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Experiences of Intervention Against Violence

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Book Series: Cultural Encounters in Intervention Against Violence ISBN: 9783847410256 9783847420439 Year: Pages: 356 DOI: 10.3224/84742043 Language: English
Publisher: Verlag Barbara Budrich
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-13 11:01:03
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The stories in this anthology emerged from interviews with women and young people about their experience of intervention when they were escaping a situation of abuse, neglect and/or sexual exploitation. They come from the research project “Cultural Encounters in Intervention Against Violence (CEINAV)” in four countries – England & Wales, Germany, Portugal and Slovenia. Through support services the women and young people were contacted; they came from a minority or migration background and had travelled through a history of violence and intervention, and were asked to tell who intervened, what had been helpful and what had not.&#xD;

Subsidiaritätsklauseln im Strafverfahren

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Book Series: Göttinger Studien zu den Kriminalwissenschaften ISBN: 9783863950712 Year: Pages: 249 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-17 04:22:24
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Die Arbeit befasst sich mit dem bislang sehr wenig untersuchten System von Subsidiaritätsklauseln in strafprozessualen Eingriffsermächtigungen. Sie schildert die sukzessive Entstehung des Systems, nimmt eine aktuelle Bestandsaufnahme vor und geht dem Verhältnis der Subsidiaritätsklauseln zum Grundsatz der Verhältnismäßigkeit nach. Die Arbeit untersucht weiterhin den Bedeutungsgehalt der verschiedenen Subsidiaritätsklauseln sowie ihre Kollision bei Anwendung mehrerer subsidiärer Ermittlungsmaßnahmen. Am Ende fragt die Arbeit nach der Konsistenz des Systems und setzt sich in den Schlussfolgerungen mit der Praktikabilität und der Frage, ob das System seinem Anspruch gerecht geworden ist, kritisch auseinander.

"Fit im Forst" - eine bewegungsbezogene Intervention für Forstwirte

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ISBN: 9783863951047 Year: Pages: 291 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Education --- Sports Science --- Public Health --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2013-04-12 20:08:21
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Die Waldarbeit ist eine körperlich anspruchsvolle Tätigkeit und geht mit intensiven Belastungen des Stütz- und Bewegungsapparates einher. Die Berufsgruppe der Forstwirte ist somit nicht vom, in der heutigen Gesellschaft weit verbreiteten, Risikofaktor Bewegungsmangel betroffen. Vielmehr sind stereotype Bewegungsmuster verantwortlich für die Ausprägung muskulärer Dysbalancen, die wiederum ätiologisch für Rückenbeschwerden sein können. Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Studie wurden zunächst die Bedingungen und Arbeitstätigkeiten bei der Waldarbeit analysiert. Auf der Grundlage eines biopsychosozialen Ansatzes wurde darauf aufbauend eine bewegungsbezogene Intervention für Forstwirte konzipiert. Die Zielsetzung bestand darin, die berufsbedingten Belastungen im Sinne eines sportlichen Ausgleichstrainings zu reduzieren sowie spezifi sche Gesundheitsressourcen zu stärken. Die Intervention wurde im betrieblichen Kontext für einen Zeitraum von drei Jahren implementiert. Die Evaluation erfolgte anhand ausgewählter motorischer und psychosozialer Parameter sowie einer Analyse des Krankenstandes. Die Ergebnisse verdeutlichen die Notwendigkeit einer bewegungsbezogenen Intervention bei einem Berufsbild mit vergleichsweise hoher körperlicher Belastung und es wurde aufgezeigt, wie eine solche Maßnahme im betrieblichen Kontext langfristig implementiert werden kann.

Improving outcomes in cerebral palsy with early intervention: new translational approaches

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195121 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-512-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Pediatrics --- Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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The aim of this Research Topic was to collate articles describing prediction of outcomes of pre- and perinatal lesions leading to cerebral palsy, basic research in animal models and human subjects, and ideas for, and trials of, interventions in the first two years of life.CP arises from insults to the sensorimotor cortex, subcortical axon tracts and subplate. The aetiology is complex and often multifactorial. The outcome is not simply a loss of voluntary control due to disruption of descending pathways, but also involves abnormal development of reflex and corticospinal circuitry. CP may be viewed as aberrant plasticity in response to a lesion, indeed, abnormalities in movement are subtle at first but develop subsequently. It is misleading to suppose that developmental mechanisms are self-reparative. The challenge is to understand activitydependent fine tuning of neural circuitry during normal development and to find how to promote desirable plasticity whilst limiting undesirable effects following developmental lesions. However, before proposing interventions, we have to develop our ability to predict the severity of neonatal insults.We solicited a variety of articles, including long and short reviews, original research and opinion pieces, from both basic scientists and clinicians. Likewise we, as editors, have complementary knowledge and experience in this area. Anna Basu is an academic pediatric neurologist and Gavin Clowry is a developmental neuroscientist.

