have served mankind as an important source of foods and medicines. While we all consume plants and their products for nutritional support, a majority of the world population also rely on botanical remedies to meet their health needs, either as their own “traditional medicine” or as “complementary and alternative medicine”. From a pharmaceutical point of view, many compounds obtained from plant sources have long been known to possess bio/pharmacological activities, and historically, plants have yielded many important drugs for human use, from morphine discovered in the early nineteenth century to the more recent paclitaxel and artemisinin. Today, we are witnessing a global resurgence in interest and use of plant-based therapies and botanical products, and natural products remain an important and viable source of lead compounds in many drug discovery programs.This Special Issue on “Plant Natural Products for Human Health” compiles a series of scientific reports to demonstrate the medicinal potentials of plant natural products. It covers a range of disease targets, such as diabetes, inflammation, cancer, neurological disease, cardiovascular disease, liver damage, bacterial, and fungus infection and malarial. These papers provide important insights into the current state of research on drug discovery and new techniques. It is hoped that this Special Issue will serve as a timely reference for researchers and scholars who are interested in the discovery of potentially useful molecules from plant sources for health-related applications.

Keywords

heat-process --- onion --- calorie restriction --- Amadori rearrangement compounds --- hyperglycemia --- A549 cells --- hinokitiol --- MMPs --- p53/Bax --- antioxidant enzymes --- caspases --- migration --- cannabinoid type 1 receptor --- endoplasmic reticulum stress --- gluconeogenesis --- gomisin N --- lipogenesis --- insulin resistance --- garlic --- ischemia --- heme oxygenase --- reperfusion --- heart --- Keap1 --- Nrf2 --- Neuroprotective --- PC12 cells --- PhGs --- anti-malaria activity --- plants --- natural products --- ethnopharmacology --- Plasmodium parasites --- copaiba --- oleoresin --- essential oil --- sesquiterpenoids --- diterpenoids --- biological activity --- molecular targets --- Astragali Radix --- astragaloside IV --- genistein --- mitochondrial bioenergetics --- oxygen consumption rate --- natural products --- drug design and development --- innovation --- automation --- computational softwares --- bioinformatics --- precision medicine --- omics --- global health --- sweet orange --- bitter orange --- neroli --- orange petitgrain --- mandarin --- lemon --- lime --- grapefruit --- bergamot --- yuzu --- kumquat --- cannabigerol --- Cannabis sativa --- neuroinflammation --- oxidative stress --- phytocannabinoid --- iridoids --- nuclear factor-kappaB --- mitogen-activated protein kinase --- anti-inflammation --- Ziziphus jujuba --- triterpenic acids --- pharmacokinetic study --- acute liver injury --- A? --- AD --- lychee seed --- neuroinflammation --- catechin --- procyanidin A2 --- apoptosis --- cinnamamides --- antistaphylococcal activity --- time-kill assay --- biofilm --- antitubercular activity --- MTT assay --- antifungal activity --- PET inhibition --- toxicity --- structure–activity relationship --- bleeding time --- flavonoid --- morin hydrate --- OH· free radical --- platelet activation --- protein kinase --- thromboembolism --- Glycyrrhiza uralensis --- prenylated flavonoids --- antiproliferation --- differentiation --- melanoma cell --- adjuvant-induced arthritis --- arthritis --- celastrol --- curcumin --- dietary supplements --- EGCG --- green tea --- inflammation --- liposomes --- microbiome --- nanoparticles --- natural products --- resveratrol --- rheumatoid arthritis --- targeted delivery --- traditional medicine --- Tripterygium wilfordii --- triptolide --- Penthorum chinense Pursh --- NAFLD --- hepatic steatosis --- flavonoids --- SIRT1 --- AMPK --- dihydromyricetin --- myocardial hypertrophy --- oxidative stress --- sirtuin 3 --- ginseng --- human-hair-follicle dermal papilla cells --- WNT/?-catenin --- Shh/Gli --- TGF-? --- BMP/Smad --- mouse-hair growth --- Panax notoginseng saponins --- aspirin --- HepaRG cells --- herb–drug interactions --- P. eryngii --- glucans --- inflammation --- inflammatory bowel disease --- medicinal plants --- phytochemicals --- scoulerine --- bergapten --- immunomodulator --- adjuvant --- cytoxicity --- dendritic cells --- immune modulation --- APAP --- acetaminophen --- hepatotoxicity --- hpatoprotection --- paracetamol --- animals --- preclinical studies --- natural products --- small molecules --- phytochemicals --- plants --- fucoidan --- acetaminophen --- Nrf2 --- oxidative stress --- hepatotoxicity --- plant natural product --- drug discovery --- human health

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