Cyberbullying: Where Are We Now? A Cross-National Understanding

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ISBN: 9783038423102 9783038423119 Year: Pages: XIV, 216 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-311-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-09 12:23:44
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Cyberbullying has emerged as a major issue across societies and for schools, parents, children, and national governments (see Smith and Steffgen, 2013). Despite some similarities with traditional, or face-to-face (f2f) bullying (Mc Guckin, Cummins and Lewis, 2010), there is sufficient difference to warrant this contemporary and detailed examination of the issues related to cyberbullying—from a perspective that draws upon the most pertinent research and informed opinion from key researchers and thinkers from across the globe. The initial and pioneering knowledge about cyberbullying has now moved to a newer, more mature position that has been able to delineate the nuances associated with the issue, and importantly, yield robust insights for those involved in, or tasked to deal with, cyberbullying.This Special Issue brings together a collection of papers that represents the most up-to-date perspectives and evidence from across the globe. Collectively, these papers demonstrate how scholars and policy makers, from disparate disciplinary or stakeholder starting points, are progressing in their understanding of each other’s language and requirements—thus facilitating the important move towards a more coherent and understandable agenda that seeks to minimize the potential risks to children and young people, understand the relationships between involvement in cyberbullying and associated biopsychosocial factors, in order to implement integrated and evidence-informed intervention and prevention programmes.

Keywords

Cyberbullying --- bully --- victim --- law --- coping --- intervention --- prevention --- incidence --- cultural --- definition

Executive Function and Education

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455720 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-572-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Executive function is an umbrella term for various cognitive processes that are central to goal-directed behavior, thoughts, and emotions. These processes are especially important in novel or demanding situations, which require a rapid and flexible adjustment of behavior to the changing demands of the environment. The development of executive function relies on the maturation of associated brain regions as well as on stimulation in the child’s social contexts, especially the home and school. Over the past decade, the term executive function has become a buzzword in the field of education as both researchers and educators underscore the importance of skills like goal setting, planning, and organizing in academic success. Accordingly, in initiating this Research Topic and eBook our goal was to provide a forum for state-of-the-art theoretical and empirical work on this that both facilitates communication among researchers from diverse fields and provides a theoretically sound source of information for educators. The contributors to this volume, who hail from several different countries in Europe and North America, have certainly accomplished this goal in their nuanced and cutting-edge depictions of the complex links among various executive function components and educational success.

Brief Interventions for Risky Drinkers

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198870 Year: Pages: 83 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-887-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Alcohol is the sixth leading risk factor for disability and premature death all over the world, and one of the leading causes of premature mortality in western societies; it is a leading risk factor for death in young and middle-age males. Heavy drinking accounts for about two thirds of the burden of disease attributable to alcohol. In the early 1980s, screening and brief interventions (SBI) in primary health care settings were proposed as effective strategies to identify risky drinkers and to help them reduce their drinking. Since then, a growing body of evidence, including several meta-analysis and Cochrane reviews, has shown the efficacy and effectiveness of SBI in primary health settings. However, demonstrating the effectiveness of SBI has not been insufficient to facilitate its general implementation in the routines of primary health care physicians, and in fact the dissemination of SBI has proven to be a difficult business. Qualitative and quantitative research has identified most of the facilitators and barriers for its implementation, and publicly funded research has been earmarked to address the dissemination problems worldwide. Some examples are the World Health Organization Phase III and Phase IV studies on the identification and management of alcohol-related problems in primary care, EU funded projects (PHEPA, AMPHORA, ODHIN, BISTAIRS), the UK SIPS trials and the SBIRT developments sponsored by the Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in the USA. The efficacy and effectiveness of SBI in primary health is now well established, but there are still some questions that remain unsolved: which practitioners should deliver them; what length should they be; is there a need for booster sessions; is there added value of a motivational approach? These questions, together with other relevant aspects of SBI, need ongoing research. In recent years, SBIs have been tested in settings other than primary health care, including hospitals, accident and emergency rooms, criminal justice, colleges and universities, social services and pharmacies. In some of those areas, the evidence is scarce (for example, pharmacies) while in others it is very promising (for example, students and hospitals). New technologies have also offered the possibility of online tools, and, in the last few years, different digital-based applications have been tested successfully as new ways to deliver effective SBIs to larger amounts of people. Brief interventions have also spread to drugs other than alcohol. This book aims to be an update of the state-of-the art of brief advice. It is a compilation of articles published by some of the most relevant researchers in the field in Frontiers in Psychiatry between 2014 and 2016.

Autism Spectrum Disorders: From genotypes to phenotypes

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196807 Year: Pages: 93 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-680-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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This Research Topic covers the pathogenetic processes in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) that underpin the translation of genetic vulnerability to clinically significant symptoms. Available research data in ASD suggests that it is a neural connectivity disorder and that the social communication and related neurobehavioural symptoms result from reduced synchronization between key "social brain" regions. These interconnected neural systems can be understood through the relationship between functionally relevant anatomic areas and neurochemical pathways, the programming of which are genetically modulated during neurodevelopment and mediated through a range of epigenetic and environmental modulators. Elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms can provide an invaluable window for understanding the neural wiring that regulates higher brain functions and consequent clinical phenotypes. In keeping with the multi modal and diverse origins of ASD, this Research Topic explores the genetic underpinnings and environmental modulation in the aetiology; neural substrates, biomarkers and endophenotypes that underlie clinical characteristics; as well as neurochemical pathways and pathophysiological mechanisms that pave the way for therapeutic interventions. Furthermore, since genetically mediated deficits and consequent functional impairments involve activity-dependent synapse development that depends on postnatal learning and experience, the trajectory towards the final clinical expression could be modulated by early interventions that exploit the neuronal maturation and brain plasticity. However, identifying these diverse pathogenetic processes and tailoring interventions would require subtyping ASD into homogeneous subgroups. In this regard, this topic covers the current state of evidence in the literature through topic reviews as well as ongoing original work that provides tangible hypotheses and directions for future research.

Food Price Policy in an Era of Market Instability: A Political Economy Analysis

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Book Series: WIDER Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9780198718574 Year: Pages: 544 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198718574.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: UNU WIDER
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-10-10 11:01:18
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Food price volatility is one of the major challenges facing the global agricultural system today. This was most vividly illustrated during the global food crisis of 2007–9 when price spikes occurred for key staple food commodities—such as wheat, rice, maize, and soybeans. Given the variety of reactions by governments of countries experiencing similar food price shocks, the 2007–9 crisis offered an excellent natural experiment for generating knowledge on responses to price volatility in particular and on the political economy of agricultural policy-making more generally. This book contains the wealth of collaborative research by a global team of experts on food price policy—the research was undertaken on a sizeable group of low- and middle-income countries that were highly affected by the 2007–9 food crisis. The central aim of the study is to uncover which political economy factors—ranging from the constellation of different interest groups to the nature of political institutions—explain variations in policy responses across countries. The research output proves valuable for at least three target audiences. First, it can inform international organizations and donors about which types of policy interventions can mitigate price volatility and whether they are feasible given a country’s political economy context. Second, it can help national policy makers better understand the trade-offs of certain policy interventions. Third, it generates much-needed further knowledge about the agricultural policy-making process in developing countries, which remains incredibly scarce despite the importance of agriculture to these countries’ economies.

What Works in Conservation: 2017

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Book Series: What Works in Conservation ISBN: 9781783743100 Year: Pages: 442 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0109 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-22 11:01:43
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"Is leaving headlands in fields unsprayed beneficial for wildlife? Is paying farmers to cover the costs of bird conservation measures effective?&#xD;Is using prescribed fire beneficial for young trees in forests?&#xD;Does translocating frogs benefit wild populations?&#xD;Is providing artificial roost structures for bats beneficial?&#xD;What Works in Conservation has been created to provide practitioners with answers to these and many other questions about practical conservation. This book provides an assessment of the effectiveness of 763 conservation interventions based on summarized scientific evidence. Chapters cover the practical global conservation of amphibians, bats, birds and forests, conservation of European farmland biodiversity and some aspects of enhancing natural pest control, enhancing soil fertility and control of freshwater invasive species. It contains key results from the summarized evidence for each conservation intervention and an assessment of the effectiveness of each by international expert panels. The accompanying website www.conservationevidence.com describes each of the studies individually, and provides full references.&#xD;This is the second edition of What Works in Conservation, which is revised on an annual basis. It will also available online as a free-to-download PDF at www.conservationevidence.com"

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